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THE BHAGAVAD-GITA

(The Sacred Song)

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 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THIS BOOK 
01. AiU    AitareyoPanishad 2 verses
02. AVG  Ashtavakra Gita 1     
03. AV     Atharvaveda 7
04. BP      Bhagavata MahaPurana 39
05. BrU    BrihadaranyakoPanishad 11
06. BS      BrahmaSutra 9
07. ChU   ChandogyoPanishad 7
08. DB     Devi Bhagavatam 4
09. IsU     IshavasyoPanishad 2
10. KaU   KathoPanishad 15
11. KeU   KenoPanishad 2
12. MaU   MandukyoPanishad 1
13. MB     Mahabharata 57
14. MS     Manu Smriti 10
15. MuU  MundakoPanishad 11
16. NBS   Narada BhaktiSutra 1
17. PrU     PrashhnoPanishad 1
18. PYS    Patanjali YogaSutra 8
19. RV     Rigveda 2120. SBS    Shandilya BhaktiSutra 3
21. ShU    ShvetashvataroPanishad 4
22. SV      Samaveda 1
23. TaU    TaittiriyoPanishad 2
24. TR      Tulasi Ramayan 29
25. VC      Vivekachudamani 5 
26. VP      Vishnu Purana 6
27. VR     Valmiki Ramayanam 6 
28. YV     Yajurveda, Vajasaneyi Samhita 4
29. YVa   YogaVashishtha 3/ 275
 

          CONTENTS

1. ARJUNA’S DILEMMA   12

Introduction Of The Army Commanders. 12

War Starts With The Blowing Of. 13 Conch Shells. 13

Arjuna Wants To Inspect The Army. 14

Arjuna’s Dilemma. 15

Arjuna Describes The Evils Of War 16

When The Going Gets Tough, 17Tough Gets Deluded. 17

 

2. TRANSCENDENTAL KNOWLEDGE  18

Arjuna Continues His Reasoning. 18 Against The War 18

Teachings Of Gita Begin With Knowledge Of The Self 20

The Self Is Eternal, Body Is Transitory. 22

Death And Transmigration. 23 Of The Soul 23

The Indestructible Spirit Transcends. 25 Mind And Speech. 25

Lord Krishna Reminds Arjuna. 25 Of The Duty Of A Warrior 25

The Science Of Karma-Yoga, 27 The Selfless 27Service

The Vedas Deal With Both Material 28 And Spiritual Aspects Of Life. 28

Theory And Practice. 29 Of Karmayoga. 29

Marks Of A Self-Realized Person. 33

Dangers Of Unrestrained Senses. 35

Attainment Of Peace And Happiness Through. 36 Sense Control, Knowledge  36

 

3. PATH OF SELFLESS SERVICE  38

Why One Should Serve Others?. 40

To Help Each Other Is The First 41 Commandment Of The Creator 41

Leaders Should Set An Example. 43

What Should The Wise Do. 45 To The Ignorant?. 45

All Works Are The. 45 Works Of Nature. 45

Two Major Stumbling Blocks. 47 On The Path Of Perfection. 47

Lust Is The Origin Of Sin. 48

How To Control Lust And. 50 Reach The Goal 50

 

4. PATH  OF RENUNCIATION WITH KNOWLEDGE  53

Karma-Yoga Is An Ancient 53 Forgotten Commandment 53

The Purpose Of Incarnation Of God. 54

Path Of Worship And Prayer 55

Division Of Labor Is Based On. 56 Aptitude Of People. 56

Attached, Detached, And. 57 Forbidden Action. 57

A Karma-Yogi Is Not Subject 58 To The Karmic Laws. 58

Different Types Of Spiritual 59 Practices Or Sacrifices. 59

A Superior Spiritual Practice. 61

Transcendental Knowledge Is Automatically Revealed To A Karma-Yogi 64

Both Transcendental Knowledge. 65 And Karma-Yoga Are Needed. 65

 

5. PATH OF RENUNCIATION   66

Both Paths Lead To The Supreme. 66

A Transcendentalist Does Not 67 Consider Oneself As The Doer 67

A Karma-Yogi Works For God. 67

The Path Of Knowledge. 68

Additional Marks Of An. 69 Enlightened Person. 69

Third Path¾ The Path Of Devotional 71 Meditation And Contemplation  71

 

6. PATH OF MEDITATION   72

A Karma-Yogi Is A Renunciant 72

A Definition Of Yoga. 72

Mind Is The Best Friend As Well 73 As The Worst Enemy. 73

Techniques Of Meditation. 74

Who Is A Yogi?. 81

Two Methods To Subdue. 83 The Restless Mind. 83

Destination Of Unsuccessful Yogi 84

Who Is The Best Yogi?. 86

 

7. SELF-KNOWLEDGE AND ENLIGHTENMENT  87

Metaphysical Knowledge Is. 87 The Ultimate Knowledge. 87

Seekers Are Very Few.. 88

Definition Of Spirit And Matter 88

Supreme Spirit Is The Basis. 89 Of Everything. 89

How To Overcome The Delusive. 90 Divine Power (Maya) 90

Who Seeks God?. 91

Worship Of Deity Is Also. 92 Worship Of God. 92

God Can Be Seen In Any. 94 Desired Form Of Worship. 94

 

8. THE ETERNAL BEING   96

Definition Of Supreme Spirit, Spirit, 96 Individual Soul, And Karma. 96

Theory Of Reincarnation And Karma. 97

A Simple Method Of God Realization. 98

Attain Salvation By Meditating. 99 On God At The Time Of Death. 99

The Creation Is Cyclic. 101

Two Basic Paths Of Departure. 102 From The World. 102

Knowledge Leads To Salvation. 105

 

9. SUPREME KNOWLEDGE AND THE BIG MYSTERY

Knowledge Of The Nature Of The. 105 Supreme Is The Biggest Mystery. 105

Theory Of Evolution. 107 And Involution. 107

The Ways Of The Wise And Of The. 108 Ignorant Are Different 108

Everything Is A Manifestation. 109 Of The Absolute. 109

Attain Salvation By. 109 Devotional Love. 109

Lord Accepts And Eats 112Offering Of Love And Devotion. 112

There Is No Unforgivable Sinner 114

Path Of Devotional Love Is Easier 114

 

10. MANIFESTATION OF THE ABSOLUTE  115

God Is The Origin Of Everything. 116

Lord Gives Knowledge. 117 To His Devotees. 117

Nobody Can Know The Real 118 Nature Of Reality. 118

Everything Is A Manifestation. 119 Of The Absolute. 119

A Brief Description Of. 121 Divine Manifestations. 121

Manifest Creation Is A Very Small 123 Fraction Of The Absolute. 123

 

11. VISION OF THE COSMIC FORM   124

Vision Of God Is The Ultimate. 124 Aim Of A Seeker 124

Lord Shows His Cosmic. 126 Form To Arjuna. 126

One May Not Be Prepared To. 127 See The Lord. 127

Arjuna Is Frightened To. 129 See The Cosmic Form.. 129

Lord Describes His Powers. 130

Arjuna’s Prayers To The. 131 Cosmic Form.. 131

One May See God In Any Form.. 134 Of One’s Choice. 134

Lord Shows Arjuna His Four-Armed. 135 And The Human Form.. 135

Lord Can Be Seen By. 135 Devotional Love. 135

 

12. PATH OF DEVOTION   136

Should One Worship A Personal 136 Or An Impersonal God?. 136

Reasons For Worshipping. 138 A Personal Form Of God. 138

Four Paths To God. 139

Karma-Yoga Is The Easiest 141 Way To Start With. 141

The Attributes Of A Devotee. 141

One Should Sincerely Strive To. 143 Develop Divine Qualities. 143

Is There Only One Right 144 Way To God?. 144

 

13. CREATION AND THE CREATOR   144

Theory Of Creation. 144

The Fourfold Noble Truth. 146 As  Means Of Nirvana. 146

The Supreme Can Be Described By. 147 Parables, Not In Any Other Way. 147

Supreme Spirit, Spirit, Material Nature, 150 And The Individual Souls. 150

Faith And Devotion Can. 152 Also Lead To Nirvana. 152

Attributes Of The Spirit (Brahma) 153

 

14. THREE MODES OF MATERIAL NATURE  155

All Beings Are Born From The. 155 Union Of Spirit And Matter 155

How Three Modes Of Material Nature. 155 Bind Soul To The Body. 155

Characteristics Of Three. 157 Modes Of Nature. 157

Three Modes Are Also The Vehicles. 157 Of Transmigration 157

Attain Nirvana After Transcending. 158 Three Modes Of Material Nature. 158

The Process Of Rising Above. 159 The Three Modes. 159

Bonds Of Three Modes Can Be. 160 Cut By Devotional Love. 160

 

15. THE SUPREME BEING   161

Creation Is Like A Tree Created. 161 By The Powers Of Maya. 161 …………..

How To Cut This Tree Of Life And Attain. 162 Salvation By Surrendering to God  162

The Embodied Soul Is The Enjoyer 163                                      

Spirit Is The Essence Of Everything. 165

Supreme Spirit, Spirit And The Individual Soul 167

 

16. DIVINE AND THE DEMONIC QUALITIES  170

Major Divine Qualities That Should Be. 170 Cultivated For Salvation. 170

Demonic Qualities That Should Be Given Up. 172

There Are Only Two Types Of Human Beings¾Wise And The Ignorant 173

Suffering Is The Destiny. 175 Of The Ignorant 175

Lust, Anger, And Greed Are The. 175 Three Gates To Hell 175

One Must Follow The. 176 Scriptural Injunctions. 176

 

17. THREEFOLD FAITH   178

Three Types Of Faith. 179

Three Types Of Food. 180

Three Types Of Sacrifices. 181

Austerity Of Thought, 182 Word,  And Deed. 182

Three Types Of Austerity. 183

Three Types Of Charity. 183

Threefold Aspect Of God. 185

 

18. NIRVANA THROUGH RENUNCIATION   186

Definition Of Renunciation. 186 And Sacrifice. 186

Three Types Of Sacrifice. 187

Five Causes Of Any Action. 189

Three Types Of Knowledge. 190

Three Types Of Action. 191

Three Types Of People. 191

Three Types Of Intellect 192

Three Types Of Resolve, 192Four Goals Of Life. 192

Three Types Of Pleasure. 193

Division Of Labor Is Based. 195 On One’s Ability. 195

Attainment Of Salvation Through. 197 Duty, Discipline, Devotion. 197

Karmic Bondage And The Free Will 200

We Become The Puppets Of. 200 Our Own Freewill 200

Path Of Surrender Is The. 202 Ultimate Path To God. 202

The Highest Service To God, 206 And The Best Charity. 206

Grace Of The Gita. 206

Both Transcendental Knowledge And Action Are Needed 209

     =============================================

     ihndI m=e] g=It== ke: ëîî xl=ek:                   All 700 Sanskrit Verses
(All 700 Gita Verses in Hindi)       (In Easy to Read Format !)

 

*******************GITA BEGINS*******************

( NOTE: some times Devanagari fonts may not be read on a Mobile, use a PC )

 

 

XI hn=um=t=e n=m=/

aq= XIm=d< B=g=v=d<g=It==

aq= p=>q=m==eCQy==y=/

CHAPTER 1

aj=*un=iv={==dy==eg=/

ARJUNA’S DILEMMA

Q=&t=r={!M Wv==c=,

Q=m=*Z=eF=e ku:oZ=eF=e, s=m=v=et==, y=uy=uts=v=/ +

m==m=k:=/ p==[#v==xc=Ev=, ik:m=< aku:v=*t= s=]j=y= ++â++

Q=&t=r={!M b==eD=e¾ he s=]j=y=, Q=m=*B=Uim= ku:oZ=eF= m=e] Ak:F= huA y=u3 ke: wc%uk: m=ere a=Er p==[#u ke: p=uF==e] n=e ky==-ky== ik:y==? (â.â)

The King inquired: Sanjaya, please, now tell me in detail, what did my people (the Kauravas) and the Pandavas do in the battlefield before the war started? (1.01)

s=]j=y= Wv==c=

d&{!<v== t=u p==[#v==n=Ik:], vy=U$] duy==e*Q=n=s=< t=d= +

a=c==y=*m=< Wp=s=]g=my=, r=j== v=c=n=m=< ab=>v=It=< ++ä++

s=]j=y= b==eeD=e¾ p==[#v==e] k:I s=en== k:I vy=Uh-rc=n== deK=k:r r=j== duy==e*Q=n= n=e 7=e[==c==y=* ke: p==s= j==k:r k:h=/ (â.ä)

Sanjaya said: O King, after seeing the battle formation of the Pandava’s army, your son approached his guru and spoke these words: (1.02)

p=xy=Et==] p==[#up=uF==[==m=<, a=c==y=* m=ht=I] c=m=Um=< +

vy=U$=] 7uup=dp=uF=e[=, t=v= ix={y=e[= Q=Im=t== ++à++

aF= x=Ur= m=he{v==s==, B=Im==j=*un=s=m== y=uiQ= +

y=uy=uQ==n==e iv=r=!xc=, 7up=dxc= m=h=rq=/ ++å++

Q=&{!ke:t=ux=< c=eik:t==n=/, k:=ix=r=j=xc= v=Iy=*v==n=< +

p=uoòj=t=< ku:ûnt=B==ej=xc=, x=Eby=xc= n=rp=uV<g=v=/ ++ç++,

y=uQ==m=ny=uxc= iv=k>:=nt=, WT=m==Ej==xc= v=Iy=*v==n=< +

s==EB=7=e 7=Ep=dey==xc=, s=v=* Av= m=h=rq==/ ++ê++

he a=c==y=*, a=p=ke: b=ui3m==n= ix={y= Q=&{!6umn= 8=r= vy=Uh=k:=r K=ª#ªI k:I g=y=I p==[#u p=uF==e] k:I ws= m=h=n= s=en== k:=e deiK=A.

ws= s=en== m=e] m=h=n=< Q=n=uQ==*rI y==e3= hE], j==e y=u3 m=e] B=Im= a=Er aj=*un= ke: s=m==n= hE]; j=Es=e y=uy=uQ==n=, iv=r=! t=q== m=h=rq=I r=j== 7up=d, Q=&{!ke:t=u, c=eik:t==n=, b=D=v==n= k:=ix=r=j=, p=uoij=t=, ku:int=B==ej=, a=Er m=n=u{y==e] m=e] Xe{@ x=Eby=, p=r=k>:m=I y=uQ==m=ny=u, b=D=v==n=< WT=m==Ej==, s=uB=7=p=uF= aiB=m=ny=u, a=Er 7=Ep=dI ke: p=uF=; y=e s=b= m=h=rq=I hE]. (â.à -ê)

O Master, behold this mighty army of the Pandavas, arranged in battle formation by your other talented disciple! There are many great warriors, valiant men, heroes, and mighty archers. (1.03-06)

INTRODUCTION OF THE ARMY COMMANDERS

asm==k:} t=u iv=ix={!= y=e, t==n=< in=b==eQ= i8j==eT=m= +,

n==y=k:= m=m= s=Eny=sy=, s=]N=q=*] t==n=< b=>v=Iim= t=e ++ë++

B=v==n=< B=I{m=xc= k:[=*xc=, k&:p=xc= s=im=it=]j=y=/ +

axv=tq==m== iv=k:[=*xc=, s==Em=diT=s=< t=q=Ev= c= ++è++,

any=e c= b=hv=/ x=Ur=, m=dq=e* ty=kt=j=Iiv=t==/ +

n==n==x=sF=p=>hr[==/, s=v=e* y=u3iv=x==rd=/ ++ï++

he i8j==eT=m=, hm==re p=Z= m=e] B=I j==e iv=ix={! y==e3=g=[= hE], Wn=k:=e B=I a=p= j==n= D=Iij=y=e; a=p=k:I j==n=k:=rI ke: iD=A m=E] ap=n=I s=en== ke: n==y=k:=e] ke: n==m= b=t==t== h]U. (â.ë)

Ak: t==e sv=y=] a=p=, B=I{m=, k:[=*, a=Er iv=j=y=I k&:p==c==y=* t=q== axv=tq==m==, iv=k:[=*, a=Er s==em=dT= k:= p=uF= hE]. m=ere iD=A p=>=[=ty==g= k:rn=e ke: iD=A t=Ey==r, an=ek: p=>k:=r ke: x=sF==e] s=e s=us=ijj=t= t=q== y=u3 m=e] ku:x=D=, a=Er B=I an=ek: x=Urv=Ir hE]. (â.è-ï)

Also there are many heroes on my side who have risked their lives for me. I shall name a few distinguished commanders of my army for your information. He named all the officers of his army and said: They are armed with various weapons and are skilled in warfare. (1.07-09)

ap=y==*pt=] t=d< asm==k:}, b=D=] B=I{m==òB=riZ=t=m=< +

p=y==*pt=] ûtv=dm=< At=e{==], b=D=] B=Im==òB=ròZ=t=m=< ++âî++

ay=n=e{=u c= s=v=e*{=u, y=q==B==g=m=< av=ûsq=t==/ +

B=I{m=m=< Av==iB=rZ=nt=u, B=v=nt=/ s=v=* Av= ih ++ââ++

B=I{m=ip=t==m=h 8=r= riZ=t= hm==rI s=en== ap=irim=t= hE, a=Er B=Im= 8=r= riZ=t= Wn=k:I s=en== p=irim=t= hE. iv=iB=á m==ec==e*] p=r ap=n=e-ap=n=e sq==n= p=r isq=t= rht=e huA a=p= s=b= D==eg= B=I{m=ip=t==m=h k:I hI s=b= a=er s=e rZ== k:re]. (â.âî-ââ)

The army protecting our commander-in-chief is insufficient, whereas my archrival on the other side is well protected. Therefore all of you, occupying your respective positions, protect our commander-in-chief. (1.10-11)

WAR STARTS WITH THE BLOWING OF CONCH SHELLS

t=sy= s=]j=n=y=n=< h{=*], ku:ov=&3/ ip=t==m=h/ +

is=]hn==d] iv=n=6=ecc=E/, x=V<K=] dQm==E p=>t==p=v==n=< ++âä++

Ws= s=m=y= k:=Erv==e] m=e] v=&3, p=>t==p=I B=I{m=ip=t==m=h n=e duy==e*Q=n= ke: m=n= m=e] h{=* Wtp=á k:rt=e huA Wcc= sv=r s=e g=rj= k:r x=]K=Qv=in= k:I. (â.âä)

The mighty commander-in-chief and the eldest man of the dynasty, roared as a lion and blew his conch loudly, bringing joy to your son. (1.12)

t=t=/ x=V<K==xc= B=ey=*xc=, p=[=v==n=k:g==em=uK==/ +

s=hs=Ev==By=hny=nt=, s= x=bds=< t=um=uD==eCB=v=t=< ++âà++

t=tp=xc==t=< x=]K=, n=g==#ªe, $=eD=, x=&]g=I, a=id v==6 Ak: s==q= hI b=j= W@e, ij=n=k:= b=#ª= B=y=]k:r n==d hua=. (â.âà)

Soon after that, conches, kettledrums, cymbals, drums, and trumpets were sounded together. The commotion was tremendous. (1.13)

t=t=/ xv=et=Er< hy=Er< y=ukt=e, m=hit= sy=ndn=e òsq=t==E +

m==Q=v=/ p==[#v=xc=Ev=, idvy==E x=V<K==E p=>dQm=t=u/ ++âå++,

ws=ke: Wp=r=nt= xv=et= axv==e] s=e y=ukt= B=vy= rq= m=e] b=E@e huy=e XIk&:{[= a=Er p==[#up=uF= aj=*un= n=e B=I ap=n=e-ap=n=e idvy= x=]K= b=j==y=e. (â.âå)

After that, Lord Krishna and Arjuna, seated in a grand chariot yoked with white horses, blew their celestial conches. (1.14)

p==Jc=j=ny=] Å{=Ike:x==e, dev=dT=] Q=n=]j=y=/ +

p==E[#M] dQm==E m=h=x=V<K]=, B=Im=k:m==* v=&k:=edr/ ++âç++

an=nt=iv=j=y=] r=j==, ku:nt=Ip=uF==e y=uiQ=ò{@r/ +

n=ku:D=/ s=hdev=xc=, s=uG==e{=m=i[=p=u{p=k:=E ++âê++

 

k:=xy=xc= p=rm=e{v==s=/, ix=K=[#I c= m=h=rq=/ +

Q=&{!6umn==e iv=r=!xc=, s==ty=ik:xc==p=r=òj=t=/ ++âë++

7up=d=e 7=Ep=dey==xc=, s=v=*x=/ p=&iq=v=Ip=t=e +

s==EB=7xc= m=h=b==hu/, x=V<K==n=< dQm=u/ p=&q=k:< p=&q=k:< ++âè++

s= G==e{==e Q==t=*r={!M=[==], Ådy==in= vy=d=ry=t=< +

n=B=xc= p=&iq=v=I] c=Ev=, t=um=uD==e vy=n=un==dy=n=< ++âï++

B=g=v==n=< k&:{[= n=e p==]c=j=ny=, aj=*un= n=e dev=dT= t=q== B=y=]k:r k:m=* k:rn=e v==D=e B=Im= n=e p==E[#M n==m=k: m=h=x=]K= b=j==y=e. (â.âç)

he r=j=n=<, ku:nt=Ip=uF= r=j== y=uiQ=i{@r n=e an=nt= iv=j=y= n==m=k: x=]K=, a=Er n=ku:D= t=q== s=hdev= n=e k>:m=x=/ s=uQ==e{=, a=Er m=i[=p=u{p=k: n==m=k: x=]K= b=j==y=e. Xe{@ Q=n=u{= v==D=e k:=ix=r=j=, m=h=rq=I ix=K=[#I, Q=&{!6umn=, r=j== iv=r=!, aj=ey= s==ty=ik:, r=j== 7up=d, 7=Ep=dI ke: p=uF=, a=Er m=h=b==hu aiB=m=ny=u n=e aD=g=-aD=g= x=]K= b=j==y=e. (â.âê-âè)

v=h B=y=]k:r Q==e{= a=k:=x= a=Er p=&qv=I p=r g=]Uj=n=e D=g==, a=Er Ws=n=e a=p=ke: p=uF==e] ke: Ådy= iv=dI[=* k:r idy=e. (â.âï)

Krishna blew His conch; then Arjuna and all other commanders of various divisions of the army of Pandavas blew their respective conches. The tumultuous uproar, resounding through the earth and sky, tore the hearts of your sons. (1.15-19)

ARJUNA WANTS TO INSPECT THE ARMY AGAINST WHOM HE IS ABOUT TO FIGHT

aq= vy=v=ûsq=t==n=< d&{!<v==, Q==t=*r={!M=n=< k:ip=Qv=j=/ +

p=>v=&T=e x=sF=s=]p==t=e, Q=n=ur< W6my= p==[#v=/ ++äî++

Å{=Ike:x=] t=d= v==ky=m=<, wdm=< a=h m=hIp=t=e +

s=en=y==er< WB=y==er< m=Qy=e, rq=] sq==p=y= m=eCcy=ut= ++äâ++

y==v=d< At==n=< in=rIZ=eCh], y==e3uk:=m==n=< av=òsq=t==n=< +

kE:r< m=y== s=h y==e3vy=m=<, aòsm=n=< r[=s=m=u6m=e ++ää++

he r=j=n=<, ws= p=>k:=r j=b= y=u3 p=>=rmB= h=en=e v==D== hI q== ik: k:ip=Qv=j= aj=*un= n=e Q=&t=r={!M ke: p=uF==e] k:=e isq=t= deK=k:r Q=n=u{= W@=k:r B=g=v==n=< k&:{[= s=e y=e x=bd k:he ¾ he acy=ut=, m=ere rq= k:=e d=en==e] s=en==a=e] ke: m=Qy= m=e] K=#ª= k:Iij=A; ij=s=s=e m=E] y=u3 k:I wc%= s=e K=#ªe Wn= D==eg==e] k:= in=rIZ=[= k:r s=k:U] ij=n=ke: s==q= m=uz=e y=u3 k:rn== hE. (â.äî-ää)

Seeing your sons standing and the war about to begin with the hurling of weapons, Arjuna took up his bow and spoke these words to Lord Krishna: O Lord, please stop my chariot be­tween the two armies until I behold those who stand here eager for the bat­tle and with whom I must engage in this act of war. (1.20-22)

y==etsy=m==n==n=< av=eZ=eCh], y= At=eCF= s=m==g=t==/ +

Q==t=*r={!Msy= dub=u*3er<, y=u3e ip=>y=ic=k:0{=*v=/ ++äà++,

dub=*ui3 duy==e*Q=n= k:= y=u3 m=e] ip=>y= c==hn=ee v==D=e j==e r=j== D==eg= y=h=] Ak:F= hE], Wn= y=u3 k:rn=e v==D==e] k:=e m=E] deK=n== c==ht== hU]. (â.äà)

I wish to see those who are willing to serve and appease the evil-minded Kauravas by assembling here to fight the battle. (1.23)

s=]j=y= Wv==c=

Av=m=< Wkt==e Å{=Ike:x==e, g=u#=ke:x=en= B==rt= +

s=en=y==er< WB=y==er< m=Qy=e, sq==p=iy=tv== rq==eT=m=m=< ++äå++

B=I{m=7=e[=p=>m=uK=t=/, s=v=*e{==] c= m=hIòZ=t==m=< +,

Wv==c= p==q=* p=xy=Et==n=<, s=m=v=et==n=< ku:On=< wit= ++äç++

s=]j=y= b==eD=e¾ he B==rt=, aj=u*n= ke: ws= p=>k:=r k:hn=e p=r B=g=v==n=< k&:{[= n=e d=en==e] s=en==a=e] ke: b=Ic= WT=m= rq= k:=e B=I{m=, d>=e[= t=q== p=&qv=I ke: s=m=st= x==s=k:=e] ke: s==m=n=e K=#ª= k:rke: k:h=¾ he p==q=* y=h=] Ak:F= huA wn= k:=Erv==e] k:=e deK==e. (â.äå-äç)

Sanjaya said: O King, Lord Krishna, as requested by Arjuna, placed the best of all the chariots in the midst of the two armies facing Arjuna’s grandfather, his guru and all other Kings, and said to Arjuna: Behold these assembled soldiers! (1.24-25)

t=F==p=xy=t=< òsq=t==n=< p==q=*/, ip=t=&n=< aq= ip=t==m=h=n=<,

a=c==y==*n=< m==t=uD==n=< B=>>=t=&n=<, p=uF==n=< p==EF==n=< s=K=I]s=< t=q== ++äê++

v=h=] aj=u*n= n=e ap=n=e c==c==a=e], ip=t==m=h=e], a=c==y==e*], m==m==a=e], B==wy==e], p=uF==e], p==EF==e], a=Er im=F==e] k:=e K=#ªe huA deK==. (â.äê)

Arjuna saw his uncles, grandfathers, teachers, maternal uncles, brothers, sons, grandsons, and other comrades in the army. (1.26)

ARJUNA’S DILEMMA

xv=x=ur=n=< s=uÅdxc=Ev=, s=en=y==er< WB=y==er< aip= +,

t==n=< s=m=IZy= s= k:=Ent=ey=/, s=v==*n=< b=nQ=Un=< av=òsq=t==n=< ++äë++

k&:p=y== p=ry==iv={!=e, iv={=Idnn=< wdm=< ab=>v=It=< +

d&{!<v=em=] sv=j=n=] k&:{[=, y=uy=uts=u] s=m=up=òsq=t=m=< ++äè++

s=Idònt= m=m= g==F==ò[=, m=uK=], c= p=irx=u{y=it= +

v=ep=q=uxc= x=rIre m=e, r=em=h{=*xc= j==y=t=e ++äï++

xv=x=ur=e], im=F==e], a=Er s=b= b=nQ=ua=e] k:=e B=I Wn= d=en==e] s=en==a=e] m=e] isq=t= deK=k:r ku:nt=Ip=uF= aj=u*n= k:= m=n= k:o[== s=e B=r g=y==, a=Er iv={==d y=ukt= h=ek:r Ws=n=e y=h k:h=¾ he k&:{[=, y=u3 k:I wc%= s=e Wp=isq=t= wn= sv=j=n==e] k:=e deK=k:r m=ere a]g= ix=iq=D= huA j==t=e hE], m=uK= B=I s=UK= rh= hE, a=Er m=ere x=rIr m=e] k:mp=n= t=q== r=em==]c= h=e rh= hE. (â.äë-äï)

After seeing fathers-in-law, companions, and all his kinsmen standing in the ranks of the two armies, Arjuna was overcome with great compassion and sorrowfully spoke these words: O Krishna, seeing my kinsmen standing with a desire to fight, my limbs fail and my mouth becomes dry. My body quivers and my hairs stand on end. (1.27-29)

g==[#Iv=] s=]>]s=t=e hst==t=<, tv=k<: c=Ev= p=irdÄt=e +

n= c= x=kn==emy=< av=sq==t=u], B=>m=t=Iv= c= m=e m=n=/ ++àî++

in=im=T==in= c= p=xy==im=, iv=p=rIt==in= ke:x=v= +

n= c= Xeey==eCn=up=xy==im=, htv== sv=j=n=m=< a=hv=e ++àâ++,

m=ere h=q= s=e g==[#Iv= Q=n=u{= ig=r rh= hE, a=Er tv=c== j=D= rhI hE. m=er= m=n= B=>im=t= s== h=e rh= hE, t=q== m=E] K=#ª= rhn=e m=e] B=I as=m=q=* hU], a=Er he ke:x=v= m=E] x=ku:n==e] k:=e B=I iv=p=rIt= hI deK= rh= hU]. y=u3 m=e] ap=n=e sv=j=n==e] k:=e m==r k:r k:=ew* k:Dy==[= B=I n=hI] deK=t== hU]. (â.àî-àâ)

The bow slips from my hand and my skin intensely burns. My head turns, I am unable to stand steady, and O Krishna, I see bad omens. I see no use of killing my kinsmen in battle. (1.30-31)

n= k:=V<Z=e iv=j=y=] k&:{[=, n= c= r=jy=] s=uK==in= c= +

òk:] n==e r=jy=en= g==eiv=nd, òk:] B==eg=Er< j=Iiv=t=en= v== ++àä++

y=e{==m=< aq=e* k:=V<òZ=t=] n==e, r=jy=] B==eg==/ s=uK==in= c= +

t= wm=eCv=òsq=t== y=u3e, p=>=[==]s=< ty=ktv== Q=n==in= c= ++àà++

he k&:{[=, m=E] n= iv=j=y= c==ht== hU], a=Er n= r=jy= t=q== n= s=uK==e] k:=e hI. he g==eiv=nd, hm=e] Aes=e r=jy= s=e aq=v== B==eg==e] s=e, a=Er j=In=e s=e B=I ky== D==B= hE? ky==e]ik: v=e s=b= D==eg=, ij=n=ke: iD=A r=jy=, B==eg=, a=Er s=uK= k:I wc%= hE, Q=n= a=Er j=Iv=n= k:I a=x== ty==g=k:r y=u3 ke: iD=A K=#eª hE]. (â.àä-àà)

I desire neither victory nor pleasure nor kingdom, O Krishna. What is the use of the kingdom or enjoyment or even life, O Krishna; because all those ¾ for whom we desire kingdom, enjoyments, and pleasures ¾ are standing here for the battle, giving up their lives? (1.32-33)

a=c==y==*/ ip=t=r/ p=uF==s=<, t=q=Ev= c= ip=t==m=h=/ +

m==t=uD==/ xv=x=ur=/ p==EF==/, xy==D==/ s=]b=ònQ=n=s=< t=q== ++àå++

At==n=< n= hnt=um=< wc%=im=, Gn=t==eCip= m=Q=us=Udn= +

aip= F=ED==eky=r=jy=sy=, het==e/ òk:] n=u m=hIk&:t=e ++àç++

he m=Q=us=Udn= k&:{[=, g=uoj=n=, t==~a=e], c==c==a=e], p=uF==e], ip=t==m=h=e], m==m==a=e], xv=s=ur=e], p==et==e], s==D==e] t=q== any= s=mb=inQ=y==e] k:=e, m=uz=p=r p=>h=r k:rn=e p=r B=I, m=E] m==rn== n=hI] c==ht==. t=In==e] D==ek: ke: r=jy= ke: iD=A B=I m=E] wnhe] m==rn== n=hI] c==ht==, if:r p=&qv=I ke: r=jy= k:I t==e b==t= hI ky== hE ? (â.àå-àç)

I do not wish to kill my teachers, uncles, sons, grandfathers, maternal uncles, fathers-in-law, grandsons, brothers-in-law, and other relatives who are about to kill us, even for the sov­ereignty of the three worlds, let alone for this earthly kingdom, O Krishna. (1.34-35)

in=hty= Q==t=*r={!M=n=< n=/, k:= p=>Iit=/ sy==j=< j=n==d*n= +

p==p=m=< Av==Xy=ed< asm==n=<, htv=Et==n=< a=t=t==iy=n=/ ++àê++

he j=n==d*n= k&:{[=, Q=&t=r={!M ke: p=uF==e] k:=e m==rk:r hm=e] ky== p=>s=át== h=eg=I? wn= a=t=t==iy=y==e] k:=e m==rn=e s=e t==e hm=e] ke:v=D= p==p= hI D=g=eg==. (â.àê)

O Lord Krishna, what pleasure shall we find in killing our cousin brothers? Upon killing these felons, we shall incur only sin. (1.36)

t=sm==n=< n==h=* v=y=] hnt=u]], Q==t=*r={!M=n=< sv=b==nQ=v==n=< +

sv=j=n=] ih k:q=] htv==, s=uòK=n=/ sy==m= m==Q=v= ++àë++

ws=iD=A ap=n=e b==nQ=v==e], Q=&t=r={!M ke: p=uF==e], k:=e m==rn== hm==re iD=A Wp=y=ukt= n=hI] hE, ky==e]ik: he m==Q=v=, sv=j=n==e] k:=e m==rk:r hm= kE:s=e s=uK=I h=e]g=e? (â.àë)

Therefore, we should not kill our cousin brothers. How can we be happy after killing our relatives, O Krishna? (1.37)

y=6py=et=e n= p=xy=ònt=, D==eB==ep=ht=c=et=s=/ +

ku:D=Z=y=k&:t=] d=e{=], im=F=7=ehe c= p==t=k:m=< ++àè++

k:q=] n= Ney=m=< asm==iB=/, p==p==d< asm==n=< in=v=it=*t=um=<< +

ku:D=Z=y=k&:t=] d=e{=], p=>p=xy=ò4r< j=n==d*n= ++àï++

y=6ip= D==eB= s=e B=>{!ic=T= huA y=e D==eg= ap=n=e ku:D= ke: n==x= s=e Wtp=á d=e{= k:=e, a=Er im=F==e] s=e iv=r=eQ= k:rn=e m=e] huA p==p= k:=e n=hI] deK= rhe hE]; p=rnt=u he j=n==d*n=, ku:D= ke: n==x= s=e Wtp=á d=e{= k:=e j==n=n=e v==D=e hm= D==eg==e] k:=e ws= p==p= s=e in=v=&T= h=en=e ke: iD=A ky==e] n=hI] s==ec=n== c==ihA? (â.àè-àï)

Though they are blinded by greed and do not see evil in the destruction of the family or sin in being treacherous to friends, why should not we, who clearly see evil in the destruction of the family, think about turning away from this sin, O Krishna? (1.38-39)

ARJUNA DESCRIBES THE EVILS OF WAR

ku:D=Z=y=e p=>[=xy=ònt=, ku:D=Q=m==*/ s=n==t=n==/ +

Q=m=e* n={!e ku:D=] k&:tsn=m=<, aQ=m==e*CiB=B=v=ty=ut= ++åî++

ku:D= ke: n==x= s=e ku:D= ke: s=n==t=n= Q=m=* n={! h=e j==t=e hE], Q=m=* n={! h=en=e p=r s==re ku:D= k:=e p==p= db== D=et== hE. (â.åî)

Eternal family traditions and codes of moral conduct are destroyed with the destruction of (the head of the) family in a war. And immorality prevails in the family due to the destruction of family traditions. (1.40)

aQ=m==*iB=B=v==t=< k&:{[=, p=>du{y=ònt= ku:D=òsF=y=/ +

sF=I{=u du{!=s=u v=={[=e*y=, j==y=t=e v=[=*s=]k:r/ ++åâ++

he k&:{[=, p==p= ke: b=$ª j==n=e s=e ku:D= k:I isF=y==] dUi{=t= h=e j==t=I hE]; a=Er he v=={[=e*y=, isF=y==e] ke: dUi{=t= h=en=e p=r v=[=*s=]k:r p=Ed= h=et=e h]E. (â.åâ)

And when immorality prevails, O Krishna, people be­come corrupted. And when people are corrupted, unwanted progeny are born. (1.41)

s=]k:r=e n=rk:=y=Ev=, ku:D=Gn==n==] ku:D=sy= c= +

p=t=ònt= ip=t=r=e Äe{==], D=upt=ip=[#=edk:òk>:y==/ ++åä++

v=[=*s=]k:r ku:D=G==it=y==e] k:=e, a=Er s==re ku:D= k:=e n=rk: m=e] D=e j==t== hE, ky==e]ik: (v=[=*s=]k:r 8=r=) X=3 a=Er t=p=*[= n= im=D=n=e s=e ip=t=r B=I ap=n=e sq==n= s=e n=Ic=e ig=r j==t=e hE]. (â.åä)

This brings the family and the slayers of the family to hell because the spirits of their ancestors are degraded when deprived of ceremonial of­ferings of love and respect by the unwanted progeny. (1.42)

d=e{=Er< At=E/ ku:D=Gn==n==], v=[=*s=]k:rk:=rkE:/ +

Wts==6nt=e j==it=Q=m==*/, ku:D=Q=m==*xc= x==xv=t==/ ++åà++

wn= v=[=*s=]k:r p=Ed= k:rn=e v==D=e d=e{==e] s=e ku:D=G==it=y==e] ke: s=n==t=n= ku:D=Q=m=* a=Er j==it=Q=m=* n={! h=e j==t=e hE]. (â.åà)

The everlasting qualities of social order and family traditions of those who destroy their family are ruined by the sinful act of illegitimacy. (1.43)

Wts=nn=ku:D=Q=m==*[==], m=n=u{y==[==] j=n==d*n= +

n=rke:Cin=y=t=] v==s==e, B=v=t=Ity=n=ux=uXuum= ++åå++

he j=n==d*n=, hm=n=e s=un== hE ik: ij=n=ke: ku:D=Q=m=* n={! h=e j==t=e hE], Wnhe] b=hut= s=m=y= t=k: n=rk: m=e] v==s= k:rn== h=et== hE. (â.åå)

We have been told, O Krishna, that people whose family traditions are destroyed necessarily dwell in hell for a long time. (1.44)

ah=e b=t= m=ht=< p==p=], k:t=]*u*u vy=v=òs=t== v=y=m=< +

y=d< r=jy=s=uK=D==eB=en=, hnt=u] sv=j=n=m=< W6t==/ ++åç++

y=h b=#ªe x==ek: k:I b==t= hE ik: hm= D==eg= b=#ª= B==rI p==p= k:rn=e k:= in=xc=y= k:r b=E@e hE] t=q== r=jy=, a=Er s=uK= ke: D==eB= s=e ap=n=e sv=j=n==e] k:= n==x= k:rn=e k:=e t=Ey==r hE]’. (â.åç)

Alas! We are ready to commit a great sin by striving to slay our relatives because of greed for the pleasures of the kingdom. (1.45)

y=id m==m=< ap=>t=Ik:=rm=<, ax=sF=] x=sF=p==[=y=/ +

Q==t=*r={!M= r[=e hny=us=<, t=n=< m=e Z=em=t=r] B=v=et=< ++åê++

m=ere iD=A aiQ=k: k:Dy==[=k:=rI h=eg== y=id m=uz= x=sF=riht=, a=Er s==m=n== n= k:rn=e v==D=e k:=e y=e x=sF=Q==rI k:=Erv= r[= m=e] m==r #=D=e]. (â.åê)

It would be far better for me if my cousin brothers kill me with their weapons in battle while I am unarmed and unresisting. (1.46)

WHEN THE GOING GETS TOUGH, EVEN TOUGH ONES CAN GET DELUDED

s=]j=y= Wv==c=

Av=m=< Wktv==Cj=u*n=/ s=]Ky=e, rq==ep=sq= Wp==iv=x=t=< +

iv=s=&jy= s=x=r] c==p=], x==ek:s=]iv=gn=m==n=s=/ ++åë++

s=]j=y= b==eD=e¾ Aes== k:hk:r x==ek:=ku:D= m=n= v==D== aj=u*n= r[=B=Uim= m=]e b==[=s=iht= Q=n=u{= k:= ty==g= k:rke: rq= ke: ip=%D=e B==g= m=e] b=E@ g=y==. (â.åë)

Sanjaya said: Having said this in the battlefield and casting aside his bow and arrow, Arjuna sat down on the seat of the chariot with his mind overwhelmed with sorrow. (1.47)

CHAPTER 2

s==]Ky=y==eg=/

TRANSCENDENTAL KNOWLEDGE

s=]j=y= Wv==c=

t=] t=q== k&:p=y==iv={!m=<, aXuup=U[==*ku:D=eZ=[=m=< +

iv={=Idnt=m=< wd] v==ky=m=<, Wv==c= m=Q=us=Udn=/ ++â++

s=]j=y= b==eD=e¾ ws= t=rh k:o[== s=e vy==pt=, a=]s=U B=re, vy==ku:D= n=eF==e] v==D=e, x==ek:y=ukt= aj=u*n= s=e B=g=v==n=< XIk&:{[= n=e k:h=. (ä.â)

Sanjaya said: Lord Krishna spoke these words to Arjuna whose eyes were tearful and downcast and who was overwhelmed with compas­sion and despair. (2.01)

XIB=g=v==n=uv==c=,

ku:t=stv== k:xm=D=m=< wd], iv={=m=e s=m=up=ûsq=t=m=< +

an==y=*j=u{!m=< asv=gy=*m=<, ak:Iit=*k:rm=< aj=*un= ++ä++

XIB=g=v==n=< b==eD=e¾ aj=u*n=, ws= iv={=m= av=s=r p=r t=umhe] y=h k:=y=rt== kE:s=e p=>=pt= huw*? y=h Xe{@ m=n=u{y==e] ke: a=c=r[= ke: iv=p=rIt= hE, t=q== y=h n= t==e sv=g=* p=>=ipt= k:= s==Q=n= hE, a=Er n= k:Iit=* den=e v==D== hI hE. (ä.ä)

Lord Krishna said: How has the dejection come to you at this juncture? This is not fit for a person of noble mind and deeds. It is disgraceful, and it does not lead one to heaven, O Arjuna. (2.02)

kD=Eby=] m== sm= g=m=/ p==q=*, n=Et=t=< tv=yy=< Wp=p=6t=e +

Z=u7] Ådy=d=Eb=*Dy=], ty=ktv==eiT={@ p=r]t=p= ++à++

ws=iD=A he aj=u*n=, t=um= k:=y=r m=t= b=n==e. y=h t=umhe] x==eB== n=hI] det==. he x=F=ua=e] k:=e m==rn=e v==D=e aj=u*n=, t=um= ap=n=e m=n= k:I ws= dub=*D=t== k:=e ty==g=k:r y=u3 k:r=e. (ä.à)

Do not become a coward, O Arjuna, because it does not befit you. Shake off this trivial weakness of your heart and get up for the battle, O Arjuna. (2.03)

ARJUNA CONTINUES HIS REASONING AGAINST THE WAR

aj=*un= Wv==c=

k:q=] B=I{m=m=< ah] s=]Ky=e, 7=e[=] c= m=Q=us=Udn= +

w{=uiB=/ p=>it=y==etsy==im=, p=Uj==h=*v=< airs=Udn= ++å++

aj=u*n= b==eD=e¾ he m=Q=us=Udn=, m=E] ws= r[=B=Uim= m=e] B=I{m= a=Er 7=e[= ke: iv=o3 b==[==e] s=e kE:s=e y=u3 k:O}? he airs=Udn=, v=e d=en==e] hI p=Uj=n=Iy= hE]. (ä.å)

Arjuna said: How shall I strike my grandfather, my guru, and all other relatives ¾ who are worthy of my respect ¾ with arrows in battle, O Krishna? (2.04)

            Arjuna had a valid point. In Vedic culture, gurus, the elderly, honorable personalities, and all other superiors are to be respected. One should not fight or even joke or speak sarcastically with  superiors, even if they hurt you. But the scriptures also say that anyone who is engaged in abominable activities or supports misdeeds against you or others, is no longer to be respected, but punished.

g=uOn=< ahtv== ih m=h=n=uB==v==n=<

Xey==e B==ekt=u]] B=EZy=m=< ap=Ih D==eke: +

htv==q=*k:=m==]s=< t=u, g=uOn=< whEv=

B=uJ=<j=Iy= B==eg==n=< oiQ=rp=>idgQ==n=< ++ç++

wn= m=h=n=uB==v= g=uoj=n==e] k:=e m==rn=e s=e ac%= ws= D==ek: m=e] iB=Z== k:= aá K==n== hE; ky==e]ik: g=uoj=n==e] k:=e m==rk:r t==e ws= D==ek: m=e] Wn=ke: rkt= s=e s=n=e huA aq=* a=Er k:=m=Op=I B==eg==e] k:=e hI t==e B==eg=U]g==. (ä.ç)

It would be better, indeed, to live on alms in this world than to slay these noble personalities because by killing them I would enjoy wealth and pleasures stained with their blood. (2.05)

n= c=Et=d< iv=5/ k:t=rn=< n==ee g=rIy==e

y=d< v== j=y=em= y=id v== n==e j=y=ey=u/ +

y==n=< Av= htv== n= òj=j=Iiv={==m=s=<

t=eCv=òsq=t==/ p=>m=uK=e Q==t=*r={!M=/ ++ê++

a=Er hm= y=h B=I n=hI] j==n=t=e ik: hm= D==eg==e] ke: iD=A (y=u3 k:rn== y== n= k:rn==, wn= d=en==e] m=e]) k:=En=-s== k:=m= ac%= hE. aq=v== y=h B=I n=hI] j==n=t=e ik: hm= j=It=e]g=e y== v=e j=It=e]g=e. ij=nhe] m==rk:r hm= j=In== B=I n=hI] c==ht=e, v=e hI Q=&t=r={!M ke: p=uF= hm==re s==m=n=e K=#ªe hE]. (ä.ê)

We do not know which alternative ¾ to fight or to quit ¾ is better for us. Further, we do not know whether we will conquer them or they will con­quer us. We should not even wish to live after killing our cousin brothers who are standing in front of us. (2.06)

            Arjuna was unable to decide what to do. It is said that expert guidance of a guru, the spiritual counselor, should be sought during a moment of cri­sis or to overcome the perplexities of life. Arjuna now requests Krishna for guidance.

k:=p=*[y=d=e{==ep=ht=sv=B==v=/

p=&c%=im= tv==] Q=m=*s=]m=U$c=et==/ +

y=c%Mey=/ sy==n=< in=ûxc=t=] b=>Uih t=n=< m=e

òx={y=s=< t=eCh] x==òQ= m==] tv==] p=>p=ám=< ++ë++

ws=iD=A k:o[==p=U[=* a=Er k:t=*vy= p=q= s=e B=>im=t=, m=E], a=p=s=e p=U%t== hU] ik: m=ere iD=A j==e in=xc=y= hI k:Dy==[=k:=rI h=e Ws=e a=p= k&:p=y== k:ihA. m=E] a=p=k:= ix={y= hU], x=r[= m=e] a=y=e m=uz=k:=e a=p= ix=Z== dIij=A. (ä.ë)

My senses are overcome by the weakness of pity, and my mind is con­fused about duty (Dharma). Please tell me what is bet­ter for me. I am Your disciple, and I take refuge in You. (2.07)

            NOTE: ‘Dharma’ may be defined as the eternal law govern­ing, upholding, and supporting creation and the world order. It is the eternal relationship between the creator and His creatures. It also means way of life, doctrine, principle, prescribed duty, righteousness, right action, integrity, ideal conduct, custom, virtue, na­ture, essential quality, commandments, moral principles, spiritual truth, spirituality, spiritual values, and a function within the scriptural injunction or religion.

n= ih p=>p=xy==im= m=m==p=n=u6=d<

y=c%=ek:m=< Wc%=e{=[=m=< wòn7y==[==m=< +

av==py= B=Um==v=< as=p=tn=m=< P3]]

r=jy=] s=ur=[==m=< aip= c==iQ=p=ty=m=< ++è++

p=&qv=I p=r in={k:[!k: s=m=&3 r=jy= t=q== dev=t==a=e] k:= sv==im=tv= p=>=pt=k:r B=I m=E] Aes== ku:% n=hI] deK=t== hU] ij=s=s=e hm==re win7y==e] k:=e s=uK==n=e v==D== x==ek: dUr h=e s=ke:. (ä.è)

I do not perceive that gaining an unrivaled and prosperous kingdom on this earth, or even lordship over all the celestial controllers, will remove the sorrow that is drying up my senses. (2.08)

s=]j=y= Wv==c=

Av=m=< Wktv== Å{=Ike:x=], g=u#=ke:x=/ p=r]t=p= +

n= y==etsy= wit= g==eiv=ndm=<, Wktv== t=U{[=I] b=B=Uv= h ++ï++

s=]j=y= b==eD=e¾ he r=j=n=<, in=d>= k:=e j=It=n=e v==D=e, aj=u*n=, ant=y==*m=I XIk&:{[= B=g=v==n=< s=e "m=E] y=u3 n=hI] k:O}g==" k:hk:r c=up= h=e g=y==. (ä.ï)

Sanjaya said: O King, after speaking like this to Lord Krishna, the mighty Arjuna said to Krishna: I shall not fight, and became silent. (2.09)

t=m=< Wv==c= Å{=Ike:x=/, p=>hs=á< wv= B==rt= +

s=en=y==er< WB=y==er< m=Qy=e, iv={=Idnt=m=< wd] v=c=/ ++âî++

he B=rt=v=]x=I (Q=&t=r={!M) d=en==e] s=en==a=e] ke: b=Ic= m=e] Ws= x==ek:y=ukt= aj=u*n= k:=e ant=y==*m=I XIk&:{[= h]s=t=e huA-s=e y=e v=c=n= b==eD=e. (ä.âî)

O King, Lord Krishna, as if smiling, spoke these words to the distressed Arjuna in the midst of the two armies. (2.10)

THE TEACHINGS OF THE GITA BEGIN WITH THE TRUE KNOWLEDGE OF THE SELF

ax==ecy==n=< anv=x==ec=s=< tv=]], p=>N=v==d=]xc= B=={=s=e +

g=t==s=Un=< ag=t==s=U]xc=, n==n=ux==ec=ònt= p=ò[#t==/ ++ââ++

XIB=g=v==n=< b==eD=e¾ he aj=*un=, t=um= N=in=y==e] k:I t=rh v==t=e] k:rt=e h=e, D=eik:n= ij=n=ke: iD=A x==ek: n=hI] k:rn== c==ihA, Wn=ke: iD=A x==ek: k:rt=e h=e. N=n=I m=&t= y== j=Iiv=t= ik:s=I ke: iD=A B=I x==ek: n=hI] k:rt=e. (ä.ââ)

Lord Krishna said: You grieve for those who are not worthy of grief and yet speak words of wisdom. The wise grieve neither for the living nor for the dead. (2.11)

            People meet and depart in this world as two pieces of wood flowing down the river come together and then separate from each other (MB 12.174.15). The wise, who know that the body is mor­tal and the Spirit is immortal, have nothing to moan about (KaU 2.22).

            NOTE: The Self (or Atma) is also called soul or consciousness and is the source of life and the cosmic power behind the body-mind complex. Just as our body exists in space, similarly, our thoughts, in­tellect, emotions, and psyche exist in the Self, the space of conscious­ness. Self cannot be perceived by our physical senses because Self is beyond the domain of the senses. The senses were designed only to comprehend physical objects.

            The word ‘Atma’ has been also used in the ‘Gita’ for the lower self (body, mind, and senses), psyche, intellect, soul, spirit, subtle senses, oneself, ego, heart, human beings, Eternal Being (Brahma), Absolute Truth, individual soul, and the supersoul or the supreme Self, depending on the context.

n= tv=ev==h] j==t=u n==s=], n= tv=] n=em=e j=n==iQ=p==/ +

n= c=Ev= n= B=iv={y==m=/, s=v=e* v=y=m=< at=/ p=rm=< ++âä++

Aes== n=hI] hE ik: m=E] ik:s=I s=m=y= n=hI] q==, aq=v== t=um= n=hI] q=e, y== y=e r=j== D==eg= n=hI] q=e, a=Er n= Aes== hI hE ik: ws=s=e a=g=e hm= s=b= n=hI] rhe]g=e. (ä.âä)

There was never a time when these monarchs, you, or I did not exist, nor shall we ever cease to exist in the future. (2.12)

deeihn==eCòsm=n=< y=q== dehe, k:=Em==r] y==Ev=n=] j=r= +

t=q== deh=nt=rp=>=òpt=r<, Q=Irs=< t=F= n= m=uÄit= ++âà++

**j=Es=e ws=I j=Iv=n= m=e]e] j=Iv==tm== b==D=, y=uv==, a=Er v=&3 x=rIr p=>=pt= k:rt== hE, v=Es=e hI j=Iv==tm== m=&ty=u ke: b==d dUs=r= x=rIr p=>=pt= k:rt== hE. ws=iD=A Q=Ir m=n=u{y= k:=e m=&ty=u s=e G=b=r=n== n=hI] c==ihA. (ä.âà)

Just as the soul acquires a childhood body, a youth body, and an old-age body during this life, similarly, the soul acquires another body after death. This should not delude the wise. (See also 15.08) (2.13)

m==F==sp=x==*s=< t=u k:=Ent=ey=, x=It==e{[=s=uK=du/K=d=/ +

a=g=m==p==iy=n==eCin=ty==s=<, t==]s=< it=it=Z=sv= B==rt= ++âå++

he aj=u*n=, win7y==e] ke: iv={=y==e] s=e s=]y==eg= ke: k:=r[= h=en=e v==D=e s=dI*-g=m=I*, a=Er s=uK=-du/K= Z=[=B=]g=ur a=Er ain=ty= hE], ws=iD=A he aj=u*n=, t=um= Ws=k:=e s=hn= k:r=e. (ä.âå)

The contacts of the senses with sense objects give rise to the feel­ings of heat and cold, and pain and pleasure. They are transitory and impermanent. Therefore, one should learn to endure them bravely. (2.14)

y=] ih n= vy=q=y=nty=et=e, p=uo{=] p=uuo{=r<{=B= +

s=m=du/K=s=uK=] Q=Ir], s==eCm=&t=tv==y= k:Dp=t=e ++âç++

he p=uo{=Xe{@, du/K= a=Er s=uK= m=e] s=m==n= B==v= s=e rhn=e v==D=e ij=s= Q=Ir m=n=u{y= k:=e win7y==e] ke: iv={=y= vy==ku:D= n=hI] k:r p==t=e, v=h m==eZ= k:= aiQ=k:=rI h=et== hE. (ä.âç)

Because a calm person ¾ who is not afflicted by these sense objects and is steady in pain and pleasure ¾ becomes fit for salvation. (2.15)

            Nothing can hurt one if the mind can be trained to with­stand the impulse of the pairs of opposites ¾ joys and sorrows, pains and pleasures, loss and gain. The phenomenal world cannot exist without the pairs of opposites. Good and evil, pain and pleasure will always exist. The universe is a playground designed by God for the living entities. It takes two to play a game. The game cannot continue if the pairs of opposites are altogether elimi­nated. Before one can feel joy, one must know sorrow. Both negative and positive experiences are needed for our growth and spiritual development. Cessation of pain brings pleasure, and cessation of pleas­ure results in pain. Thus, pain is born in the womb of pleasure. Peace is born in the womb of war. Sorrow exists because the desire for hap­pi­ness exists. When the desire for happiness disappears, so does the sorrow. Sorrow is only a prelude to happiness and vice versa. Even the joy of going to heaven is followed by the sorrow of coming back to the earth; therefore, worldly objects should not be the main goal of human life. If one chooses material pleasures, it is like giving up nectar and choos­ing poison instead.

            Change is the law of nature— change from sum­mer to winter, from spring to fall, from the light of the full moon to the darkness of the new moon. Neither pain nor pleasure last forever. Pleasure comes after pain, and pain is followed again by pleasure. Reflecting like this, one must learn to tolerate the blows of time with patience and learn not only to endure, but also to expect, welcome, and enjoy both the joys as well as the sorrows of life. Sow the seed of hope in the soil of sorrow. Find your way in the darkness of the night of ad­versity with the torch of the scriptures and faith in God. There would be no opportunities if there were no problems. Destiny is born out of crisis. Einstein said: Opportunity lies in the middle of difficulties.

THE SELF IS ETERNAL, BODY IS TRANSITORY

n==s=t==e iv=6t=e B==v==e, n==B==v==e iv=6t=e s=t=/ +

WB=y==er< aip= d&{!=eCnt=s=<, tv=< an=y==es=< t=Tv=dòx=*iB=/ ++âê++

as=t=< v=st=u k:= a=ist=tv= n=hI] h=et==, a=Er s=t=< k:= a=ist=tv= h=et== hE. t=Tv=dx=I* m=n=u{y= (as=t=< a=Er s=t=<) d=en==e] k:=e t=Tv= s=e j==n=t=e h]E. (ä.âê)

There is no existence of the unreal or Asat and no nonexistence of the real or Sat. The reality of these two is indeed certainly seen by the seers of the Truth. (2.16)

            The Self exists everywhere and at all times — past, present, and future. The human body and the universe both have a temporary existence, but appear permanent at first sight. Webster defines Atman or Atma as the ‘World Soul’, from which all souls derive and the Supreme Abode to which they return. Atma is also called ‘Jivatma’ or ‘Jiva’, which is the ultimate source of all individual selves. We have used the English words: Self, Spirit, spirit, soul, or individual soul interchangeably for different aspects of Atma.

            Our physical body is subject to birth, growth, maturity, reproduction, decay, and death; whereas the Self is eternal, indestructible, pure, unique, all knower, substratum, unchangeable, self-luminous, the cause of all causes, all pervading, unaffectable, immutable, and inexplicable. The material body or the world is unreal and transitory; it undergoes changes, and the soul is real or  eternal.

aiv=n==òx= t=u t=d< iv=i3, y=en= s=v=*m=< wd] t=t=m=< +

iv=n==x=m=< avy=y=sy==sy=, n= k:ûxc=t=< k:t=*um=< ah*it= ++âë++

Ws= aiv=n==x=I t=Tv=, a=tm==, k:=e j==n==e ij=s=s=e y=h s==r= j=g=t=< vy==pt= hE, ws= aiv=n==x=I k:= n==x= k:rn=e m=e] k:=ew* B=I s=m=q=* n=hI] hE. (ä.âë)

The Spirit, by whom this entire universe is pervaded, is indestructible. No one can destroy the imperishable Spirit. (2.17)

 

ant=v=nt= wm=e deh=, in=ty=sy==ekt==/ x=rIir[=/ +

an==òx=n==eCp=>m=ey=sy=, t=sm==d< y=uQy=sv= B==rt= ++âè++

ws= aiv=n==x=I, as=Im=, a=Er in=ty= j=Iv==tm== ke: y=e s=b= x=rIr n==x=v==n=< k:he g=y=e h]E, ws=i]D=A he B=rt=v=]x=I aj=u*n=, t=um= y=u3 k:r=e. (ä.âè)

The physical bodies of the eternal, immutable, and incomprehensible Spirit are mortal. Spirit (Atma) is immortal. Therefore, as a warrior, you must fight, O Arjuna. (2.18)

y= An=] v=eiT= hnt==r], y=xc=En=] m=ny=t=e ht=m=< +

WB==E t==E n= iv=j==n=It==e, n==y=] hònt= n= hny=t=e ++âï++

**j==e ws= a=tm== k:=e m==rn=e v==D== y== m=rn=e v==D== m==n=t=e hE], v=e d=en==e] hI n==s=m=z= hE], ky==e]ik: a=tm== n= ik:s=I k:=e m==rt== hE, a=Er n= ik:s=I ke: 8=r= m==r= j== s=k:t== hE. (ä.âï)

One who thinks that the Spirit is a slayer, and one who thinks the Spirit is slain are both ignorant because the Spirit neither slays nor is slain. (2.19)

n= j==y=t=e im=>y=t=e v== k:d=ic=n=<

n==y=] B=Utv== B=iv=t== v== n= B=Uy=/ +

aj==e in=ty=/ x==xv=t==eCy=] p=ur=[==e

n= hny=t=e hny=m==n=e x=rIre ++äî++

**a=tm== k:B=I n= j=nm= D=et== hE a=Er n= m=rt== hI hE. a=tm== k:= h=en== if:r n= h=en== n=hI] h=et== hE. a=tm== aj=nm==, in=ty=, x==xv=t=, a=Er p=ur=t=n= hE. x=rIr ke: n==x= h=en=e p=r ws=k:= n==x= n=hI] h=et==. (ä.äî)

The Spirit is neither born, nor does it die at any time. It does not come into being nor cease to exist. It is unborn, eternal, permanent, and pri­me­val. The Spirit is not destroyed when the body is destroyed. (2.20)

v=ed=iv=n==òx=n=] in=ty=], y= An=m=< aj=m=< avy=y=m=< +

k:q=] s= p=uo{=/ p==q=*, k:} G==t=y=it= hònt= k:m=< ++äâ++

he p==q=*, j==e m=n=u{y= a=tm== k:=e aiv=n==x=I, in=ty=, j=nm=riht=, a=Er avy=y= j==n=t== hE, v=h kE:s=e ik:s=k:=e m=rv==y=eg==, a=Er kE:s=e ik:s=k:=e m==reg==? (ä.äâ)

O Arjuna, how can a person, who knows that the Spirit is indestructi­ble, eternal, unborn, and immutable, kill anyone or cause anyone to be killed? (2.21)

DEATH AND TRANSMIGRATION OF SOUL

v==s==]òs= j=I[==*in= y=q== iv=h=y=

n=v==in= g=&h<[==it= n=r=eCp=r=ò[= +

t=q== x=rIr=ò[= iv=h=y= j=I[==*ny=<

any==in= s=]y==it= n=v==in= dehI ++ää++

**j=Es=e m=n=u{y= ap=n=e p=ur=n=e v=sF==e] k:=e Wt==rk:r dUs=re n=y=e v=sF= Q==r[= k:rt== hE, v=Es=e hI j=Iv= m=&ty=u ke: b==d ap=n=e p=ur=n=e x=rIr k:=e ty==g=k:r dUs=r= n=y== x=rIr p=>=pt= k:rt== hE. (ä.ää)

Just as a person puts on new garments after discarding the old ones, similarly, the living entity or the individual soul acquires other new bodies after casting away the old bodies. (2.22)

            Just as a caterpillar takes hold of another object be­fore leaving an object, similarly, the living entity (or soul) obtains a new body before or after leav­ing the old one (BrU 4.4.03). The physical body has also been com­pared to a cage, a vehicle, an abode, as well as a garment of the sub­tle body that needs to be changed frequently. Death is the separa­tion of the subtle body from the physical body. The living entity is a traveler. Death is not the end of the jour­ney of the living entity. Death is like a rest area where the individual soul changes vehicles and the journey continues. Life is continuous and endless. Inevitable death is not the end of life; it is only an end of a perishable, physical body.

n=En=] ò%ndònt= x=sF==ò[=, n=En=] dhit= p==v=k:/ +

n= c=En=] kD=edy=nty==p==e, n= x==e{=y=it= m==ot=/ ++äà++

ac%e6=eCy=m=< ad=Ä=eCy=m=<, akD=e6=eCx==e{y= Av= c= +

in=ty=/ s=v=*g=t=/ sq==[=ur<, ac=D==eCy=] s=n==t=n=/ ++äå++

x=sF= ws= a=tm== k:=e k:=! n=hI] s=k:t=e, aign= ws=k:=e j=D== n=hI] s=k:t=I, j=D= ws=k:=e g=ID== n=hI] k:r s=k:t==, a=Er v==y=u ws=e s=uK== n=hI] s=k:t=I; ky==e]ik: a=tm== a%e6, ad=Ä, akD=e6, a=Er ax==e{y= hE. a=tm== in=ty=, s=v=*g=t=, isq=r, ac=D=, a=Er s=n==t=n= hE. (ä.äà-äå)

Weapons do not cut this Spirit, fire does not burn it, water does not make it wet, and the wind does not make it dry. The Spirit cannot be cut, burned, wet, or dried. It is eternal, all-pervading, changeless, immovable, and primeval. (Atma is beyond space and time.) (2.23-24)

avy=kt==eCy=m=< aic=nty==eCy=m=<, aiv=k:=y==e*Cy=m=< Wcy=t=e +

t=sm==d< Av=] iv=idtv=En=], n==n=ux==eic=t=um=< ah*òs= ++äç++

y=h a=tm== avy=kt=, aic=nty=, a=Er in=iv=*k:=r k:h= j==t== hE. at=/ a=tm== k:=e Aes== j==n=k:r t=umhe] x==ek: n=hI] k:rn== c==ihA. (ä.äç)

The Spirit is said to be unexplainable, incomprehensible, and immutable. Knowing the Spirit as such, you should not grieve for the physical body. (2.25)

            In the previous verses Krishna asked us not to worry about the indestructible spirit. A question may arise: Should one lament the death of (the destructible body of) our near and dear ones at all? The answer comes:

aq= c=En=] in=ty=j==t=], in=ty=] v== m=ny=s=e m=&t=m=< +

t=q==ip= tv=] m=h=b==h=e, n=Ev=]] x==eic=t=um=< ah*òs= ++äê++

j==t=sy= ih Q=>uv==e m=&ty=ur<, Q=>uv=]] j=nm= m=&t=sy= c= +

t=sm==d< ap=irh=y=e*Cq=e*, n= tv=] x==eic=t=uum=< ah*òs= ++äë++,

he m=h=b==h=e, y=id t=um= x=rIr (m=e] rhn=e v==l= j=Iv==tm==) k:=e in=ty= p=Ed= h=en=e v==D== t=q== m=rn=e v==D== B=I m==n==e, t==e B=I t=umhe] x==ek: n=hI] k:rn== c==ihA; ky==e]ik: j=nm= D=en=e v==D=e k:I m=&ty=u in=ixc=t= hE, a=Er m=rn=e v==D=e k:= j=nm= in=ixc=t= hE. at=/ j==e a!D= hE Ws=ke: iv={=y= m=e] t=umhe] x==ek: n=hI] k:rn== c==ihA. (ä.äê-äë)

Even if you think that the physical body takes birth and dies perpetually, even then, O Arjuna, you should not grieve like this because death is certain for one who is born, and birth is certain for one who dies. Therefore, you should not lament over the inevi­table death. (2.26-27)

            One should not lament the death of anybody at all. Lamentation is due to attachment, and attachment binds the individual soul to the wheel of transmigration. Therefore, the scriptures suggest one should not mourn, but pray for several days after the person’s death for salvation of the departed soul.

            The inevitability of death and indestructibility of the soul, however, does not and cannot justify lawful but unnecessary killing of any creature, unjust war, or even suicide. The Vedic scriptures are very clear on this point in regard to killing human beings or any other living entity. The scripture says: One should not commit violence towards anyone. Unauthorized killing is punishable in all circumstances: A life for life. Lord Krishna is urging Arjuna to fight ¾ but not to kill wantonly ¾ in order to establish peace and law and order on earth as a matter of a warrior’s duty.

avy=kt==dIin= B=Ut==in=, vy=kt=m=Qy==in= B==rt= +

avy=kt=in=Q=n==ny=ev=, t=F= k:= p=irdev=n== ++äè++

**he aj=u*n=, s=B=I p=>=[=I j=nm= s=e p=hD=e ap=>k:! q=e, a=Er m=&ty=u ke: b==d if:r ap=>k:! h=e j==y=e]g=e, ke:v=D= (j=nm= a=Er m=&ty=u ke:) b=Ic= m=e] p=>k:! dIK=t=e hE]; if:r ws=m=e] x==ek: k:rn=e k:I ky== b==t= hE? (ä.äè)

All beings are unmanifest (or invisible) to our physical eyes before birth and af­ter death. They manifest between birth and death only. What is there to grieve about? (2.28)

THE INDESTRUCTIBLE SPIRIT TRANSCENDS MIND AND SPEECH

a=xc=y=*v=t=< p=xy=it= k:ûxc=d< An=m=<

a=xc=y=*v=d< v=dit= t=q=Ev= c==ny=/ +

a=xc=y=*v=cc=En=m=< any=/ x=&[==eit=, ,

Xutv==py=en=] v=ed n= c=Ev= k:ûxc=t=< ++äï++

k:=ew* ws= a=tm== k:=e a=xc=y=* k:I t=rh deK=t== hE, k:=ew* ws=k:= a=xc=y=* k:I t=rh v=[=*n= k:rt== hE, k:=ew* ws=e a=xc=y=* k:I t=rh s=un=t== hE, a=Er k:=ew* ws=ke: b==re m=e] s=un=k:r B=I n=hI] s=m=z= p==t== hE. (ä.äï)

Some look upon this Spirit as a wonder, another describes it as won­der­ful, and others hear of it as a wonder. Even after hearing about it, very few people know what the Spirit is. (See also KaU 2.07) (2.29)

dehI in=ty=m=< av=Qy==eCy=], dehe s=v=*sy= B==rt= +

t=sm==t=< s=v==*ò[= B=Ut==in=, n= tv=] x==eic=t=um=< ah*òs= ++àî++

he aj=u*n=, s=b=ke: x=rIr m=e] rhn=e v==D== y=h a=tm== s=d= av=Qy= hE, ws=iD=A, ik:s=I B=I p=>=[=I ke: iD=A t=umhe] x==ek: n=hI] k:rn== c==ihA. (ä.àî)

O Arjuna, the Spirit that dwells in the body of all beings is eternally indestructible. Therefore, you should not mourn for anybody. (2.30)

LORD KRISHNA REMINDS ARJUNA OF THE DUTY OF A WARRIOR

sv=Q=m=*m=< aip= c==v=eZy=, n= iv=k:òmp=t=um=< ah*òs= +

Q=my==*ò3 y=u3=c%Mey==eCny=t=<, Z=iF=y=sy= n= iv=6t=e ++àâ++

a=Er ap=n=e sv=Q=m=* k:I d&i{! s=e B=I t=umhe] ap=n=e k:t=*vy= s=e iv=c=iD=t= n=hI] h=en== c==ihA; ky==e]ik: Z=iF=y= ke: iD=A Q=m=*y=u3 s=e b=$ªk:r dUs=r= k:=ew* k:Dy==[=k:=rI k:m=* n=hI] hE. (ä.àâ)

Considering also your duty as a warrior, you should not waver because there is nothing more auspicious for a warrior than a righteous war. (2.31)

y=d&c%y== c==ep=p=á], sv=g=*8=rm=< ap==v=&t=m=< +

s=uûK=n=/ Z=iF=y==/ p==q=*, D=B=nt=e y=u3m=< w*d&x=m=< ++àä++

he p=&q==n=ndn=, ap=n=ee-a=p= p=>=pt= hua= y=u3 sv=g=* ke: K=uD=e huA 8=r j=Es== hE, j==ee s==EB==gy=x==D=I Z=iF=y==e] k:=e hI p=>=pt= h=et== hE. (ä.àä)

Only the fortunate warriors, O Arjuna, get such an opportunity for a righteous war against evil that is like an open door to heaven. (2.32)

            The righteous war is not a religious war against the followers of other religions. The righteous war may be waged even against our own evil-doer kith and kin (RV 6.75.19). Life is a con­tinuous battle between the forces of evil and goodness. A valiant per­son must fight with the spirit of a warrior ¾ with a will and determination for victory ¾ and without any compromise with the forces of evil and difficulties. God helps the valiant who adhere to morality. Dharma (righteousness) protects those who protect Dharma (morality, justice, and righteousness).

            It is better to die for a right cause and acquire the grace of sacrifice than to die an ordinary but compulsory death. The gates of heaven open wide for those who stand up to vindicate justice and righteousness (Dharma). Not to oppose an evil is to indirectly support it. Very similar ideas are expressed in other scriptures of the world. The Koran says: Allah loves those who battle for His cause in ranks (Surah 61.04). The Bible says: Happy are those who suffer persecution because they do what God requires. The kingdom of heaven belongs to them (MATTHEW 5.10). There is no sin in killing an aggressor. Whosoever helps and supports an aggressor is also an aggressor. Thus, all those who supported Kauravas were basically aggressors and deserved to be eliminated.

aq= c=et=< tv=m=< wm=] Q=my=*]*], s=]g=>=m=] n= k:ir{y=òs= +

t=t=/ sv=Q=m=*] k:Iit=*] c=, ihtv== p==p=m=< av==psy=òs= ++àà++

a=Er y=id t=um= ws= Q=m=*y=u3 k:=e n=hI] k:r=eg=e, t=b= ap=n=e sv=Q=m=* a=Er k:Iit=* k:=e K==ek:r p==p= k:=e p=>=pt= h=eg=e. (ä.àà)

If you will not fight this battle of good over evil, you will fail in your duty, lose your reputation as a warrior, and incur sin (by not doing your duty). (2.33)

ak:Iit=*] c==ip= B=Ut==in=, k:q=iy={y=ònt= t=eCvy=y==m=< +

s=]B==iv=t=sy= c==k:Iit=*r<, m=r[==d< ait=ircy=t=e ++àå++

t=q== s=b= D==eg= b=hut= idn==e] t=k: t=umh=rI ap=k:Iit=* k:I c=c==* k:re]g=e. s=mm==in=t= vy=ikt= ke: iD=A ap=m==n= m=&ty=u s=e B=I b=$ªk:r hE. (ä.àå)

People will talk about your disgrace for a long time. To the honorable, dishonor is worse than death. (2.34)

B=y==d< r[==d< Wp=rt=], m=]sy=nt=e tv==] m=h=rq==/ +

y=e{==] c= tv=] b=hum=t==e, B=Utv== y==sy=òs= D==G=v=m=< ++àç++

m=h=rq=I D==eg= t=umhe] #rk:r y=u3 s=e B==g== hua= m==n=e]g=e, a=Er ij=n=ke: iD=A t=um= b=hut= m==n=n=Iy= h=e, Wn=k:I d&i{! s=e t=um= n=Ic=e ig=r j==a=eg=e. (ä.àç)

The great warriors will think that you have retreated from the battle out of fear. Those who have greatly esteemed you will lose respect for you. (2.35)

av==cy=v==d=]xc= b=hUn=<, v=id{y=ònt= t=v==iht==/ +

in=ndnt=s=< t=v= s==m=qy=*], t=t==e du/K=t=r] n=uu òk:m=<< ++àê++,

t=umh=re v=ErI D==eg= t=umh=rI s==m=qy=* k:I in=nd= k:rt=e huA t=umh=rI b=hut= b=ur=w* k:re]g=e. t=umh=re iD=A ws=s=e aiQ=k: du/K=d=y=I a=Er ky== h=eg==? (ä.àê)

Your enemies will speak many unmentionable words and scorn your ability. What could be more painful to you than this? (2.36)

ht==e v== p=>=psy=òs= sv=g=*], òj=tv== v== B==eZy=s=e m=hIm=< +,

t=sm==d< WiT={@ k:=Ent=ey=, y=u3=y= k&:t=in=xc=y=/ ++àë++

y=u3 m=e] m=rk:r t=um= sv=g=* j==a=eeg=e y== iv=j=y=I h=ek:r p=&qv=I k:= r=jy= B==eg==eg=e; ws=iD=A he k:=Ent=ey=, t=um= y=u3 ke: iD=A in=xc=y= k:rke: K=#ªe h=e j==a=e. (ä.àë)

You will go to heaven if killed in the line of duty, or you will enjoy the kingdom on the earth if victori­ous. No matter what happens, you win. Therefore, get up with a determination to fight, O Arjuna. (2.37)

s=uK=du/K=e s=m=e k&:tv==, D==B==D==B==E j=y==j=y==E +

t=t==e y=u3=y= y=ujy=sv=, n=Ev=] p==p=m=< av==psy=òs= ++àè++

**s=uK=-du/K=, D==B=-h=in=, a=Er j=It=-h=r k:I ic=nt== n= k:rke: m=n=u{y= k:=e ap=n=I x=ikt= ke: an=us==r k:t=*vy=-k:m=* k:rn== c==ihA. Aes=e B==v= s=e k:m=* k:rn=e p=r m=n=u{y= k:=ee p==p= (aq==*t=< k:m=* k:= b=nQ=n=) n=hI] D=g=t==. (ä.àè)

Treating pleasure and pain, gain and loss, and victory and defeat alike, en­gage yourself in your duty. By doing your duty this way, you will not incur any sin. (2.38)

            Lord Krishna says here that even the violence done in the line of duty with a proper frame of mind, as discussed in the above verse, is sinless. This is the starting verse of the theory of KarmaYoga, the main theme of the Gita.

            The wise should wholeheartedly welcome pleasure and pain, joy and sorrow, without becoming discouraged (MB 12.174.39). Two types of people are happy in this world: those who are completely ignorant and those who are truly wise. All others are unhappy (MB 12.174.33).

THE SCIENCE OF KARMA-YOGA, THE SELFLESS ACTION

A{== t=eCiB=iht== s==]Ky=e, b=ui3r< y==eg=e tv=< wm==] x=&[=u +

b=u3Y=, y=ukt==e y=y== p==q=*, k:m=*b=nQ=] p=>h=sy=òs= ++àï++

he p==q=*, m=E]n=e s==]Ky=m=t= k:= y=h N=n= t=um= s=e k:h=, ab= k:m=*y==eg= k:= iv={=y= s=un==e, ij=s= N=n= s=e y=ukt= h=ek:r t=um= k:m=* ke: b=]Q=n= s=e m=ukt= h=e j==a=eg=e. (ä.àï)

The science of transcendental knowledge has been im­parted to you, O Arjuna. Now listen to the science of God-dedicated, selfless action (Seva), en­dowed with which you will free yourself from Karmic bondage, or sin. (2.39)

n=eh=iB=k>:m=n==x==eCòst=, p=>ty=v==y==e n= iv=6t=e +

sv=Dp=m=< apy=< asy= Q=m=*sy=, F==y=t=e m=ht==e B=y==t=< ++åî++

k:m=*y==eg= m=e] a=rmB= aq==*t=< b=Ij= k:= n==x= hI n=hI] h=et==, t=q== WD!= f:D= B=I n=hI] im=D=t== hE. ws= in={k:=m= k:m=*y==eg=Op=I Q=m=* k:= q==e#ª=-s== aBy==s= B=I (j=nm=-m=r[=Op=I) m=h=n=< duK= s=e rZ== k:rt== hE. (ä.åî)

No effort ever goes to waste in selfless service, and there is no adverse effect. Even a lit­tle practice of this discipline protects one from great trouble of birth and death. (2.40)

            The selfless action is also called Seva, KarmaYoga, sacrifice, yoga of work, science of proper action, and yoga of equanimity. A KarmaYogi works with love for the Lord as a matter of duty without a desire for the fruits of work or attachment to the results, and becomes free from all fear. The word Karma also means duty, ac­tion, deeds, work, endeavor, or the results of past deeds.

vy=v=s==y==òtm=k:= b=ui3r<, Ake:h ku:on=ndn= +

b=hux==K== Ä< an=nt==xc=, b=u3y==eCvy=v=s==iy=n==m=< ++åâ++

he aj=u*n=, k:m=*y==eg=I ke:v=D= w*xv=rp=>=ipt= k:= hI d&$ª in=xc=y= k:rt== hE; p=rnt=u s=k:=m= m=n=u{y==e] k:I wc%=y=e] an=ek: a=Er an=nt= h=et=I hE]. (ä.åâ)

A selfless worker has resolute determination only for God-realization, but the desires of one who works to enjoy the fruits of work are endless, which makes the mind unsteady. (2.41)

THE VEDAS DEAL WITH BOTH MATERIAL AND SPIRITUAL ASPECTS OF LIFE

y==m=< wm==] p=uû{p=t=]= v==c=], p=>v=dnty=< aiv=p=ûxc=t=/ +

v=edv==drt==/ p==q=**, n==ny=d< ast=Iit= v==idn=/ ++åä++

he p==q=*, s=k:=m=I aiv=v=ek:Ij=n= ij=nhe] v=ed ke: m=Q=ur s=]g=It=m=y=I v==[=I s=e p=>em= hE, (v=ed k:=e y=q==q=* Op= s=e n=hI] s=m=z=n=e ke: k:=r[=) Aes== s=m=z=t=e hE] ik: v=ed m=e] B==eg==ee] ke: is=v== a=Er ku:% hE hI n=hI]. (ä.åä)

The misguided ones who delight in the melodious chanting of the Vedas ¾ without understanding the spiritual meaning of the Vedas ¾ think, O Arjuna, there is nothing else in the Vedas except the rituals for the sole purpose of obtaining heavenly enjoyment. (2.42)

k:=m==tm==n=/ sv=g=*p=r=, j=nm=k:m=*f:D=p=>d=m=< +,

òk>:y==iv=x=e{=b=huD==], B==eg=Exv=y=*g=it=] p=>it= ++åà++

v=e k:=m=n==a=e] s=e y=ukt=, sv=g=* k:=e hI Xe{@ m==n=n=e v==D=e, B==eg= a=Er Q=n= k:=e p=>=pt= k:r=n=e v==D=I an=ek: Q==im=*k: s=]sk:=r=e] k:=e b=t==t=e hE] j==e p=un=j=*nm=Op=I k:m=*f:D= k:=e den=e v==D=I h=et=I hE. (ä.åà)

They are dominated by material desires and consider the attainment of heaven as the highest goal of life. They engage in specific rites for the sake of material prosperity and enjoyment. Rebirth is the result of their action. (2.43)

B==eg=Exv=y=*p=>s=kt==n==], t=y==p=Åt=c=et=s==m=< +

vy=v=s==y==òtm=k:= b=ui3/, s=m==Q==E n= iv=Q=Iy=t=e ++åå++

B==eg= a=Er Aexv=y=* n=e ij=n=k:= ic=T= hr iD=y== hE, Aes=e vy=ikt= ke: ant=/k:r[= m=e] B=g=v=t=< p=>=ipt= k:= d&$ª in=xc=y= n=hI] h=et== hE, a=Er v=e p=rm==tm== k:= Qy==n= n=hI] k:r s=k:t=e hE]. (ä.åå)

The resolute determination for God-realization in trance is not possible for those who are attached to pleasure and power and whose judgment is obscured by ritualistic activities for fulfillment of material desires. (2.44)

            Self-realization is to know one’s relationship with the Supreme Lord and His true transcendental nature. The promise of material benefits of Vedic rituals is like the promise of candy to a child by the mother to induce him or her to take the medicine of detachment from the material life; it is neces­sary in most instances. Rituals must be changed with time and backed up by devotion and good deeds. People may pray and meditate anytime, anywhere, without any ritual. Rituals have played a great role in spiritual life, but they have been greatly abused. Lord Krishna and Lord Buddha both disapproved the misuse of Vedic rituals, not the ritu­als as such. Rituals create a holy and blissful atmosphere. They are regarded as a heavenly ship (RV 10.63.10) and criticized as a frail raft (MuU 1.2.07).

F=Eg=u[y=iv={=y== v=ed=, in=sF=Eg=u[y==e B=v==j=*un= +

in=8*n8=e in=ty=s=Tv=sq==e, in=y==e*g=Z=em= a=tm=v==n=< ++åç++

he aj=u*n=, v=ed=e] (ke: k:m=*k:=[#) k:= iv={=y= p=>k&:it= ke: t=In= g=u[==e] s=e s=mb=inQ=t= hE; t=um= iF=g=u[==t=It=, in=8*n8, p=rm==tm== m=e] isq=t=, y==eg=Z=em= n= c==hn=e v==D=e, a=Er a=tm=p=r=y=[= b=n==e. (ä.åç)

A portion of the Vedas deals with three modes — goodness, passion, and ignorance — of material Nature. Rise above these three modes, and be ever Self-conscious. Become free from the tyranny of pairs of opposites. Remain tranquil and unconcerned with the thoughts of acquisition and preservation of material objects. (2.45)

y==v==n=q=* Wdp==n=e, s=v=*t=/ s=]pD=ut==edke: +

t==v==n=< s=v=e*{=u v=ede{=u, b=>=É[=sy= iv=j==n=t=/ ++åê++

b=>É k:=e t=Tv= s=e j==n=n=e v==D==e] ke: iD=A v=ed=e] k:I Wt=n=I hI a=v=xy=k:t== rht=I hE ij=t=n== m=h=n=< s=r=ev=r ke: p=>=pt= h=en=ep=r Ak: %=e!e j=D==x=y= k:I. (ä.åê)

To the enlightened person, who has realized the true nature of the Self within, the Vedas become as useful as a small reservoir of water when the water of a huge lake becomes available. (2.46)

            A scripture is like a finite pond that derives its water from the infinite ocean of Truth. Therefore, scriptures become unnec­essary only after enlightenment in much the same way that a reservoir of water has no use when one is surrounded by floodwater. One who has realized the Supreme Being will not desire the attainment of heaven mentioned as the fruits of performing Vedic rituals. Scriptures, such as the Vedas, are necessary means, but not the end. Scriptures are meant to lead and guide us on the spiritual path. Once the goal is reached, they have served their purpose.

THEORY AND PRACTICE OF KARMAYOGA

k:m=*[y=ev==iQ=k:=rst=e, m== f:D=e{=u k:d=c=n= +

m== k:m=*f:D=het=ur< B=Ur<, m== t=e s=V<g==eCstv=< ak:m=*ò[= ++åë++

**ke:v=D= k:m=* k:rn== hI m=n=u{y= ke: v=x= m=e] hE, k:m=*f:D= n=hI]. ws=iD=A t=um= k:m=*f:D= k:I a=s=ikt= m=e] n= f:]s==e, t=q== ap=n=e k:m=* k:= ty==g= B=I n= k:r=e. (ä.åë)

You have control over doing your respective duty only, but no control or claim over the results. To enjoy the fruits of work should not be your motive, and you should never be inactive. (2.47)

            This key verse of the Gita has confused some commentators and common people who interpret it to mean that one should work without expecting a fruit. This would mean that Lord Krishna should not expect Arjuna to understand and follow His teachings! No one can perform action without expecting some result. This verse means that one should not expect only favorable results of your choice and should accept all results as Prasada (Grace) from God. This is called Prasada Buddhi, BuddhiYoga or KarmaYoga.

            The right outlook on life develops when we fully understand that we have the ability to put our best effort into all endeavors, but we cannot pick the results of our work. We have absolutely no control over all the factors that determine the results. The affairs of the world would not run if all were given the power to choose the results of their ac­tions or to satisfy all their desires. One is given the power and the ability to do one’s respective duty in life, but one is not free to choose the desired results. To work without ex­pecting success or good results would be meaningless, but to be fully prepared for the unexpected should be an important part of any plan­ning. Swami Karmananda says: The essence of KarmaYoga is to go to work just to please the creator; mentally re­nounce the fruits of all action; and let God take care of the results. Do your duty in life ¾ to the best of your ability ¾ as God’s personal ser­vant without any regard for the personal enjoyment of the fruits of your work.

            Fear of failure, caused by being emotionally attached to the fruits of work, is the greatest impediment to success be­cause it robs efficiency by constantly disturbing equanimity of mind. Therefore, duty should be performed with detached attach­ment. Success in any undertaking becomes easier if one works hard without being bothered by the outcome. Work is done more efficiently when the mind is not bothered continuously — consciously or subconsciously —  with the outcome, good or bad, of an action.

            One has to dis­cover this fact personally in life. A person should work without any mo­tive as a matter of duty for a greater cause of helping human­ity rather than just helping oneself, one’s children, or a few individuals. Equanimity and spiri­tual progress result from selfless service, whereas work with selfish motives create the bonds of Karma as well as great disappointments. Dedicated selfless service for a greater cause leads to everlasting peace and happiness here and hereafter.

            The boundary of one’s jurisdiction ends with the completion of duty; it never crosses the garden of fruit. A hunter has control over the arrow only, never over the deer. Harry Bhalla says: A farmer has control over how he works his land, yet no control over the harvest. But he cannot expect a harvest if he does not work his land.

            When one has no desire for the pleasure of victory, one is not affected by the pain of de­feat. Questions of the pleasure of success or the pain of failure do not arise because a KarmaYogi is always on the path of service without waiting to enjoy the fruit or even the flower of work. He or she has learned to enjoy the joy of service. The myopia of short-term, personal gain, caused by ignorance of metaphysics, is the root of all evils in society and the world. The bird of righteousness cannot be con­fined in the cage of personal gain. Dharma and selfishness cannot stay together.

            The desire for fruit takes one to the dark alley of sin and prevents one’s real growth. Acting only in one’s own self-interest is sinful. The welfare of the individual lies in the welfare of society. The wise work for all of society, whereas the ig­norant work only for themselves or their children and grandchildren. One who knows the Truth does not let the shadow of personal gain fall on the path of duty. The secret art of living a meaningful life is to be intensely active without any motive, as stated below: 

y==eg=sq=/ ku:o k:m==*ò[=, s=V<g=] ty=ktv== Q=n=]j=y= +

òs=3Yòs=3Y=e/ s=m==e B=Utv==, s=m=tv=] y==eg= Wcy=t=e ++åè++

**he Q=n=]j=y=, p=rm==tm== ke: Qy==n= a=Er ic=nt=n= m=e] isq=t= h=ek:r; s=B=I p=>k:=r k:I a=s=ikt=y==e] k:=e ty==g=k:r; t=q== s=f:D=t== a=Er as=f:D=t== m=e] s=m= h=ek:r; ap=n=e k:t=*vy=k:m==e*] k:= B=D=IB==]it= p==D=n= k:r=e. m=n= k:= s=m=tv= B==v= m=e] rhn== hI k:m=*y==eg= k:hD==t== hE. (ä.åè)

Do your duty to the best of your ability, O Arjuna, with your mind at­tached to the Lord, abandoning attachment to the results, and remaining calm in both success and failure. Equanimity of mind is called KarmaYoga (because it leads to union with God). (See also 6.03-04) (2.48)

            KarmaYoga is defined as doing one’s duty while maintaining equanimity under all circumstances. Pain and pleasure, birth and death, loss and gain, union and separation are inevitable, being under the control of one’s past deeds or Karma, like the coming of day and night. Fools rejoice in prosperity and mourn in adversity, but a KarmaYogi remains tranquil under all circumstances (TR 2.149.03-04). The word ‘yoga’ has also been defined in the following verses of the Gita: 2.50, 2.53, 6.04, 6.08, 6.19, 6.23, 6.29, 6.31, 6.32, and 6.47. Any practical technique of understanding the Supreme Reality and uniting with Him is called spiritual practice, or yoga.

dUre[= Äv=r] k:m=*, b=ui3y==eg==d< Q=n=]j=y= +

b=u3=E x=r[=m=< aònv=c%, k&:p=[==/ f:D=het=v=/ ++åï++

k:m=*y==eg= s=e s=k:=m=k:m=* aty=nt= in=k&:{! hE; at=/ he aj=u*n=, t=um= k:m=*y==eg=I b=n==e, ky==e]ik: f:D= k:I wc%= rK=n=e v==D==e] k:=e (as=f:D=t== k:= B=y= t=q==) du/K= h=et== hE. (ä.åï)

Work done with selfish motives is inferior by far to selfless service. Therefore, be a selfless worker, O Arjuna. Those who work only to enjoy the fruits of their labor are unhappy (because one has no control over the results). (See also 2.48, 6.03, 10.10, and 18.57 ) (2.49)

b=ui3y=ukt==e j=h=t=Ih, WB=e s=uk&:t=du{k&:t=e +

t=sm==d< y==eg==y= y=ujy=sv=, y==eg=/ k:m=*s=u k:=Ex=D=m=< ++çî++

**k:m=*f:D= k:I a=s=ikt= ty==g=k:r k:m=* k:rn=e v==D== in={k:=m= k:m=*y==eg=I ws=I j=Iv=n= m=e] p==p= a=Er p=u[y= s=e m=ukt= h=e j==t== hE, ws=iD=A t=um= in={k:=m= k:m=*y==eg=I b=n==e. (f:D= k:I a=s=ikt= s=e as=f:D=t== k:= B=y= h=et== hE, ij=s=ke: k:=r[= k:m=* ac%I t=rh n=hI] h=e p==t== hE.) in={k:=m= k:m=*y==eg= k:=e hI ku:x=D=t== p=Uv=*k: k:m=* k:rn== k:ht=e hE]. (ä.çî)

A KarmaYogi or the selfless person becomes free from both vice and virtue in this life itself. Therefore, strive for selfless service. Working to the best of one’s abili­ties without becoming attached to the fruits of work is called KarmaYoga or Seva. (2.50)

            Peace, composure, and freedom from Karmic bond­age await those who work for a noble cause with a spirit of detach­ment and do not seek any personal reward or recognition. Such per­sons enjoy the joy of selfless service that ultimately leads them to the bliss of salvation. KarmaYoga purifies the mind and is a very powerful and easy spiritual discipline that one can practice while living and working in society. There is no religion better than selfless service. The fruits of vice and virtue grow only on the tree of selfishness, not on the tree of selfless service.

            Generally, it is thought that one works harder when one is deeply interested in, or attached to, the fruits of work. Therefore, KarmaYoga or selfless service may not be very conducive to the material progress of the individual or society. This dilemma can be solved by developing a hobby of selfless service to a noble cause of one’s choice, never letting greed for the fruits dilute the purity of action. Dexterity or skillfulness in work lies in not getting bound by the bonds of one’s Karma or worldly duty.

k:m=*j=] b=ui3y=ukt== ih, f:D=] ty=ktv== m=n=Ii{=[=/ +

j=nm=b=nQ=iv=in=m=*ukt==/, p=d] g=c%nty=< an==m=y=m=< ++çâ++

N=n=I k:m=*y==eg=Ij=n= k:m=*f:D= k:I a=s=ikt= k:=e ty==g=k:r j=nm=-m=r[= ke: b=]Q=n= s=e m=ukt= h=e j==t=e hE], t=q== p=rm= x==int= k:=e p=>=pt= k:rt=e hE]. (ä.çâ)

KarmaYogis are freed from the bondage of rebirth due to renouncing (attachment to) the fruits of all work and they attain a blissful divine state of salvation or Nirvana. (2.51)

y=d= t=e m==ehk:òD=D=], b=ui3r< vy=it=t=ir{y=it= +

t=d= g=nt==òs= in=v=e*d], X=et=vy=sy= Xut=sy= c= ++çä++

j=b= t=umh=rI b=ui3 m==ehOp=I dD=dD= k:=e p==r k:r j==y=g=I, Ws= s=m=y= t=um= x==sF= s=e s=un=e huA t=q== s=un=n=e y==egy= v=st=ua=e] s=e B=I v=Er=gy= p=>=pt= k:r=eg=e. (ä.çä)

When your intellect will completely overcome the mire of delusion (regarding Self and non-Self), then you will become indifferent to what has been heard and what is yet to be heard (from the scriptures). (2.52)

            Scriptures become dispensable after enlightenment. According to Shankara, this verse means one who has completely removed the veil of ignorance and realized the Truth, becomes indiffer­ent to the Vedic texts that prescribe details of performing rituals for the attainment of desired fruits.

Xuit=iv=p=>it=p=á= t=e, y=d= sq==sy=it= in=xc=D== +

s=m==Q==v=c=D== b=ui3s=<, t=d= y==eg=m=< av==psy=òs= ++çà++

j=b= an=ek: p=>k:=r ke: p=>v=c=n==e] k:=e s=un=n=e s=e iv=c=iD=t= huw* t=umh=rI b=ui3 p=rm==tm== ke: sv=Op= m=e] in=xc=D= Op= s=e isq=r h=e j==y=g=I, Ws= s=m=y= t=um= s=m==iQ= m=e] p=rm==tm== s=e y=ukt= h=e j==a=eg=e. (ä.çà)

When your mind, which is confused by hearing conflicting opinions and doctrines, shall stay steady and firm on the Supreme Being, then you shall become united with God in deep meditation. (2.53)

            Non-scriptural reading or reading of different philosophical writings is bound to create confusion. Ramakrishna said: “One should learn from the scriptures that God alone is real and the world is illusory.” A beginner should know that only God is eternal and everything else is temporal. After Self-awareness, one finds God alone has become everything. Everything is His manifestation. He is sport­ing in various forms. In trance, or the superconscious state of mind, the confusion arising from conflicting views ceases, and mental equipoise is attained.

            Different schools of thought, cults, systems of phi­losophy, ways of worship, and spiritual practices found in the Vedic culture are different rungs in the ladder of yoga. Such a wide choice of methods does not exist in any other system, religion, or way or life. People’s tempera­ments are different due to differences in their stages of spiritual development and understanding. Therefore, different schools of thought are necessary to suit different individuals, as well as the same individual as he or she grows and de­velops. The highest philosophy of pure monism is the topmost rung of the ladder. The vast majority cannot comprehend it. All schools and cults are necessary. One should not be confused because different methods are not meant to confuse, but one should choose wisely.

aj=u*n= Wv==c=

òsq=t=p=>Nsy= k:= B=={==, s=m==iQ=sq=sy=, ke:x=v= +

òsq=t=Q=I/ ik]: p=>B=={=et=, òk:m=< a=s=It= v=>j=et= òk:m=< ++çå++

aj=u*n= b==eD=e¾ he ke:x=v=, s=m==iQ= p=>=pt=, isq=r b=ui3 v==D=e, aq==*t=< òsq=t=p=>N m=n=u{y= k:= ky== D=Z=[= hE? isq=r b=ui3 v==D== m=n=u{y= kE:s=e b==eD=t== hE, kE:s=e b=E@t== hE, a=Er kE:s=e c=D=t== hE. (ä.çå)

Arjuna said: O Krishna, what are the marks of an enlightened person whose intellect is steady? What does a person of steady intellect think and talk about? How does such a person behave with others, and live in this world? (2.54)

            The answers to all of the above questions are given by Lord Krishna in the remaining verses of this chapter.

MARKS OF A SELF-REALIZED PERSON

XIB=g=v==n=uv==c=

p=>j=h=it= y=d= k:=m==n=<, s=v==*n=< p==q=* m=n==eg=t==n=< +

a=tm=ny=ev=< a=tm=n== t=u{!/, òsq=t=p=>Ns=< t=d=ecy=t=e ++çç++,

XIB=g=v==n=< b==eD=e¾ he p==q=*, ij=s= s=m=y= s==Q=k: ap=n=e m=n= k:I s=mp=U[=* k:=m=n==a=e] k:=e p=U[=*Op= s=e ty==g= det== hE, a=Er a=tm== m=e] a=tm==n=nd s=e hI s=nt=u{! rht== hE, Ws= s=m=y= v=h isq=t=p=>N k:hD==t== hE. (ä.çç)

Lord Krishna said: When one is completely free from all desires of the mind and is satisfied with the bliss of knowing the Supreme Being, then one is called an enlightened person, O Arjuna. (2.55)

            According to mother Sarda, desires for knowledge, devotion, and salvation cannot be classed as desires because they are higher desires. One should first replace the lower desires with higher desires and then renounce the highest desires also and be­come absolutely free. It is said that the highest freedom is the freedom from becoming free.

du/K=e{v=< an=ui8gn=m=n==/, s=uK=e{=u iv=g=t=sp=&h/ +

v=It=r=g=B=y=k>:=eeQ=/, òsq=t=Q=Ir< m=uin=r< Wcy=t=e ++çê++

**du/K= s=e ij=s=k:= m=n= Wi8gn= n=hI] h=et==, s=uK= k:I ij=s=k:I a=k:=]Z== n=hI] h=et=I, t=q== ij=s=ke: m=n= s=e r=g=, B=y=, a=Er k>:=eQ= n={! h=e g=y=e hE], Aes== m=uin= òsq=t=p=>N k:h= j==t== hE. (ä.çê)

A person is called an enlightened sage of steady intellect whose mind is unperturbed by adversity, who does not crave pleasures, and who is completely free from attachment, fear, and anger. (2.56)

            Attachment to people, places, and objects takes away the intellect, and one becomes myopic. People are help­lessly tied with the rope of attachment. One has to learn to cut this rope with the sword of knowledge of the Absolute and become detached and free.

y=/ s=v=*F==n=òB=sn=ehs=<, t=t=< t=t=< p=>=py= x=uB==x=uB=m=< +

n==òB=n=ndit= n= 8eò{!, t=sy= p=>N= p=>it=ò{@t== ++çë++

ij=s=e ik:s=I B=I v=st=u m=e] a=s=ikt= n= h=e, j==ee x=uB= k:=e p=>=pt=k:r p=>s=á n= h=e, a=Er ax=uB= s=e 8e{= n= k:re, Ws=k:I b=ui3 isq=r hE. (ä.çë)

The mind and intellect become steady in a person who is not attached to anything, who is neither elated by get­ting desired results nor perturbed by undesired results. (2.57)

            True spiritualists have a peaceful and happy look on their faces under all circumstances.

y=d= s=]hrt=e c==y=], kU:m==e*CV<g==n=Iv= s=v=*x=/ +

wòn7y==[=Iòn7y==q=e*By=s=<, t=sy= p=>N= p=>it=û{@t== ++çè++,

j=b= s==Q=k: s=b= a=er s=e ap=n=I win7y==e] k:=e iv={=y==e] s=e ws= t=rh h!= D=e j=Es=e k:%ua= (9v=p=iT= ke: s=m=y= ap=n=I rZ== ke: iD=A) ap=n=e a]g==e] k:=e s=m=e! D=et== hE, t=b= Ws=k:I b=ui3 isq=r s=m=z=n=I c==ihA. (ä.çè)

When one can completely withdraw the senses from sense objects, as a tortoise withdraws its limbs into the shell for protection from calamity, then the intellect of such a person is considered steady. (2.58)

            When a person learns to control or withdraw the senses from sense objects, as a tortoise retracts its limbs inside its shell in time of danger and cannot be forced to extend its limbs again until the trouble is over, the lamp of Self-knowledge becomes lighted, and one perceives the self-effulgent Supreme Being within (MB 12.174.51). A Self-realized person enjoys the beauty of the world, keeping the senses under complete control like a tortoise. The best way to purify the senses and control them perfectly like a tortoise, is to engage them in the service of God at all times.

iv={=y== iv=in=v=t=*nt=e, in=r=h=rsy= deihn=/ +

rs=v=j=*] rs==eCpy=sy=, p=r] d&{!<v== in=v=t=*t=e ++çï++

win7y==e] k:=e iv={=y==e] s=e h!=n=e v==D=e m=n=u{y= s=e iv={=y==e] k:I wc%= t==e h! B=I j==t=I hE, p=rnt=u iv={=y==e] k:I a=s=ikt= dUr n=hI] h=et=I. p=rm==tm== ke: sv=Op= k:=e (t==rt=my= iv=6= 8=r=) B=D=IB==]it= s=m=z=k:r isq=t=p=>N m=n=u{y= (iv={=y==e] k:I) a=s=ikt= s=e B=I dUr h=e j==t== hE. (ä.çï)

The desire for sensual pleasures fades away if one abstains from sense enjoyment, but the craving for sense enjoyment remains in a very subtle form. This subtle crav­ing also completely disappears from one who knows the Supreme Being. (2.59)

            The desire for sensual pleasure becomes dormant when one abstains from sense enjoyment, or incurs physical limita­tions imposed by disease or old age. But the craving remains as a subtle mental impression. Those who have tasted the nectar of unity with the Supreme Being no longer find enjoy­ment in the lower-level sensual pleasures. The subtle craving lurks like a robber ready to rob the striver at the appropriate opportunity, as explained below:

DANGERS OF UNRESTRAINED SENSES

y=t=t==e Äip= k:=Ent=ey=, p=uo{=sy= iv=p=ûxc=t=/ +

wòn7y==ò[= p=>m==q=Iin=, hrònt= p=>s=B=] m=n=/ ++êî++

**he ku:nt=In=ndn=, s=]y=m= k:= p=>y=tn= k:rt=e huA N=n=I m=n=u{y= ke: m=n= k:=e B=I c=]c=D= wòn7y==] b=D=p=Uv=*k: hr D=et=I hE]. (ä.êî)

Restless senses, O Arjuna, forcibly carry away the mind of even a wise person striving for perfection. (2.60)

            The wise always keep vigilance over the mind. The mind can never be fully trusted. It can mislead even a Self-realized person (BP 5.06.02-05). One has to be very alert and closely witness the wanderings of the mind. Never relax your vigilance until the final goal of God-realization is reached. Mother Sarda said: It is the very nature of the mind to go to lower objects of enjoyment, just as it is the nature of water to flow downwards. The grace of God can make the mind go towards higher objects, just as the sun’s rays lift the water to the sky.

            The human mind is ever ready to deceive and play tricks. Therefore, discipline, constant vigilance, and sincere spiritual practice are needed. The mind is like an unruly horse that needs to be broken in. Never let the mind roam unwatched into the realm of sensuality. The path of spiritual life is very slippery and has to be trodden very care­fully to avoid falls. It is not a joyous ferryboat ride, but a very diffi­cult path to tread like the sharp edge of a sword. Many obstacles, dis­tractions, and failures come on the path to help the devotee become stronger and more advanced on the path, just like iron is turned into steel by alternate heating, cooling, and hammering. One should not get discouraged by failures, but carry on with determination.

t==in= s=v==*ò[= s=]y=my=, y=ukt= a=s=It= m=tp=r/ +

v=x=e ih y=sy=eòn7y==ò[=, t=sy= p=>N= p=>it=ò{@t== ++êâ++

**ws=iD=A s==Q=k: ap=n=I s=mp=U[=* wòn7y==e] k:=e v=x= m=e] k:rke:, m=uz= m=e] X3=p=Uv=*k: Qy==n= D=g==k:r b=E@e; ky==e]ik: ij=s=k:I wòn7y==] v=x= m=e] h=et=I h]E, Ws=I k:I b=ui3 isq=r h=et=I hE. (ä.êâ)

One should sit with mind firmly focused on Me as the Supreme goal after bringing the senses under control. One’s intellect becomes steady when one’s senses are under control. (2.61)

Qy==y=t==e iv={=y==n=< p=u]s=/, s=V<g=s=< t=e{=Up=j==y=t=e +

s=V<g==t=< s=]j==y=t=e k:=m=/, k:=m==t=< k>:=eQ==eCiB=j==y=t=e ++êä++

**iv={=y==e] k:= ic=nt=n= k:rn=e s=e iv={=y==e] m=]e a=s=ikt= h=et=I hE; a=s=ikt= s=e (iv={=y==e] ke: s=ev=n= k:rn=e k:I) wc%= Wtp=á h=et=I hE, a=Er wc%= (p=UrI n=hI}]] h=en=ee) s=e k>:=eQ= h=et== hE. (ä.êä)

One develops attachment to sense objects by thinking about sense ob­jects. Desire for sense objects comes from attachment to sense objects, and anger comes from unfulfilled desires. (2.62)

k>:=eQ==d< B=v=it= s=]m==eh/, s=]m==eh=t=< sm=&it=iv=B=>m=/ +

sm=&it=B=>]x==d< b=ui3n==x==e, b=ui3n==x==t=< p=>[=xy=it= ++êà++

**k>:=eQ= s=e s=mm==eh aq==*t=< aiv=v=ek: Wtp=á h=et== hE. s=mm==eh s=e m=n= B=>{! h=e j==t== hE. m=n= B=>{! h=en=e p=r b=ui3 k:= n==x= h=et== hE, a=Er b=ui3 k:= n==x= h=en=e s=e m=n=u{y= k:= p=t=n= h=et== hE. (ä.êà)

Delusion or wild ideas arise from anger. The mind is bewildered by delusion. Reasoning is destroyed when the mind is bewildered. One falls down from the right path when reasoning is destroyed. (2.63)

ATTAINMENT OF PEACE AND HAPPINESS THROUGH SENSE CONTROL

r=g=8e{=iv=y=ukt=Est=u, iv={=y==n=< wòn7y=Exc=rn=< +

a=tm=v=xy=Er< iv=Q=ey==tm==, p=>s==dm=< aiQ=g=c%it= ++êå++

r=g=8e{= s=e riht= s=]y=m=I s==Q=k: ap=n=e v=x= m=e] k:I huw* win7y==e] 8=r= iv={=y==e] k:=e B==eg=t== hua= x==int= p=>=pt= k:rt== hE. (ä.êå)

A disciplined person, enjoying sense objects with senses that are under control and free from attachments and aversions, attains tranquility. (2.64)

            Real peace and happiness are achieved, not by sense gratification, but by sense control.

p=>s==de s=v=*du/K==n==], h=in=r< asy==ep=j==y=t=e +

p=>s=ác=et=s==e Ä=x=u, b=ui3/ p=y=*v=it={@t=e ++êç++

x==int= s=e s=B=I du/K==e] k:= ant= h=e j==t== hE, a=Er x==nt=ic=T= m=n=u{y= k:I b=ui3 x=IG=> hI isq=r h=ek:r p=rm==tm== s=e y=ukt= h=e j==t=I hE. (ä.êç)

All sorrows are destroyed upon attainment of tranquility. The intel­lect of such a tranquil person soon becomes completely steady and united with the Supreme. (2.65)

n==òst= b=ui3r< ay=ukt=sy=, n= c==y=ukt=sy= B==v=n== +

n= c==B==v=y=t=/ x==ònt=r<, ax==nt=sy= ku:t=/ s=uK=m=< ++êê++

(w*xv=r s=e) ay=ukt= m=n=u{y= ke: ant=/k:r[= m=e] n= w*xv=r k:= N=n= h=et== hE, n= w*xv=r k:I B==v=n== hI. B==v=n==hIn= m=n=u{y= k:=e x==int= n=hI] im=D=t=I, a=Er ax==nt= m=n=u{y= k:=e s=uK= k:h=]? (ä.êê)

There is neither Self-knowledge nor Self-perception for those who are not united with the Supreme. Without Self-perception there is no peace, and without peace there can be no happiness. (2.66)

wòn7y==[==] ih c=rt==], y=n=< m=n==eCn=uiv=Q=Iy=t=e +

t=dsy= hrit= p=>N=], v==y=ur< n==v=m=< wv==mB=òs= ++êë++

**j=Es=e j=D= m=e] t=Ert=I n==v= k:=e t=Uf:=n= Ws=e ap=n=e D=Zy= s=e dUr $ke:D= det== hE, v=Es=e hI wind>y=-s=uK= m=n=u{y= k:I b=ui3 k:=e g=D=t= r=st=e k:I a=er D=e j==t== hE. (ä.êë)

The mind, when controlled by the roving senses, steals away the intellect as a storm takes away a boat on the sea from its destination ¾ the spiri­tual shore of peace and happiness. (2.67)

            A person without control over the mind and senses drifts like a ship without its rudder, becomes a reactor instead of an actor, and develops negative Karma.

            Greed for the pleasure of enjoying the light leads bugs to destruction; similarly, desire for the enjoyment of sensual pleasures keeps one away from Self-knowledge and leads into the net of transmigration (MB 3.02.69).

t=sm==d< y=sy= m=h=b==h=e, in=g=&hIt==in= s=v=*x=/ +

wòn7y==[=Iòn7y==q=e*By=s=<, t=sy= p=>N= p=>it=ò{@t== ++êè++

ws=iD=A he aj=*un=, ij=s=k:I win7y==] s=v=*q== iv={=y==e] ke: v=x= m=e] n=hI] h=et=I hE], Ws=k:I b=ui3 isq=r rht=I hE. (ä.êè)

Therefore, O Arjuna, one’s intellect becomes steady when the senses are completely withdrawn from sense objects. (2.68)

y== in=x== s=v=*B=Ut==n==], t=sy==] j==g=it=* s=]y=m=I +

y=sy==] j==g=>it= B=Ut==in=, s== in=x== p=xy=t==e m=un=e/ ++êï++

s=b= p=>=i[=y==e] ke: iD=A j==e r=iF= hE, Ws=m=e] s=]y=m=I m=n=u{y= j==g== rht== hE; a=Er j=b= s==Q==r[= m=n=u{y= j==g=t=e hE], t=Tv=dx=I* m=uin= ke: iD=A v=h r=iF= ke: s=m==n= h=et== hE. (ä.êï)

A yogi, the person of self-restraint, remains wakeful when it is night for all others. It is night for the yogi who sees when all others are wakeful. (2.69)

            Ascetics keep awake or detached in the night of mun­dane existence of life because they are in quest of the highest truth. One is considered awake when one is free from worldly de­sires (TR 2.92.02). A yogi is always aware of the Spirit about which others are un­aware. A sage who sees is unaware of the experience of sense objects about which others are aware. The life of an ascetic is entirely different from the life of a materialistic person. What is considered real by a yogi is of no value for a worldly person. While most people sleep and make dream plans in the night of the illusory world, a yogi keeps awake because he or she is detached from the world while living in it.

a=p=Uy=*m==[=m=< ac=D=p=>it={@]

s=m=u7m=< a=p=/ p=>iv=x=ònt= y=8t=< +

t=8t=< k:=m== y=] p=>iv=x=ònt= s=v=e*

s= x==ònt=m=< a=pn==eit= n= k:=m=k:=m=I ++ëî++

**j=Es=e s=B=I n=idy==e] ke: j=D= s=m=u7 k:=e ib=n== iv=c=iD=t= k:rt=e huA p=irp=U[=* s=m=u7 m=e] s=m== j==t=e hE], v=Es=e hI s=b= B==eg= ij=s= s=]y=m=I m=n=u{y= m=e] iv=k:=r Wtp=á ik:y=e ib=n== s=m== j==t=e hE], v=h m=n=u{y= x==int= p=>=pt= k:rt== hE, n= ik: B==eg==e] k:I k:=m=n== k:rn=e v==D==. (ä.ëî)

One attains peace when all desires dissipate within the mind without creating any mental disturbance, just as river waters enter the full ocean without creating any dis­turbance. One who desires material objects is never peaceful. (2.70)

            Torrents of the river of desire can carry away the mind of a materialistic person as a river carries away wood and other objects in its path. The tranquil mind of a yogi is like an ocean that takes in the rivers of desire without being disturbed by them because a yogi does not think about personal gain or loss. Human de­sires are endless. To satisfy a desire is like drinking salt water that will never quench thirst, but will increase it. It is like trying to extinguish a fire with gasoline.

            Trying to fulfill material desires is like adding more wood to the fire. The fire will go out if no more wood is added to it (MB 12.17.05). If one dies without conquering the great enemy ¾ desires ¾ one has to reincarnate to fight this enemy again and again till victory (MB 12.16.24). One cannot see one’s face in a pot of water that is dis­turbed by the wind, similarly, one is unable to realize one’s true Self when the mind and senses remain perturbed by the winds of material desires (MB 12.204.03).

 

iv=h=y= k:=m==n=< y=/ s=v==*n=<, p=um==]xc=rit= in=/sp=&h/ +

in=m=*m==e in=rh]k:=r/, s= x==ònt=m=< aiQ=g=c%it= ++ëâ++

j==e m=n=u{y= s=b= k:=m=n==a=e] k:=e ty==g=k:r wc%=riht=, m=m=t==riht=, t=q== ah]k:=r riht= h=ek:r iv=c=r[= k:rt== hE, v=hI x==int= p=>=pt= k:rt== hE. (ä.ëâ)

One who abandons all desires and becomes free from longing and the feeling of ‘I’ and ‘my’, attains peace. (2.71)

A{== b=>=ÉI òsq=it=/ p==q=*, n=En==] p=>=py= iv=m=uÄit= +

òsq=tv==Csy==m=< ant=k:=D=eCip=, b=>Éin=v==*[=m=< Pc%it= ++ëä++

he p==q=*, y=hI b=>=ÉI isq=it= hE ij=s=e p=>=pt= k:rn=e ke: b==d m=n=u{y= m==eiht= n=hI] h=et==. ant=s=m=y= m=e] B=I ws= in={@= m=]e isq=t= h=ek:r m=n=u{y= b=>Éin=v==*[= p=>=pt= k:rt== hE. (ä.ëä)

O Arjuna, this is the superconscious state of mind. Attaining this state, one is no longer deluded. Gaining this state, even at the end of one’s life, a person attains the very goal of human life by becoming one with God. (2.72).

            The Supreme Being is the ultimate Reality and truth, knowledge and consciousness, and is limitless and blissful (TaU 2.01.01). The individ­ual soul becomes blissful and filled with joy after knowing God. The giver of bliss is nothing but the bliss itself like the giver of wealth must have wealth. That from which the origin, sustenance, and dissolution of this universe are derived is called the Absolute (BS 1.01.02, TaU 3.01.01). Knowledge is not a natural quality (Dharma) of the Absolute; it is the intrinsic nature of the Absolute (DB 7.32.19). The Absolute is the substratum, or material as well as efficient cause of the universe. It is both the source and the sink of energy in one. It is also called the Unified Field, Supreme Spirit, Divine Person, and Total Consciousness that is responsible for the sense percep­tions in all living beings by functioning through mind and intellect.

            The word ‘Salvation’ in Christianity means deliverance from the power and penalty of sin. Sin in Hinduism is nothing but the Karmic bondage responsible for transmigration. Thus, salvation is equivalent to the Sanskrit word ‘Mukti’ in Hinduism — the final emancipation of the living entity from transmigration. Mukti means the complete destruction of all impressions of desires from the causal body. It is the uniting of the individual soul with the Supersoul. Some say that the all-pervading Supersoul is the causal body who is conducting everything and remains compassionately detached. The Sanskrit word ‘Nirvana’ in Buddhism is thought to be the cessation of worldly desires and ego. It is a state of being in which worldly desires and personal likes and dis­likes have been absolutely extin­guished. It is getting out of body-consciousness and attaining a state of Self-consciousness. It is liberation from attachment to the material body and achieving a state of bliss with God.

 

CHAPTER 3

k:m=*y==eg=/

PATH OF SELFLESS SERVICE

 

aj=u*n= Wv==c=

jy==y=s=I c=et=< k:m=*[=s=< t=e, m=t== b=ui3r< j=n==d*n= +

t=t=< ik]: k:m=*ò[= G==ere m==], in=y==ej=y=òs= ke:x=v= ++â++

vy==im=Xe[=ev= v==ky=en=, b=ui3] m==ehy=s=Iv= m=e +

t=d< Ak]: v=d in=ûxc=ty=, y=en= Xey==eChm=< a=pn=uy==m=< ++ä++,

aj=u*n= b==eD=e¾ he j=n==d*n=, y=id a=p= k:m=* s=e N=n= k:=e Xe{@ m==n=t=e hE]; t==e if:r, he ke:x=v=, a=p= m=uz=e ws= B=y=]k:r k:m=* m=e] ky==e] D=g== rhee hE]? a=p= im=iXt= v=c=n==e] s=e m=erI b=ui3 k:=e B=>im=t= k:r rhe hE]. at=/ a=p= Ws= Ak: b==t= k:=e in=ixc=t=Op= s=e k:ihA, ij=s=s=e m=er= k:Dy==[= h=e. (à.â-ä)

Arjuna asked: If You consider acquiring transcendental knowledge is better than working, then why do You want me to engage in this horrible war, O Krishna? You seem to confuse my mind by apparently conflicting words. Tell me, decisively, one thing by which I may attain the Supreme. (3.01-02)

            Arjuna was in the mode of delusion; he thought that Lord Krishna meant a contemplative life (BuddhiYoga) was better than doing one’s normal duty in life in verse 2.49. Some people are often confused and think that salvation is possible only by leading a life devoted to scriptural study, contemplation, and acquiring Self-knowledge. Lord Krishna clarifies this by mentioning two major paths of spiritual practice — depending on the nature of the individual — in the following verse:

XIB=g=v==n=uv==c=

D==eke:Còsm=n=< i8iv=Q== in={@=, p=ur= p=>=ekt== m=y==Cn=G= +

N=n=y==eg=en= s==]Ky==n==], k:m=*y==eg=en= y==eig=n==m=< ++à++

**XIB=g=v==n=< b==eD=e¾ he in={p==p= aj=u*n=, ws= D==ek: m=e] d=e p=>k:=r k:I in={@= m=ere 8=r= p=hD=e k:hI g=y=I hE. ij=n=k:I oic= N=n= m=e] D=g=t=I hE Wn=k:I in={@= N=n=y==eg= s=e, a=Er k:m=* m=e] oic= v==D==e] k:I in={@= k:m=*y==eg= s=e h=et=I hE. (à.à)

Lord Krishna said: In this world I have stated a twofold path of spiritual discipline in past ¾ the path of Self-knowledge (for the contemplative ones) and the path of unselfish work (Seva, KarmaYoga) for all others. (3.03)

            ‘Seva’ or ‘KarmaYoga’ means sacrifice, selfless service, unselfish work, meritorious deeds, giving away something to others. Some people often get confused like Arjuna and think that leading a life devoted to scriptural study, contemplation, and acquiring transcendental knowledge may be better for spiritual progress than doing one’s worldly duty.

            A God-realized person does not consider oneself the doer of any action, but only an instrument in the hands of the divine for His use. It should be further pointed out that both  metaphysical knowledge and selfless service are means to attain the Supreme Being. These two paths are not separate, but complementary. In life a combination of these two modes is considered the best. Carry both selfless service and a spiritual discipline of acquiring Self-knowledge with you as stated in the following verses:

n= k:m=*[==m=< an==rmB==n=<, n=E{k:my=*] p=uo{==eCxn=ut=e +

n= c= s=]ny=s=n==d< Av=, òs=i3] s=m=iQ=g=c%it= ++å++

 

n= ih k:ûxc=t=< Z=[=m=ip=, j==t=u it={@ty=< ak:m=*k&:t=< +

k:=y=*t=e Ä< av=x=/ k:m=*, s=v=*/ p=>k&:it=j=Er< g=u[=E/ ++ç++

m=n=u{y= k:m=* k:= ty==g=k:r k:m=* ke: b=]Q=n==e] s=e m=ukt= n=hI] h=et==. ke:v=D= k:m=* ke: ty==g= m==F= s=e hI is=i3 k:I p=>=ipt= n=hI] h=et=I. k:=ew* B=I m=n=u{y= Ak: Z=[= B=I ib=n== k:m=* ik:A n=hI] rh s=k:t==, ky==e]ik: p=>k&:it= ke: g=u[==e] 8=r= m=n=u{y==e] s=e ¾ p=rv=x= k:I t=rh ¾ s=B=I k:m=* k:rv== iD=A j==t=e h]E. (à.å-ç)

One does not attain freedom from the bondage of Karma by merely ab­staining from work. No one attains perfection by merely giving up work because no one can remain actionless even for a moment. Everything in the universe is driven to action ¾ helplessly indeed ¾ by the forces of Nature. (3.04-05)

            It is not possible for anybody to completely abandon action by thought, word, and deed. Therefore, one should always be active in serving the Lord by various means of one’s choosing, and never be without work because an idle mind is the devil’s workshop. Performing action till death with a desireless frame of mind is better than abandoning work and leading the life of an ascetic — even after God-realization — because even an ascetic cannot escape the im­pulse of action.

k:m=e*òn7y==ò[= s=]y=my=, y= a=st=e m=n=s== sm=rn=< +

wòn7y==q==*n=< iv=m=U$=tm==, im=qy==c==r/ s= Wcy=t=e ++ê++

j==e m=U$ª b=ui3 m=n=u{y= wind>y==e] k:=e (p=>dx=*n= ke: iD=A) r=ek:k:r m=n= 8=r= iv={=y==e] k:= ic=nt=n= k:rt== rht== hE, v=h im=qy==c==rI k:h= j==t== hE. (à.ê)

Anyone who restrains the senses but mentally thinks of sense pleasures, is called a pretender. (3.06)

            One’s growth comes from working selflessly rather than giving up work and practicing sense-control before one is naturally ready for it. Bringing the mind under control is difficult, and spiritual life becomes a mockery without mastery over the senses. Desires may become dormant and rise again to give trouble, just as a sleeping person wakes up in due course of time.

            The four goals of human life — doing one’s duty, earning wealth, material and sensual enjoyment, and attaining salvation — were designed in the Vedic tradition for gradual and systematic growth of the individual and the progress of society. Success in spiritual life does not come from prematurely wearing saffron clothes just to maintain an Ashram or livelihood without first conquering the six enemies ¾ lust, anger, greed, pride, attachment, and envy. It is said that such pretenders do a great disservice to God, society, and themselves and become bereft of happiness in this world and the next (BP 11.18.40-41) A pretending monk is considered sinful and a destroyer of the ascetic order of life.

WHY ONE SHOULD SERVE OTHERS?

y=s=< tv=< wòn7y==ò[= m=n=s==, in=y=my==rB=t=eCj=*un= +

k:m=e*òn7y=E/ k:m=*y==eg=m=<, as=kt=/ s= iv=òx={y=t=e ++ë++

**p=rnt=u he aj=*un=, j==e m=n=u{y= b=ui3 8=r= ap=n=e wind>y==e] k:=e v=x= m=e] k:rke:, an==s=kt= h=ek:r, k:m=e*ind>y==e] 8=r= in={k:=m= k:m=*y==eg= k:= a=c=r[= k:rt== hE, v=hI Xe{@ hE. (à.ë)

One who restrains the senses ¾ by (a trained and purified) mind and intellect ¾ and engages the organs of action to selfless service, is considered superior. (3.07)

in=y=t=] ku:o k:m=* tv=], k:m=* jy==y==e Ä< ak:m=*[=/ +,

x=rIry==F==ip= c= t=e, n= p=>òs=3Yed< ak:m=*[=/ ++è++

t=um= ap=n=e k:t=*vy= k:= p==D=n= k:r=e; ky==e]ik: k:m=* n= k:rn=e s=e k:m=* k:rn== Xe{@ hE, t=q== k:m=* n= k:rn=e s=e t=ere x=rIr k:= in=v==*h B=I n=hI] h=eg==. (à.è)

Perform your obligatory duty because working is indeed better than sitting idle. Even the maintenance of your body would be impossible without work. (3.08)

y=N=q==*t=< k:m=*[==eCny=F=, D==ek:=eCy=] k:m=*b=nQ=n=/ +

t=dq=*] k:m=* k:=Ent=ey=, m=ukt=s=V<g=/ s=m==c=r ++ï++,

**ke:v=D= ap=n=e iD=A k:m=* k:rn=e s=e m=n=u{y= k:m=*-b=]Q=n= s=e b=]Q= j==t== hE; ws=iD=A he aj=*un=, k:m=*f:D= k:I a=s=ikt= ty==g=k:r, s=ev==B==v= s=e B=D=IB==]it= ap=n== k:t=*vy=k:m=* k:= p==D=n= k:r=e. (à.ï)

Human beings in this world are bound by work (Karma) that is not performed as a selfless service (Seva, Yajna). Therefore, becoming free from attachment to the fruits of work, do your duty to the best of your abilities as a service to Me (for the good of humanity). (3.09)

TO HELP EACH OTHER IS THE FIRST COMMANDMENT OF THE CREATOR

s=hy=N=/ p=>j==/ s=&{!<v==, p=ur=ev==c= p=>j==p=it=/ +

an=en= p=>s=iv={y=Qv=m=<, A{= v==eCstv=< w{!k:=m=Q=uk<:, ++âî++

s=&i{!k:t==* b=>É= n=e s=&i{! ke: a=id m=e] y=N (aq==*t=< in=/sv==q=* s=ev==) ke: s==q= p=>j== k:= in=m==*[=k:r k:h=¾ "ws= y=N 8=r= t=um= D==eg= v=&i3 p=>=pt= k:r=e, a=Er y=h y=N t=um= D==eg==e] k:=e w{!f:D= den=e v==D== h=ee." (à.âî)

In the ancient time, the Creator created human beings together with selfless service (Seva, Yajna, sacrifice) and said: By serving each other you shall prosper, and the sacrificial service shall ful­fill all your desires. (3.10)

dev==n=< B==v=y=t==n=en=, t=e dev== B==v=y=nt=u v=/ +

p=rsp=r] B==v=y=nt=/, Xey=/ p=rm=< av==psy=q= ++ââ++,

t=um= D==eg= y=N ke: 8=r= dev=t==a=e] k:=e Wát= k:r=e a=EEr dev=g=[= t=um= D==eg==e] k:=e Wát= k:re]. ws= p=>k:r Ak: dUs=re k:=e Wát= k:rt=e huA t=um= p=rm= k:Dy==[= k:=e p=>=pt= h=eg=e. (à.ââ)

Nourish the celestial controllers with selfless service, and they will nourish you. Thus nourishing each other, you shall attain the Supreme goal. (3.11)

w{!=n=< B==eg==n=< ih v==e dev==, d=sy=nt=e y=NB==iv=t==/ +

t=Er< dT==n=< ap=>d=y=EBy==e, y==e B=uV<kt=e st=en= Av= s=/ ++âä++

y=N 8=r= p==ei{=t= dev=g=[= t=umhe] w{!f:D= p=>d=n= k:re]g=e. dev=t==a=e] ke: 8=r= idA huA B==eg==e] k:=e j==e m=n=u{y= Wnhe] ib=n== idA ake:D== s=ev=n= k:rt== hE, v=h in=xc=y= hI c==er hE. (à.âä)

The celestial controllers, being nourished and pleased by selfless service, will give you all desired objects. One who enjoys the gift of celestial controllers without sharing with others is, indeed, a thief. (3.12)

            A celestial controller or guardian angel means a supernatural ruler, a celestial person, an angel, an agent of God, the cosmic forces that control, protect, and fulfill desires. Even the gates of heaven shall be closed to those who try to enter alone. According to the ancient scriptures, helping others is the best meritorious deed one can do. The wise seek to serve themselves in the service of others while the ignorant serve themselves at the cost of others. To serve each other is the original or first commandment of the creator that has been restated by Lord Krishna in the Gita. God has given us talents to help us serve, and in serving others we grow spiritually. We take birth to help each other, to understand, care, love, give, and forgive each other. According to Muniji “Giving is Living”. Giving makes the world a better place for all humanity.

            It is believed that selfishness saps our natural health and immune system also. When we take steps to move ourselves away from self and think about the needs of others and how to serve them, a physical healing process seems to set in motion. This is especially true if we personally help a person we may never meet again in life.

            One who makes no sacrifice, but grabs everything without helping others, is like a thief. It is said that celestials are pleased when people help each other. The capacity of the giver increases by the grace of God, fulfilling all desires to give. The spirit of cooperation ¾ not competition or confrontation ¾ be­tween human beings, between na­tions, and between organizations seems to be hinted here by the Lord. All the necessities of life are produced by dedicated sacrificial services of other people. We are created to depend on each other. The world has been called a cosmic wheel of cooperative action by Swami Chinmayananda. Cooperation, not competition, is more conducive to overall progress of the individual, as well as society. Nothing worthwhile can be achieved without cooperation and help from others. The world would be a much better place if all inhabitants cooperated and helped each other, rather than fight or compete with each other. It is the selfish motive that prevents cooperation even between spiritual organizations. One who can truly say all organizations, temples, mosques, and churches are our own, is a true leader and a real saint.

y=Nix={!=ix=n=/ s=nt==e, m=ucy=nt=e s=v=*ik:ûDb={=E/ +

B=uJ=<j=t=e t=e tv=< aG=] p==p==, y=e p=c=nty==tm=k:=r[==t=< ++âà++

y=N s=e b=c=e huA aá k:=e K==n=e v==D=e Xe{@ m=n=u{y= s=b= p==p==e] s=e m=ukt= h=e j==t=e hE]; p=rnt=u j==e D==eg= ke:v=D= ap=n=e iD=A hI aá p=k:=t=e hE], v=e p==p= ke: B==g=I h=et=e hE]. (à.âà)

The righteous who eat after sharing with others are freed from all sins, but the impious who cook food only for themselves (without first offering to God or sharing with others), in fact, eat sin. (3.13)

            Food should be cooked for the Lord and offered first to Him with love before consuming. Children should be taught to pray before taking food. The house rule should be: No food before prayer and thanking the Lord. Lord further states that helping others is divine:

ann==d< B=v=ònt= B=Ut==in=, p=j=*ny==d< ann=s=]B=v=/ +

y=N=d< B=v=it= p=j=*ny==e, y=N/ k:m=*s=m=u4v=/ ++âå++

k:m=* b=>É=e4v=] iv=i3, b=>É=Z=rs=m=u4v=m=< +

t=sm==t=< s=v=*g=t=] b=>É, in=ty=] y=Ne p=>it=i{@t=m=< ++âç++,

s=m=st= p=>=[=I aá s=e Wtp=á h=et=e hE], aá v=&i{! s=e h=et=I hE, v=&i{! y=N s=e h=et=I hE, y=N k:m=* s=e, k:m=* v=ed=e] m=e] iv=iht= hE, a=Er v=ed k:=e aiv=n==x=I b=>É s=e Wtp=á hua= j==n==e. ws= t=rh s=v=*vy==p=I b=>É s=d= hI y=N (aq==*t=< s=ev==) m=e] p=>it=i{@t= hE. (à.âå-âç)

Living beings are sustained from food grains; grains are produced by sacrificial work (or duty performed by farmers and other field workers) and rain. Duty is prescribed in the scriptures. Scriptures come from the Supreme Being. Thus the all-pervading Supreme Being or God is ever pre­sent in selfless service. (3.14-15)

Av=], p=>v=it=*t=] c=k>:], n==n=uv=t=*y=t=Ih y=/ +

aG==y=ur< wòn7y==r=m==e, m==eG=] p==q=* s= j=Iv=it= ++âê++

**he p==q=*, j==e m=n=u{y= s=ev== 8=r= ws= s=&i{!c=k>: k:=e c=D=t=e rhn=e m=e] s=hy==eg= n=hI] det== hE; v=Es== p==p=m=y=, B==eg=I m=n=u{y= vy=q=* hI j=It== hE. (à.âê)

One who does not help to keep the wheel of creation in motion by sacrificial duty (Seva) and rejoices in sense pleasures, that sinful person lives in vain. (3.16)

            A grain of wheat is a single grain unless it is dropped into the ground and dies. If it does die, then it produces many grains (JOHN 12.24). Saints, trees, rivers, and earth are for the use of others. However, there is no prescribed duty for the enlightened ones as explained below:

y=s=< tv==tm=rit=r< Av= sy==d<, a=tm=t=&pt=xc= m==n=v=/ +

a=tm=ny=ev= c= s=]t=u{!s=<, t=sy= k:=y=*] n= iv=6t=e ++âë++

n=Ev= t=sy= k&:t=en==q==e*, n==k&:t=en=eh k:xc=n= +

n= c==sy= s=v=*B=Ut=e{=u, k:ûxc=d< aq=*vy=p==Xy=/ ++âè++

p=rnt=u j==e m=n=u{y= p=rm==tm== m=e] hI rm=[= k:rt== hE, t=q== p=rm==tm== m=e] hI t=&pt= a=Er s=]t=u{! rht== hE, v=Es=e a=tm=N=n=I m=n=u{y= ke: iD=A k:=ew* k:t=*vy= x=e{= n=hI] rht==. (à.âë)

Ws=e k:m=* k:rn=e s=e y== n= k:rn=e s=e k:=ew* p=>y==ej=n= n=hI] rht==, t=q== v=h (p=rm==tm== ke: is=v==) ik:s=I a=Er p=>=[=I p=r a=iXt= n=hI] rht==. (à.âè)

For one who rejoices only with the Supreme Being, who is satisfied with the Supreme Being, and who is content with the Supreme Being alone, for such a Self-realized person there is no duty. Such a person has no interest, whatsoever, in what is done or what is not done. A Self-realized person does not depend on anybody (except God) for anything. (3.17-18)

            All duties, obligations, prohibitions, regulations, and injunctions are meant to lead one to perfection. Therefore, a perfect yogi who has Self-knowledge, detachment, and devotion has nothing more to gain in this world by doing worldly duty.

LEADERS SHOULD SET AN EXAMPLE

t=sm==d< as=kt=/ s=t=t=], k:=y=*] k:m=* s=m==c=r +

as=kt==e Ä=c=rn=< k:m=*, p=rm=< a=pn==eit= p=Uo{=/ ++âï++

**ws=iD=A t=um= an==s=kt= h=ek:r s=d= ap=n=e k:t=*vy=k:m=* k:= B=D=IB==]it= p==D=n= k:r=e, ky==e]ik: an==s=kt= rhk:r k:m=* k:rn=e s=e hI m=n=u{y= p=rm==tm== k:=e p=>=pt= k:rt== hE. (à.âï)

Therefore, always perform your duty to the best of your abilities without any attachment to the results, because by doing work without attachment, one reaches the supreme goal of life. (3.19)

            In no other scripture, written before the Bhagavad-Gita, has the philosophy of KarmaYoga — unselfish devotion for the welfare of humanity — been so beautifully expounded. Lord Krishna has elevated the idea of altruism to the highest form of wor­ship and spiritual practice. By altruism, one obtains grace, by grace one gets faith, and by faith the ultimate Truth is revealed. One immediately feels better by helping others and comes one step closer to perfection. Swami Vivekananda said: Work done for others awakens the subtle and dormant divine power, Kundalini, within our body. An example of attaining Self-realization by persons while doing their worldly duties is given below:

k:m=*[=Ev= ih s=]òs=i3m=<, a=òsq=t== j=n=k:=dy=/ +

D==ek:s=]g=>hm=eev==ip=, s=]p=xy=n=< k:t=u*m=< ah*òs= ++äî++,

**r=j== j=n=k: a=id N=n=Ij=n= in={k:=m= k:m=*y==eg= 8=r= hI p=rm= is=i3 k:=e p=>=pt= huA q=e. D==ek: k:Dy==[= ke: iD=A B=I t=umh=r= k:m=* k:rn== hI Wic=t= hE. (à.äî)

King Janaka and many others attained perfection of Self-realization by selfless service (KarmaYoga) alone. You also should perform your duty with a view to guide people and for the wel­fare of society. (3.20)

            Those who do selfless service are not bound by Karma and attain salvation (VP 1.22.52). Nothing is beyond the reach of those who have others’ interest in mind. Swami Harihar says: Selfless service to humanity is the true service to God and the highest form of worship.

y=d< y=d< a=c=rit= Xe{@s=<, t=t=< t=d< Av=et=r=e j=n=/ +

s= y=t=< p=>m==[=] ku:ot=e, D==ek:s=< t=d< an=uv=t=*t=e ++äâ++

Xe{@ m=n=u{y= j=Es== a=c=r[= k:rt== hE, dUs=re D==eg= B=I v=Es== hI a=c=r[= k:rt=e hE]. v=h j==e p=>m==[= det== hE, j=n= s=m=ud=y= Ws=I k:= an=us=r[= k:rt=e hE]. (à.äâ)

Because whatever noble persons do, others follow. Whatever standard they set up, the world follows. (3.21)

            People follow whatever great persons do (BP 5.04.15). Jesus said: I have set an example for you, so that you will do just what I have done for you (JOHN 13.15). A leader is obliged to set higher ethical, moral, and spiritual standards for the general population to follow. If the leader fails in this regard, the quality of the nation’s life declines, and the progress of society is greatly hampered. Therefore, leaders have a great burden on their shoulders. The life of a true leader is the life of service and sacrifice. Leadership should not be an enterprise for becoming rich or famous.

n= m=e p==q==*ist= k:t=*vy=], iF={=u D==eke:{=u ik:}c=n= +

n==n=v==pt=m=< av==pt=vy=], v=t=* Av= c= k:m=*i[= ++ää++,

he p==q=*, t=In==e] D==ek:=e] m=e] n= t==e m=er= k:=ew* k:t=*vy= hE, a=Er n= k:=ew* B=I p=>=pt= k:rn=e y==egy= v=st=u m=uz=e ap=>=pt= hE, if:r B=I m=E] k:m=* k:rt== hU]. (à.ää)

O Arjuna, there is nothing in the three worlds — heaven, earth, and the lower regions — that should be done by Me, nor there is anything unob­tained that I should obtain, yet I engage in action. (3.22)

y=id Äh] n= v=t=e*y=], j==t=u k:m=*[y=t=òn7t=/ +

m=m= v=tm==*n=uv=t=*nt=e, m=n=u{y==/ p==q=* s=v=*x=/ ++äà++       

Wts=Idey=ur< wm=e D==ek:=, n= ku:y==*]] k:m=* c=ed< ahm=< +

s=]k:rsy= c= k:t==* sy==m=<, Wp=hny==m=< wm==/ p=>j==/ ++äå++

ky==e]ik: y=id m=E] s==v=Q==n= h=ek:r k:m=* n= k:O] t==e he p==q=*, m=n=u{y= m=ere hI m==g=* k:= an=us=r[= k:re]g=e. ws=iD=A y=id m=E] k:m=* n= k:O], t==e y=e s=b= D==ek: n={! h=e j==y=]eg=e, a=Er m=E] hI wn=ke: iv=n==x= k:= t=q== ar=j=k:t== k:= k:=r[= b=n=U]g==. (à.äà-äå)         

If I do not engage in action relentlessly, O Arjuna, people would follow the same path in every way. These worlds would perish if I did not work, and I would be the cause of confusion and destruction. (3.23-24)

WHAT SHOULD THE WISE DO TO THE IGNORANT?

s=kt==/ k:m=*[y=< aiv=8=]s==e, y=q== ku:v=*int= B==rt= +

ku:y==*d< iv=8=]s=< t=q==s=kt=x=<, ic=k:0{=*ur< D==ek:s=]g=>hm=< ++äç++

he B==rt=, aN=n=I D==eg= ij=s= p=>k:=r k:m=*f:D= m=e] a=s=kt= h=ek:r B=D=IB==]it= ap=n== k:m=* k:rt=e hE], Ws=I p=>k:=r N=n=I m=n=u{y= B=I j=n=k:Dy==[= het=u a=s=ikt=riht= h=ek:r B=D=IB==]it= ap=n== k:m=* k:re]. (à.äç)

The ignorant work with attachment to the fruits of work for themselves, and the wise should work without attachment for the welfare of the society. (3.25)

n= b=ui3B=ed] j=n=y=ed<, aN=n==] k:m=*s=V<ig=n==m=< +

j==e{=y=et=< s=v=*k:m==*i[=, iv=8=n=< y=ukt=/ s=m==c=rn=< ++äê++

**N=n=I k:m=*f:D= m=e] a=s=kt= aN=in=y==e] k:I b=ui3 m=]ee B=>m= aq==*t=< k:m==e*] m=e] aX3= Wtp=á n= k:re, t=q== sv=y=] (an==s=kt= h=ek:r) s=m=st= k:m==e*] k:=e B=D=IB==]it= k:rt== hua= dUs=r=e]e] k:=e B=I v=Es== hI k:rn=e k:I p=>er[== de. (à.äê)

The wise should not unsettle the minds of the ignorant who are attached to the fruits of work, but should inspire others by performing all works to the best of one’s abilities (without attachment to results). (See also 3.29) (3.26)

            Doing one’s duty without a personal, selfish motive is an exalted state given only to the enlightened ones. This may be beyond comprehension of ordinary people. The mark of genius lies in the ability to handle two opposed ideas and paradoxes, such as living in the world with de­tached attachment. Most people work hard only when they have some motivat­ing force, such as enjoyment of the fruits of work. Such persons should not be discouraged or condemned. They should be introduced slowly to the beginning stages of selfless service. The ex­cessive attachment to possessions, not the possessions themselves, becomes the source of misery.

            Just as one has to pray and worship with single-minded attention, similarly, one should perform worldly duties with full attention, even while knowing full well that the world and its affairs are transitory. One should not live thinking only of God and neglect­ing one’s duty in the world. Yogananda said: Be as earnest about meditation as about earning money. One should not live a one-sided life. The importance of controlling the senses and ways to combat ego are given below:

ALL WORKS ARE THE WORKS OF NATURE

p=>k&:t=e/ ik>:y=m==[==in=, g=u[=E/ k:m==*i[= s=v=*x=/ +

ah]k:=riv=m=U$=tm==, k:t==*hm=< wit= m=ny=t=e ++äë++

**v==st=v= m=e] s=]s==r ke: s==re k:=y=* p=>k&:it= m==] ke: g=u[=Op=I p=rm=exv=r k:I x=ikt= ke: 8=r= hI ik:A j==t=e hE], p=rnt=u aN=n=v=x= m=n=u{y= ap=n=e a=p=k:=e hI k:t==* s=m=z= D=et== hE (t=q== k:m=*f:D= k:I a=s=ikt=Op=I b=]Q=n==e] s=e b=]Q= j==t== hE. m=n=u{y= t==e p=rm= x=ikt= ke: h=q= k:I ke:v=D= Ak: k:@p=ut=D=I m==F= hE.) (à.äë)

All actions are performed by the forces (or Gunas) of Nature, but due to delusion of ego or ignorance, people assume themselves to be the doer. (See also 5.09, 13.29, and 14.19) (3.27)

            Indirectly, God is the doer of everything. The power and the will of God do everything. One is not free even to kill oneself. One cannot feel the presence of the omnipresent God as long as one feels: “I am the doer”. If one realizes ¾ by the grace of God ¾ that one is not the doer, but just an instrument, one at once becomes free. A Karmic bondage is created if we consider ourselves the doer and enjoyer. The same work done by a Self-realized master and an ordi­nary person produces different results. The work done by a Self-realized master becomes spiritualized and produces no Karmic bondage because a Self-realized person does not consider oneself the doer or the enjoyer. The work done by an ordinary person produces Karmic bondage.

t=Tv=iv=t=< t=u m=h=b==h=e, g=u[=k:m=*iv=B==g=y==e/ +

g=u[== g=u[=e{=u v=t=*nt=, wit= m=tv== n= s=jj=t=e ++äè++

p=rnt=u he m=h=b==h=e, g=u[= a=Er k:m=* ke: rhsy= k:=e j==n=n=e v==D=e N=n=I m=n=u{y= Aes== s=m=z=k:r ¾ ik: (win7y==e] 8=r=) p=>k&:it= ke: g=u[= hI s==re k:m=** k:rt=e hE]. (t=q== m=n=u{y= k:u% B=I n=hI] k:rt== hE.) ¾ k:m=* m=e] a=s=kt= n=hI] h=et=e. (à.äè)

One who knows the truth about the role of the forces of Nature in getting work done, does not become attached to work. Because such a person knows that it is the forces of Nature that get their work done (by using our organs as their instruments). (3.28)

p=>k&:t=er< g=u[=s=]m=U$=/, s=jj=nt=e g=u[=k:m=*s=u +

t==n=< ak&:tsn=iv=d=e m=nd=n=<, k&:tsn=iv=n=< n= iv=c==D=y=et=< ++äï++

p=>k&:it= ke: g=u[==]e 8=r= m==eiht= h=ek:r aN=n=I m=n=u{y= g=u[==e] ke: (8=r= ik:A g=y=e) k:m==e*] m=e] a=s=kt= rht=e hE], Wnhe] N=n=I m=n=u{y= s=k:=m= k:m=*m==g=* s=e iv=c=iD=t= n= k:ree]. (à.äï)

Those who are deluded by the illusive power (Maya) of Nature become attached to the work done by the forces of Nature. The wise should not disturb the mind of the ignorant whose knowledge is imperfect. (See also 3.26) (3.29)

            The enlightened one should not try to dissuade or de­tract ignorant ones from performing selfish actions that they do, deluded by the forces of Nature, because doing work ¾ and not the renunciation of work in the initial stages ¾ will ul­ti­mately lead them to realize the truth that we are not the doers, but divine instruments only. Working with attachment also has a place in the development of society and in the life of common people. People can easily transcend selfish desires by working for a noble goal of their choice.

m=iy= s=v==*i[= k:m==*i[=, s=]ny=sy==Qy==tm=c=et=s== +

in=r=x=Ir< in=m=*m==e B=Utv==, y=uQy=sv= iv=g=t=jv=r/ ++àî++

**m=uz= m=e] ic=T= D=g==k:r, s=mp=U[=* k:m==e*] (ke: f:D=) k:=e m=uz= m=e] ap=*[= k:rke:, a=x==, m=m=t== a=Er s=]t==p=riht= h=ek:r ap=n== k:t=*vy= (y=u3) k:r=e. (à.àî)

Do your prescribed duty, dedicating all work to Me in a spiritual frame of mind, free from de­sire, attachment, and mental grief. (3.30)

y=e m=e m=t=m=< wd] in=ty=m=<, an=uit={@int= m==n=v==/ +

X3=v=nt==eCn=s=Uy=nt==e, m=ucy=nt=e t=eCip= k:m=*òB=/ ++àâ++

y=e tv=et=d< aBy=s=Uy=nt==e, n==n=uit={@int= m=e m=t=m=< +

s=v=*N=n=iv=m=U$=]s=< t==n=<, iv=i3 n={!=n=< ac=et=s=/ ++àä++

j==e m=n=u{y= ib=n== a=D==ec=n== ik:y=e, X3= p=Uv=*k: m=ere ws= Wp=dex= k:= s=d= p==D=n= k:rt=e hE], v=e k:m==e*] ke: b=nQ=n= s=e m=ukt= h=e j==t=e hE], p=rnt=u j==e a=D==ec=k: m=ere ws= Wp=dex= k:= p==D=n= n=hI] k:rt=e Wnhe] aN=n=I, iv=v=ek:hIn=, t=q== K==ey== hua= s=m=z=n== c==ihA. (à.àâ-àä)

Those who always practice this teaching of Mine ¾ with faith and free from criticism ¾ become free from the bondage of Karma. But those who find fault with this teaching and do not practice it, should be considered ignorant, senseless, and confused. (3.31-32)

s=d&x=] c=e{!t=e sv=sy==/, p=>k&:t=er< N=n=v==n=< aip= +

p=>k&:it=] y==int= B=Ut==in=, in=g=>h/ ik:} k:ir{y=it= ++àà++

s=B=I p=>=[=I ap=n=e sv=B==v=-v=x= hI k:m=* k:rt=e hE]. N=n=I B=I ap=n=I p=>k&:it= ke: an=us==r hI k:=y=* k:rt== hE. if:r win7y==e] ke: in=g=>h k:= ky== p=>y==ej=n= hE? (à.àà)

All beings follow their nature. Even the wise act according to their own nature. (If we are but slaves of our nature) what, then, is the value of sense restraint? (3.33)

            While we cannot and should not suppress our nature, we must not become victims but rather controllers and masters of the senses by using the discriminative faculties of human life for gradual improvement. The best way to control the senses is to engage all our senses in the service of God.

TWO MAJOR STUMBLING BLOCKS ON THE PATH OF PERFECTION

wòn7y=sy=eòn7y=sy==q=e*, r=g=8e{==E vy=v=isq=t==E +,

t=y==er< n= v=x=m=< a=g=c%et=<, t==E Äsy= p=irp=ònq=n==E ++àå++,

**p=>ty=ek: wòn7y= ke: B==eg= m=e] r=g= a=Er 8e{=, m=n=u{y= ke: k:Dy==[= m==g=* m=e] iv=Gn= #=D=n=e v==D=e, d=e m=h=n=< x=F=u rht=e hE]]. ws=iD=A m=n=u{y= k:=e r=g= a=Er 8e{= ke: v=x= m=e] n=hI] h=en== c==ihA. (à.àå)

Attachments and aversions for sense ob­jects abide in the senses. One should not come under the control of these two because they are, indeed, two (major) stumbling blocks (on one’s path of perfection). (3.34)

            ‘Attachment’ may be defined as a very strong desire to experience sensual pleasures again and again. ‘Aversion’ is the strong dislike for the unpleasant. The search for peace of mind, comfort, and happi­ness is the basis of all human endeavors, including the acquisition and propagation of knowledge. Desire — like any other power given by the Lord — is not the problem. We can have desires with a proper frame of mind that gives us control over attachments and aversions. If we can manage our wants, most of the things we possess become dispensable rather than essential. With a right attitude, we can get mastery over all our attachments and aversions. The only necessity is to have a frame of mind that makes most items unnecessary. Those who have knowl­edge, detachment, and devotion have neither likes nor dislikes for any worldly object, person, place, or work. Personal likes and dislikes disturb the equanimity of mind and become a hindrance on the path of spiritual progress.

            One should act with a sense of duty without being strongly influenced by personal likes and dislikes. Selfless service is the only aus­terity and penance in this age by which anyone can reach God while living and working in modern society without going to the moun­tains and jungles.

            Everybody benefits if work is done for the Lord, just as every part of the tree gets water when water is put at the root of the tree rather than on individual leaves. Attachments and aversions are de­stroyed in a noble person at the onset of Self-knowledge and detachment. Personal likes and dislikes are two major obstacles on the path of perfection. One who has conquered attachments and aversions becomes a free person and attains salvation by doing one’s natural duty as stated below:

Xey==n=< sv=Q=m==e* iv=g=u[=/, p=rQ=m==*t=< sv=n=ui{@t==t=< +

sv=Q=m=e* in=Q=n=] Xey=/, p=rQ=m==e* B=y==v=h/ ++àç++

ap=n== g=u[=riht= s=hj= a=Er sv==B==iv=k: k:=y=* a=tm=iv=k:=s= ke: iD=A dUs=re ac%e asv==B==iv=k: k:=y=* s=e Xey=sk:r hE. sv=Q=m=* k:=y=* m=e] m=rn== B=I k:Dy==[=k:=rk: hE. asv==B==iv=k: k:=y=* h=in=k:=rk: h=et== hE. (à.àç)

One’s defective, imperfectly done, natural work is better than faultless, unnatural work, even though (it can be) well done. Even death in carrying out one’s (natural) duty is useful. Unnatural work produces too much stress. (See also 18.47) (3.35)

            One who does the duty ordained by nature is freed from the bonds of Karma and slowly rises above the worldly plane (BP 7.11.32). One who takes on work that was not meant for him or her certainly courts failure. One evolves by the work best suited to one’s own nature or inborn tendencies. There is no perfect occupation. Every occupation in this world has some faults. One should keep oneself free from concern over the faults of one’s duty in life. One should carefully study one’s nature to determine an appropriate occupation. Natural work does not produce stress and is conducive to creativity. Walking uphill, voca­tionally, against one’s natural tendencies is not only more stressful but also less productive, and it does not provide opportunity and leisure time for spiritual growth and development. On the other hand, if one follows a very easy or artistic path, one may not be able to earn enough to satisfy the ba­sic necessities of (family) life. Therefore, lead a simple life by limiting unnec­essary luxuries, and develop a hobby of selfless service to balance the material and spiritual needs of life. The balanced life is a happy life.

            Obligatory or natural work that is not forbidden by the scriptures, and is done without attachment to the fruits and without the notion of doership, is sinless.

 

LUST IS THE ORIGIN OF SIN

aj=u*n=, Wv==c=

aq= ke:n= p=>y=ukt==eCy=], p==p=] c=rit= p=Uo{=/ +

ain=c%nn=< aip= v=={[=e*y=, b=D==d< wv= in=y==eòj=t=/ ++àê++

aj=u*n= b==eD=e¾ he k&:{[=, n= c==ht=e huA B=I b=D=p=Uv=*k: b==Qy= ik:A huA ke: s=m==n= ik:s=s=e p=>eirt= h=ek:r m=n=u{y= p==p= k:= a=c=r[= k:rt== hE? (à.àê)

Arjuna said: O Krishna, what impels one to commit sin or selfish deeds as if unwillingly and forced against one’s will? (3.36)

XIB=g=v==n=uv==c=,

k:=m= A{= k>:=eQ= A{=, rj==eg=u[=s=m=u4v=/ +

m=h=x=n==e m=h=p==pm==, iv=3Yen=m=< wh v=Eir[=m=< ++àë++

**XIB=g=v==n=< b==eD=e¾ rj==e g=u[= s=e Wtp=á y=h k:=m= hE, y=hI k>:=eQ= hE, k:B=I B=I p=U[=* n=hI] h=en=e v==D=e ws= m=h=p==p=I k:=m= k:=e hI t=um= (aQy==itm=k: m==g=* k:=) x=F=u j==n==e. (à.àë)

Lord Krishna said: It is the lust, born out of passion, that becomes anger (when unfulfilled). Lust is insatiable and is a great devil. Know this as the enemy. (3.37)

            The mode of passion is the absence of mental equilibrium leading to vigorous activity to achieve desired fruits. Lust, the passionate desire for all sensual and ma­terial pleasures, is the product of the mode of passion. Lust becomes anger if it is unfulfilled. When the attainment of fruits is hindered or inter­rupted, the intense desire for their achievement turns into fierce rage. Hence, the Lord says that lust and anger are two mighty enemies that can lead one to commit sin and turn one astray from the path of Self-realization, the supreme goal of hu­man life. Actually, mundane desire compels a person to engage in sinful activities in spite of his or her will. Control your wants because whatever you want wants you. Lord Buddha said: Desire is the root of all evils and misery.

Q=Um=en==iv=>y=t=e v=h<in=r<, y=q==dx==e* m=D=en= c= +  ,

y=q==eDb=en==v=&t==e g=B=*s=<, t=q== t=en=edm=< a=v=&t=m=< ++àè++

a=v=&t=] N=n=m=< At=en=, N=in=n==e in=ty=v=Eir[== +

k:=m=Op=e[= k:=Ent=ey=, du{p=Ure[==n=D=en= c= ++àï++

**j=Es=e Q=uA] s=e aign=, a=Er Q=UiD= s=e dp=*[= $k: j==t== hE t=q== j=er s=e g=B=* $k:= rht== hE, v=Es=e hI k:=m= a=tm=N=n= k:=e $k: det== hE. (à.àè) he k:=Ent=ey= (aj=*un=), aign= ke: s=m==n= k:B=I t=&pt= n= h=en=ev==D== k:=m= ap=n=e in=ty= x=F=u ,N=n=, k:=e $k: det== hE. (à.àï)

 

what does this great enemy do, where is his residence ,  given in three verses:

 

As a fire is covered by smoke, as a mirror by dust, and as an embryo by the amnion, similarly, Self-knowledge gets covered by (different degrees of this insatiable) lust, the eter­nal enemy of even the wise ones. (3.38-39)

            Lust and Self-knowledge are eternal enemies. Lust can be destroyed only by Self-knowledge. Where lust resides and how one should control the senses to subjugate lust, are given below:

 

wòn7y==i[= m=n==e b=ui3r<, asy==òQ={@=n=m=< Wcy=t=e +

At=Er< iv=m==ehy=ty=< A{=, N=n=m=< a=v=&ty= deihn=m=< ++åî++

**win7y==], m=n=, a=Er b=ui3 k:=m= ke: in=v==s= sq==n= k:he j==t=e hE]. y=h k:=m= win7y==], m=n=, a=Er b=ui3 k:=e ap=n=e v=x= m=e] k:rke: N=n= k:=e $k:k:r m=n=u{y= k:=e B=!k:= det== hE. (à.åî)

The senses, the mind, and the intellect are said to be the center or the origin of lust. Through these, lust deludes a person by veiling Self-knowledge. (3.40)

t=sm==t=< tv=m=< wòn7y==[y==d=E, in=y=my= B=rt={=*B= +

p==pm==n=] p=>j=ih Äen=], N=n=iv=N=n=n==x=n=m=< ++åâ++

ws=iD=A he aj=*un=, t=um= p=hD=e ap=n=I win7y==e] k:=e v=x= m=e] k:rke:, N=n= a=Er iv=v=ek: ke: n==x=k: ws= p==p=I k:=m=Op=I x=F=u k:= iv=n==x= k:r=e. (à.åâ)

 

Therefore, by controlling the senses first, kill this devil of mate­rial desires (or lust) that destroys Self-knowledge and Self-realization. (3.41)

            Lust arises at three different levels: At the physical level in any one of the ten senses, at emotional level in the mind or at the thought level in the intellect. Therefore, one must carefully guard all three doors through which lust can enter and control our life. This mighty enemy enslaves the intellect by using the mind as its friend and senses and sense objects as its soldiers. These soldiers keep the individual soul deluded and obscure Absolute Truth as a part of the drama of life. The success or failure of our role in action depends on how we handle our individual role and reach our destiny.

            All desires cannot — and need not — be eliminated, but first selfish desires and motives must be eliminated for spiritual progress. All our actions by thought, word and deed, including desires, should be directed to glorify God and for the good of humanity. The scriptures say: The mortal, when freed from the captivity of desires, becomes immortal and attains liberation even in this very life (KaU 6.14, BrU 4.04.07).

HOW TO CONTROL LUST AND REACH THE GOAL

wòn7y==i[= p=r=[y==hur<, wòn7y=eBy=/ p=r] m=n=/ +

m=n=s=s=< t=u p=r= b=ui3r<, y==e b=u3e/ p=rt=s=< t=u s=/ ++åä++

win7y==] x=rIr s=e Xe{@ k:hI j==t=I hE], win7y==e] s=e p=re m=n= hE, a=Er m=n= s=e p=re b=ui3 hE, a=Er a=tm== b=ui3 s=e B=I aty=nt= Xe{@ hE. (à.åä)

The senses are said to be superior (to the body); the mind is superior to the senses; the intellect is superior to the mind; and the Self is supe­rior to the intellect. (See also KaU 1. 03.10-11 and MB 12.204.10) (3.42)

Av=] b=u3e/ p=r] b=ud<Qv==, s=]st=By==tm==n=m=< a=tm=n== +

j=ih x=F=u] m=h=b==h=ee, k:=m=Op=] dur=s=dm=< ++åà++,

**ws= p=>k:=r a=tm== k:=e m=n= a=Er b=ui3 s=e Xe{@ j==n=k:r, (s=ev==, Qy==n=, p=Uj=n=, a=id s=e ik:A huA x=u3) b=ui3 8=r= m=n= k:=e v=x= m=e] k:rke:, he m=h=b==h=e, t=um= ws= duj=*y= k:=m=Op=I x=F=u k:= iv=n==x= k:r=e. (à.åà)

Thus, knowing the Self to be the highest, and controlling the mind by the intellect (that is purified and made strong by Self-knowledge), one must kill this mighty enemy, lust (with the sword of true knowledge of the Self), O Arjuna. (See also KaU 1.03.03-04) (3.43)

Uncontrolled worldly desires will ruin the beau­tiful spiritual journey of life. The scriptures provide ways and means of keeping the desires born in the mind under proper control. The body may be compared to a chariot upon which the individual soul ¾ as pas­senger, owner, and enjoyer ¾ is riding on a spiritual journey to­wards the Supreme Abode of the Lord. Selfless service (KarmaYoga) and Self-knowledge are the two wheels of the chariot, and devotion is its axle. Dharma (righteousness) is the road, and the divine qualities (See 16.01-03) are the milestones. The scriptures are the guiding lights to dispel the darkness of ignorance. Sense objects are the roadside green grasses; likes and dislikes for sense objects, people, and places are the two major stumbling blocks on the path (See 3.34); and lust, anger, greed, pride, attachment, and envy are the roadside plunderers. Friends and relatives are fellow travelers whom we temporarily meet during the journey.

               Intellect is the driver of this char­iot. The five senses are the horses. The success of the spiritual journey depends largely on the strength and skill of the driver, the intellect, to control the mind and five sense-horses. Sense objects leave a deep footprint on our mind that is very hard to erase even after fulfillment of desire. Sense objects are more powerful than five senses. 

            In the hierarchy, the more powerful controls the less powerful. Thus, the senses can be controlled by the mind, because mind is the King of senses. Mind is the sixth sense. The mind is certainly very difficult to control, but it can be controlled by steady practice and detachment (See 6.33-36). Steady practice and detachment may be compared to two chords of the rein to control the mind. The mind can be controlled by the intellect with the help of the rein. Also the whip of moral restraints and regulative principles (See Yama and Niyama in PYS 2.30-32) is used to subdue the senses.

If intellect is not powerful enough to control the mind, the passenger will not reach the goal. Self-knowledge is superior to the intellect. The intellect yoked with the Self through Self-knowledge and contemplation becomes pure and strong to control the mind and the mind will control the senses. Thus it can be seen that Self-knowledge is essential for the success of the spiritual journey. Self-knowledge provides power of purification (See 4.37-38), scriptures supply necessary tools (the rein and the whip) and techniques to the intellect to be able to control the mind.

            The sense-horses must be kept under control of the mind, and the mind under control of the intellect at all times. A single moment of care­lessness may lead the seeker to a downfall. A weak intellect will not be able to control the mind and senses. If intellect is weak, desires for sensual pleasures and the sense objects will control the mind instead of mind controlling the senses. The mind and senses will attack and take control of in­tellect, the weak driver, and lead the passenger away from the goal of salvation into the ditch of transmigration (See 2.67).

            Finally, one must cross the river of illusion (Maya) and ¾ by using the bridge of meditation and the silent repetitive chanting of Lord’s name or a mantra to still the ripples of mind waves ¾ reach the spiritual shore of trance. Those who cannot control the senses will not be able to at­tain Self-realiza­tion, the goal of human birth.

            One must not spoil oneself by wrongful temporary pleasures of the senses. One who can control the senses can control the whole world and achieve success in all endeavors. Passion cannot be completely eliminated, but is subdued by Self-knowledge. The intellect becomes polluted during the youthful years, just as the clear water of a river becomes muddy during the rainy season. Keeping good company and setting a higher goal of life prevent the mind and intellect from becoming tainted by the distractions of sensual pleasures. Those who cannot control the senses may not also be successful in studies and at­tain career goals.

aq= c=t=uq==e*CQy==y=/

CHAPTER 4

N=n=k:m=*s=]ny==s=y==eg=/

PATH  OF RENUNCIATION WITH

KNOWLEDGE

                           XIB=g=v==n=uv==c=

wm=] iv=v=sv=t=e y==eg=], p=>=ekt=v==n=< ahm=< avy=y=m=< +

iv=v=sv==n=< m=n=v=e p=>=h, m=n=ur< wZv==k:v=eCb=>v=It=< ++â++

Av=] p=rmp=r=p=>=pt=m=<, wm=] r=j={=*y==e iv=du/ +

s= k:=D=en=eh m=ht==, y==eg==e n={!/ p=r]t=p= ++ä++

s= Av==y=] m=y== t=eC6, y==eg=/ p=>=ekt=/ p=ur=t=n=/ +

B=kt==eCòs= m=e s=K== c=eit=, rhsy=] Äet=d< WT=m=m=< ++à++

XIB=g=v==n=< b==eD=e¾ m=E]n=e k:m=*y==eg= ke: ws= aiv=n==x=I is=3=nt= k:=e s=Uy=*v=]x=I r=j== iv=v=sv==n=< k:=e is=K==y==, iv=v=sv==n=< n=e ap=n=e p=uF= m=n=uu s=e k:h=, t=q== m=n=u n=e ap=n=e p=uF= wZv==ku: k:=e is=K==y==. ws= p=>k:=r p=rmp=r= s=e p=>=pt= huA k:m=*y==eg= k:=e r=j=i{=*y==e] n=e j==n==, p=rnt=u he p=rnt=p=, b=hut= idn==e] ke: b==d y=h N=n= ws= p=&qv=ID==ek: m=e] D=upt=s== h=e g=y==. t=um= m=ere B=kt= a=Er ip=>y= im=F= h=e, ws=iD=A v=hI p=ur=t=n= k:m=*y==eg= a=j= m=E]n=e t=umhe] k:h= hE, ky==e]ik: y=h k:m=*y==eg= Ak: WT=m= rhsy= hE. (å.â-à)

KARMA-YOGA IS AN ANCIENT FORGOTTEN COMMANDMENT

Lord Krishna said: I taught this KarmaYoga, the eternal science of right ac­tion, to King Vivasvan. Vivasvan taught it to Manu; Manu taught it to Ikshvaku. Thus, the saintly Kings knew this science of proper action (KarmaYoga), handed down in succession. After a long time, this science was lost from this earth. Today, I have described the same ancient science to you because you are my sincere devotee and friend. This science is a supreme secret in­deed. (4.01-03)

            KarmaYoga, discussed in the previous chapter, is declared by the Lord as the supreme secret science of right action. According to Swami Karmananda, a practitioner of KarmaYoga, unless Lord Himself reveals this secret science, no one can practice or even understand it.

aj=u*n= Wv==c=

ap=r] B=v=t==e j=nm=, p=r] j=nm= iv=v=sv=t=/ +

k:q=m=< At=d< iv=j==n=Iy==], tv=m=< a=d=E p=>=ekt=v==n=< wit= ++å++

aj=u*n= b==eD=e¾ a=p=k:= j=nm= t==e aB=I hua= hE t=q== s=Uy=*v=]x=I r=j== iv=v=sv==n=< k:= j=nm= s=&i{! ke: a=id m=e] hua= q==, at=/ m=E] kE:s=e j==n=U] ik: a=p=hI n=e iv=v=sv==n=< s=e ws= y==eg= k:=e k:h= q==? (å.å)

Arjuna said: You were born later, but Vivasvan was born in ancient time. How am I to understand that You taught this science in the begin­ning of the creation? (4.04)

            Arjuna questions how Krishna, a contemporary of Arjuna, could have taught this science of KarmaYoga to King Vivasvan, who was born earlier in ancient times, long before Lord Krishna. The doctrine of Bhagavad-Gita is not just five thousand years old; it is primeval. Lord Krishna restated it in the Gita for the benefit of humanity. All great masters come to rekindle the fire of forgotten Truth. Different people have said everything we hear or read at different times.

THE PURPOSE OF INCARNATION OF GOD

XIB=g=v==n=uv==c=

b=hUin= m=e vy=t=It==in=, j=nm==in= t=v= c==j=*un= +

t==ny=h] v=ed s=v==*i[=, n= tv=] v=etq= p=r]t=p= ++ç++

XIB=g=v==n=< b==eD=e¾ he aj=u*n=, m=ere a=Er t=umh=re b=hut= s==re j=nm= h=e c=uke: hE], Wn= s=b= k:=e m=E] j==n=t== hU] p=r t=um= n=hI] j==n=t=e. (å.ç)

Lord Krishna said: Both you and I have taken many births. I remember them all, O Arjuna, but you do not remember. (4.05)

aj==eCip= s=nn=< avy=y==tm==, B=Ut==n==m=< w*xv=r=eCip= s=n=< +

p=>k&:it=] sv==m=< aiQ={@=y=, s=]B=v==my==tm=m==y=y== ++ê++

y=6ip= m=E] aj=nm==, aiv=n==x=I, t=q== s=m=st= p=>=i[=y==e] k:= w*xv=r hU] if:r B=I ap=n=I p=>k&:it= k:=e aQ=In= k:rke: ap=n=I y==eg=m==y== s=e p=>k:! h=et== hU]. (å.ê)

Though I am eternal, immutable, and the Lord (Ishvara, controller) of all beings, yet I manifest Myself by controlling material Nature, using My own divine potential energy, Yoga-Maya. (See also 10.14) (4.06)

            Yoga-m|y| (Divine Light, Brahma-jyoti, Noor) is the creative power (ænanda-%akti) of Lord K&^[a. Mah|-m|y| is the fractional reflection of Yoga-m|y|. K|la-m|y| is the reflection of Mah|-m|y|. And the illusory energy (M|y|) is the supernatural, ex­traordinary, and mystic power of Eternal Being (Brahma). Mah|-m|y|, K|la-m|y|, and M|y| are also called ædi Prak&ti; and Prak&ti, the material Nature, is considered the reflection of M|y|. Thus Yoga-m|y| is the origin of both M|y| and Prak&ti. Guru Nanak said: “He has created M|y| that deceives and controls us.” The word ‘M|y|‘ also means un­real, illusory, or deceptive image of Reality. Due to the power of M|y|, one considers the universe existent and distinct from Eternal Being (Brahma). The Eternal Light (Brahma-jyoti, Noor, Yoga-m|y|) is the invisible potential en­ergy; M|y| is kinetic energy, the force of action of Brahma. They are inseparable like fire and heat. M|y| is also used as a metaphor to explain the visible world to common people.

y=d= y=d= ih Q=m=*sy=, gD==in=r< B=v=it= B==rt= +

aBy=utq==n=m=< aQ=m=*sy=, t=d=tm==n=] s=&j==my=hm=< ++ë++

p=irF==[==y= s==Q=Un==], iv=n==x==y= c= du{k&:t==m=< +

Q=m=*s=]sq==p=n==q==*y=, s=]B=v==im= y=ug=e y=ug=e ++è++

**he aj=*un=, j=b=-j=b= s=]s==r m=e] Q=m=*k:I h=in=, a=Er aQ=m=* k:I v=&i3 h=et=I hE, t=b=-t=b= ac%e D==eg==e] k:I rZ==, du{!=e] k:= s=]h=r, t=q== Q=m=* s=]sq==p=n== ke: iD=A m=E], p=rb=>É p=rm==tm==, hr y=ug= m=e] av=t=irt= h=et== hU]. (å.ë-è)

Whenever there is a decline of Dharma (Righteousness) and a predominance of Adharma (Unrighteousness), O Arjuna, I manifest Myself. I appear from time to time for protecting the good, for transforming the wicked, and for es­tablishing world order (Dharma). (4.07-08)

            The Supreme Being is both divine and human (AV 4.16.08). Prophets appear from time to time as divine dispensation sees the need for the welfare of so­ci­ety. Whenever miscreants are born to destroy world order (Dharma), the good Lord, Vishnu, incarnates to put everything in proper balance (VR 7.08.27). His compassion is the main reason for Lord’s incarnation (SBS 49). There are other reasons besides the protection of righteousness (Dharma), for the Lord’s incarnation. The Supreme Being, which is beyond birth and death, in­car­nates in human form through a great soul on earth to satisfy the long­ings of devotees who want to see Him and be in His personal presence. Saint Tulasidasa said: Though devoid of material attributes, unattached, and immuta­ble, yet for the love of His votaries, the Lord assumes a form with at­tributes (TR 2.218.03).

            Lord performs many ordinary, human, and also uncommon or controversial pastimes just to please His devotees or to set things right. Ordinary human beings cannot understand the reasons behind these pastimes and, therefore, should not pass judgment on Lord’s activities when He incarnates. Great personalities and incarnations are sometimes known to be acting contrary to the scriptural rules, just as a King has the freedom to break certain rules. These acts are done for a very good purpose and with a reason beyond human comprehension. One should neither criticize nor follow such acts.

            Saints and sages also reincarnate by the will of Krishna. Ramakrishna said that he would live in a subtle body for three hundred years in the hearts and minds of his devotees. Yogananda said: So long as people in this world are crying for help, I shall return to ply my boat and offer to take them to heavenly shores.

j=nm= k:m=* c= m=e idvy=m=<, Av=] y==e v=eiT= t=Tv=t=/ +

ty=ktv== deh] p=un=j=*nm=, n=Eit= m==m=< Ait= s==eCj=*un= ++ï++

he aj=u*n=, m=ere j=nm= a=Er k:m=* idvy= hE]. ws=e j==e m=n=u{y= B=D=IB==]it= j==n= D=et== hE Ws=k:= m=rn=e ke: b==d p=un=j=*nm= n=hI] h=et==, t=q== v=h m=ere D==ek:, p=rm=Q==m=, k:=e p=>=pt= k:rt== hE. (å.ï)

One who truly understands My transcendental appearance and activities of creation, maintenance, and dissolution, attains My Supreme Abode and is not born again after leaving this body, O Arjuna. (4.09)

            One develops love for Krishna by studying and listening to the transcendental birth and sportive acts of the Lord as narrated by the saints and sages in the scriptures. True understanding of the transcendental nature of Lord’s form, His incarnation, and His activities, is the Self-knowledge that leads to salvation.

 

v=It=r=g=B=y=k>:=eQ==, m=nm=y== m==m=< Wp==iXt==/ +

b=hv==e N=n=t=p=s==, p=Ut== m=4=v=m=< a=g=t==/ ++âî++

r=g=, B=y=, a=Er k>:=eQ= s=e riht=, m=uz= m=e] t=DD=In=, m=ere a=iXt=, t=q== N=n=Op=I t=p= s=e p=iv=F= h=ek:r, b=hut= s=e m=n=u{y= m=ere sv=Op= k:=e p=>=pt= h=e c=uke: hE]. (å.âî)

Many have become free from attachment, fear, anger, and at­tained salvation by taking refuge in Me, by becoming fully absorbed in My thoughts and by getting purified by the fire of Self-knowledge. (4.10)

PATH OF WORSHIP AND PRAYER

y=e y=q== m==] p=>p=6nt=e, t==]s=< t=q=Ev= B=j==my=hm=< +

m=m= v=tm==*n=uv=t=*nt=e, m=n=u{y==/ p==q=* s=v=*x=/ ++ââ++

he aj=*un=, j==e B=kt= ij=s= ik:s=I B=I m=n==ek:=m=n== s=e m=erI p=Uj== k:rt=e hE], m=E] Wn=k:I m=n==ek:=m=n== k:I p=Uit=* k:rt== hU]. m=n=u{y= an=ek: p=>k:=r k:I wc%=a=e] k:I p=Uit=* ke: iD=A m=erI x=r[= D=et=e hE]. (å.ââ)

With whatever motive people worship Me, I fulfill their desires accordingly. People worship Me with dif­ferent motives, O Arjuna. (4.11)

            Ask, and you will receive; seek, and you will find; knock, and the door will be opened to you (LUKE 11.09). It is due to divine illusion (Maya) that most people seek temporary material gains, such as health, wealth, and success, and not Self-knowledge and devotion to His lotus feet.

k:=V<Z=nt=/ k:m=*[==] òs=i3], y=j=nt= wh dev=t==/ +

iZ=p=>]] ih m==n=u{=e D==eke:, òs=i3r< B=v=it= k:m=*j== ++âä++

k:m=*f:D= ke: wc%uk: s=]s==r ke: s==Q==r[= m=n=u{y= dev=t==a=e] k:I p=Uj== k:rt=e hE], ky==e]ik: m=n=u{y=D==ek: m=e] k:m=*f:D= x=IG=> hI p=>=pt= h=et=e hE]. (å.âä)

Those who long for success in their work here on earth worship the celestial controllers, Devas. Success in work comes quickly in this hu­man world. (4.12)

            No one, including all Devas, and Brahma, has his or her own power. They all derive their powers from the Supreme Being, ParaBrahma.

             Would you give to your son a stone when he asks you for bread? Your Father in heaven will give good things to those who ask Him (MATTHEW 7.09-11). When you ask for something in prayer, have faith and believe that you have received it, and it will be given to you (Mark 11.24). In prayer one asks the Lord’s help in getting what one needs; in worship one adores, glorifies, and thanks Him for what one has. One should first be aware of and contemplate one’s plight, feel helpless in getting out of the difficulty, then seek divine help ¾ through prayer ¾ in a state of helplessness with intense faith. Lord will take the first step if you know your plight and seek His help for transformation. Show yourself ¾ open up, confess ¾ to the Lord as you are in prayer; be specific in what you ask; and cry for His help.

            All prayers are answered, but prayers for the benefit of others are given first priority. Lord actually knows our needs at all times and is simply waiting to be asked for help due to our free will. Meditation is listening to God by stilling the mind and assuming a receptive posture in order to hear Lord’s instructions, insights, and revelations. For example, embrace the attitude: Thank You for answering my prayers and for all You have given me, but now what do You want me to do with what You have given? Then, having said that, be still and alert, and just try to listen. Pray so that you can talk to God and tell Him how you are and what you have been doing. Meditate so that God can effectively tell you what you are supposed to do.

DIVISION OF LABOR IS BASED ON THE APTITUDE OF PEOPLE

c==t=uv=*[y=*] m=y== s=&{!], g=u[=k:m=*iv=B==g=x=/ +

t=sy= k:t==*rm=< aip= m==], iv=3Y< ak:t==*rm=< avy=y=m=< ++âà++

**m=ere 8=r= hI c==r=e v=[=* ap=n=e-ap=n=e g=u[=, sv=B==v=, a=Er oic= ke: an=us==r b=n==A g=A hE]. s=&i{! k:I rc=n== a=id k:m=* ke: k:t==* h=en=ep=r B=I m=uz= p=rm=exv=r k:=e aiv=n==x=I a=Er ak:t==* hI j==n=n== c==ihA. (ky==e]ik: p=>k&:it= ke: g=u[= hI s=]s==r c=D== rhe hE]) (å.âà)

I created the four divisions of human society based on aptitude and vocation. Though I am the author of this system of division of labor, one should know that I do nothing (directly), and I am eternal. (See also 18.41) (4.13)

n= m==] k:m==*i[= iD=mp=ònt=, n= m=e k:m=*f:D=e sp=&h= +

wit= m==] y==eCiB=j==n==it=, k:m=*iB=r< n= s= b=Qy=t=e ++âå++

m=uz=e k:m=* k:= b=]Q=n= n=hI] D=g=t==, ky==e]ik: m=erI wc%= k:m=*f:D= m=e] n=hI] rht=I hE. ws= rhsy= k:=e j==e vy=ikt= B=D=IB==]it= s=m=z=k:r m=er= an=us=r[= k:rt== hE, v=h B=I k:m=* ke: b=]Q=n==e] s=e n=hI] b=]Q=t== hE. (å.âå)

Work or Karma does not bind Me because I have no desire for the fruits of work. One who fully knows Me thus (and practices this truth) is also not bound by Karma. (4.14)

            Those who want to be first must place themselves last and be the servant of all (Mark 10.44). All works, including prayers, should be undertaken for a just cause, rather than just for personal gain.

Av=] N=tv== k&:t=] k:m=*, p=Uv=*EEr< aip= m=um=uZ=uiB=/ +

ku:o k:m=*EEv= t=sm==t=< tv=], p=U<v=*EE/ p=Uv=*t=r] k&:t=m=< ++âç++

p=>=c=In=k:=D= ke: m=um=uZ=ua=]e n=e ws= rhsy= k:=e j==n=k:r k:m=* ik:A hE]. ws=iD=A t=um= B=I ap=n=e k:m==e*] k:= p==D=n= WnhI] k:I t=rh k:r=e. (å.âç)

The ancient seekers of salvation also performed their duties without concern for the fruits. Therefore, you should do your duty as the ancients did. (4.15)

ATTACHED, DETACHED, AND FORBIDDEN ACTION

ik:} k:m=* ik:m=< ak:m=e*it=, k:v=y==eCpy=< aF= m==eiht==/ +

t=t=< t=e k:m=* p=>v=Zy==im=, y=j=< N=tv== m==eZy=s=eCx=uB==t=< ++âê++

iv=8=n=< m=n=u{y= B=I B=>im=t= h=e j==t=e hE] ik: k:m=* ky== hE, t=q== ak:m=* ky== hE, ws=iD=A m=E] t=umhe] k:m=* ke: rhsy= k:=e s=m=z==t== hU]; ij=s=e j==n=k:r t=um= k:m=* ke: b=]Q=n==e] s=e m=ukt= h=e j==a=eg=e. (å.âê)

Even the wise are confused about what is action and what is inaction. Therefore, I shall clearly explain what is action, knowing which you shall be liberated from the evil (of birth and death). (4.16)

k:m=*[==e Äip= b==e3vy=], b==e3vy=] c= iv=k:m=*[=/ +

ak:m=*[=xc= b==e3vy=], g=hn== k:m=*[==e g=it=/ ++âë++

s=k:=m= k:m=*, iv=k:m=* aq==*t=< p==p=k:m=*, t=q== in={k:=m=k:m=* (aq==*t=< ak:m=*) ke: sv=Op= k:=e B=D=IB==]it= j==n=D=en== c==ihA, ky==e]ik: k:m=* k:I g=it= b=hut= hI ny==rI hE. (å.âë)

The true nature of action is very difficult to understand. Therefore, one should know the nature of attached action, the nature of detached ac­tion, and also the nature of forbidden action. (4.17)

            Attached action is selfish work, done in the mode of passion that produces Karmic bondage and leads to transmigration. Detached action is unselfish work, done in the mode of goodness that leads to salvation. Detached action is considered to be inaction because from the Karmic viewpoint, it is as if no action was performed. Action forbidden by the scriptures, done in the mode of ignorance, is harmful to both the doer and society. It creates misfortunes here and hereafter.

A KARMA-YOGI IS NOT SUBJECT TO THE KARMIC LAWS

k:m=*[y=< ak:m=* y=/ p=xy=ed<, ak:m=*i[= c= k:m=* y=/ +

s= b=ui3m==n=< m=n=u{y=e{=u, s= y=ukt=/ k&:tsn=k:m=*k&:t=< ++âè++

**j==e m=n=u{y= k:m=* m=e] ak:m=*, t=q== ak:m=* m=e] k:m=* deK=t== hE v=hI N=n=I, y==eg=I, t=q== s=m=st= k:m==e*]e*] k:= k:rn=e v==D== hE. (ap=n=e k:=e k:t==* n=hI] m==n=k:r p=>k&:it= ke: g=u[==e] k:=e hI k:t==* m==n=n== k:m=* m=e] ak:m=*, t=q== ak:m=* m=e] k:m=* deK=n== k:hD==t== hE) (å.âè)

One who sees inaction in action and action in inaction, is a wise person. Such a person is a yogi and has accomplished everything. (See also 3.05, 3.27, 5.08 and 13.29) (4.18)

            All acts are the acts of Eternal Being’s (Brahma’s) Divine Light (BrahmaJyoti, Noor), the inactively active actor. The Bible says: The words you speak are not yours; they come from the Spirit of your Father (MATTHEW 10.20). The wise perceive the inac­tive, infinite, and invisible reservoir of potential energy of the Supreme as the ultimate source of all visible kinetic energy in the cosmos, just as invisible electricity runs a fan. The urge and power to do action come from the Supreme Being. Therefore, one should spiritualize all work by perceiving that one does nothing at all and everything is done by the energy of the Supreme Being, using us only as an instrument.

y=sy= s=v=e* s=m==rmB==/, k:=m=s=]k:Dp=v=òj=*t==/ +

N=n==ògn=dgQ=k:m==*[=], t=m=< a=hu/ p=ò[#t=] b=uQ==/ ++âï++

ij=s=ke: s==re k:m==e*] ke: s=]k:Dp= N=n=Op=I aign= s=e j=D=k:r sv==q=*riht= h=e g=y=e hE], v=Es=e m=n=u{y= k:=e N=n=Ij=n= p=i[#t= k:ht=e hE]. (å.âï)

One whose desires have become selfless by being roasted in the fire of Self-realization, is called a sage by the wise. (4.19)

ty=ktv== k:m=*f:D==s=V<g=], in=ty=t=&pt==e in=r=Xy=/ +

k:m=*[y=< aiB=p=>v=&T==eCip=, n=Ev= ik]:ic=t=< k:r=eit= s=/ ++äî++

**j==e m=n=u{y= k:m=*f:D= m=e] a=s=ikt= k:= s=v=*q== ty==g=k:r, p=rm==tm== m=e] in=ty=t=&pt= rht== hE, t=q== (B=g=v==n=< ke: is=v==) ik:s=I k:= a=Xy= n=hI] rK=t==, v=h k:m=* k:rt=e huA B=I (v==st=v= m=e]) k:u% B=I n=hI] k:rt== hE (t=q== ak:m=* rhn=e ke: k:=r[= k:m=* ke: b=]Q=n==e] s=e s=d= m=ukt= rht== hE). (å.äî)

One who has abandoned attachment to the fruits of work and remains ever content and dependent on no one (but Krishna), such a person, though engaged in activity, does nothing at all (and incurs no Karmic reaction). (4.20)

in=r=x=Ir< y=t=ic=T==tm==, ty=kt=s=v=*p=irg=>h/ +

x==rIr] ke:v=D=] k:m=*, ku:v=*n=< n==pn==eit= ik:iDb={=m=< ++äâ++

j==e a=x== riht= hE, ij=s=ke: m=n= a=Er wind>y==] v=x= m=e] hE], ij=s=n=e s=b= p=>k:=r ke: sv==im=tv= k:= p=irty==g= k:r idy== hE, Aes== m=n=u{y= x=rIr s=e k:m=* k:rt== hua= B=I p==p= (aq==*t=< k:m=* ke: b=]Q=n=) k:=e p=>=pt= n=hI] h=et== hE. (å.äâ)

One who is free from desires, whose mind and senses are under control, and who has renounced all pro­prietorship, does not incur sin ¾ the Karmic reaction ¾ by doing bodily action. (4.21)

y=d&c%=D==B=s=]t=u{!=e, 8n8=t=It==e iv=m=ts=r/ +

s=m=/ òs=3=v=< aòs=3=E c=, k&:tv==ip= n= in=b=Qy=t=e ++ää++

ap=n=e a=p= j==e ku:% B=I p=>=pt= h=e Ws=m=e] s=]t=u{! rhn=e v==D==, 8n8=e] s=e at=It=, w*{y==* s=e riht=, t=q== s=f:D=t== a=Er as=f:D=t== m=e] s=m=B==v= v==D== k:m=*y==eg=I k:m=* k:rt== hua= B=I k:m=* ke: b=]Q=n==e] s=e n=hI] b=]Q=t== hE. (å.ää)

A KarmaYogi ¾ who is content with whatever gain comes naturally by His will, who is unaffected by pairs of opposites, and free from envy, tranquil in success and failure ¾ is not bound by Karma. (4.22)

g=t=s=V<g=sy= m=ukt=sy=, N=n==v=òsq=t=c=et=s=/ +

y=N=y==c=rt=/ k:m=*, s=m=g=>] p=>iv=D=Iy=t=e ++äà++

ij=s=k:I m=m=t== t=q== a=s=ikt= s=v=*q== im=! g=y=I hE, ij=s=k:= ic=T= N=n= m=e] isq=t= hE, Aes=e p=r=ep=k:=rI m=n=u{y= ke: k:m=* ke: s=B=I b=]Q=n= iv=D=In= h=e j==t=e hE]. (å.äà)

All Karmic bonds of a KarmaYogi ¾ who is free from attachment, whose mind is fixed in Self-knowl­edge, and who does work as a service to the Lord ¾ dissolve away. (4.23)

b=>É=p=*[=] b=>É hiv=r<, b=>É=gn==E b=>É[== hut=m=< +

b=>ÉEv= t=en= g=nt=vy=], b=>Ék:m=*s=m==iQ=n== ++äå++

**y=N k:= ap=*[=, Q=I, aign=, t=q== a=huit= den=e v==D== s=B=I p=rb=>É p=rm==tm== hI hE. ws= t=rh j==e s=b= ku:% m=e]e p=rm==tm== k:= hI sv=Op= deK=t== hE, v=h p=rm==tm== k:=e p=>=pt= h=et== hE. (å.äå)

The divine Spirit (Brahma or Eternal Being) has become everything. Divinity (Brahma, Self or Spirit) shall be real­ized by one who considers everything as a manifestation (or an act) of Brahma. (Also see 9.16) (4.24)

            Life itself is an ever-burning fire where sacrificial ceremony is go­ing on constantly. Every action must be thought of as a holy sacrifice, a holy act. Everything is not the Eternal Being (Brahma), but Brahma is the root or basis of everything. One attains salvation and becomes one with Brahma, without losing one’s identity, when one per­ceives Brahma in every action, per­ceives the things one uses as a transformation of Brahma, and realizes that the very process of all action is also Brahma. Thus salvation or Mukti is not the destruction of individual soul (Jeeva), but the realization of one’s true nature that Jeeva is like Brahma.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF SPIRITUAL  PRACTICES OR SACRIFICES

dEv=m=< Av==p=re y=N], y==eig=n=/ p=y=*up==s=t=e +

b=>É=gn==v=< ap=re y=N], y=Nen=Ev==ep=j=uh<v=it= ++äç++

 

X=eF==dIn=Iòn7y==[y=< any=e, s=]y=m==ògn={=u j=uh<v=it= +

x=bd=dIn=< iv={=y==n=< any=e, wòn7y==ògn={=u j=uh<v=it= ++äê++

s=v==*[=Iòn7y=k:m==*i[=, p=>=[=k:m==*i[= c==p=re +

a=tm=s=]y=m=y==eg==gí=EE, j=uh<v=it= N=n=dIip=t=e ++äë++

7vy=y=N=s=< t=p==ey=N=, y==eg=y=N=s=< t=q==p=re +,

sv==Qy==y=N=n=y=N=xc=, y=t=y=/ s=]ix=t=v=>t==/ ++äè++

k:=ew* y==eg=Ij=n= dev=t==a=e] ke: p=Uj=n=Op=I y=N k:rt=e hE], a=Er dUs=re N=n=Ij=n= b=>ÉOp=I aign= m=e] y=N ke: 8=r= (s=ev==Op=I) y=N k:= hv=n= k:rt=e h]E. (å.äç)

any= y==eg=ID==eg= X=eF==id s=m=st= wind>y==e] k:= s=]y=m=Op=I aign= m=e] hv=n= k:rt=e hE], t=q== ku:% D==eg= x=bd=id iv={=y==e] k:= wind>y=Op=I aign= m=e] hv=n= k:rt=e hE]. (å.äê)

dUs=re y==eg=Ij=n= s=mp=U[=* wind>y==e] ke:, a=Er p=>=[==e] ke: k:m==e*] k:=e N=n= s=e p=>k:=ix=t= a=tm=s=]y=m=y==eg=Op=I aign= m=e] hv=n= k:rt=e hE]. (å.äë)

dUs=re s==Q=k: 7vy=y=N, t=p=y=N, t=q== y==eg=y=N k:rt=e hE], a=Er dUs=re k:i@n= v=>t= k:rn=ev==D=e sv==Qy==y=, a=Er N=n=y=N k:rt=e hE]. (å.äè)

Some yogis perform the service of worship1 to celestial controllers (Devas), while others offer sacrifice of selfless service2 to the fire of the Eternal Being. (4.25)

Some offer their hearing and other senses as sacrifice in the fires of restraint3; others offer sound and other objects of the senses4 (as sacri­fice) in the fires of the senses. (4.26)

Others offer all the functions of the senses5 and the functions of the five bioimpulses (life forces)6 as sacrifice in the fire of self-re­straint that is kindled by Self-knowledge. (4.27)

Others offer their wealth, their austerity8, and their practice of ashtang yoga9 as sacrifice, while the ascetics with strict vows offer their study of scrip­tures10 and knowledge as sacrifice. (4.28)

 

ap==n=e j=uh<v=it= p=>=[=]  p=>=[=eCp==n=] t=q==p=re +

p=>=[==p==n=g=t=I od<Qv==  p=>=[==y==m=p=r=y=[==/ ++äï++      

Some are engaged in controlling the breathing process by breathing in (Pr|na), then stopping the breath for a while (called in Kumbhak) before breathing out (Ap|na) and stopping the out breath (called out Kumbhak) using yogic breathing techniques. (4.29)

               Deep spiritual meaning and interpretation of the practical yogic techniques mentioned in verses 4.29, 4.30, 5.27, 6.13, 8.10, 8.12, 8.13, 8.24, and 8.25 cannot be explained here. They should be acquired from a qualified teacher and practiced under supervision to avoid hidden dangers of meditation.

            The breathing process can be slowed down by: (1) watching the breath going in and coming out as one watches the ocean waves going up and down, (2) practicing of diaphragmatic (or deep yogic) breathing, and (3) using yogic techniques and KriyaYoga. The aim of yogic practice is to achieve the superconscious or breathless state of trance by gradually mastering the breathing process.

ap=re in=y=t==h=r=/  p=>=[==n=< p=>=[=e{=u j=uh<v=it= +

s=v=e*Cpy=et=e y=Niv=d=e  y=NZ=ip=t=k:Dm={==/ ++àî++

Others restrict their diet and stop the breath after breathing in (known as in Kumbhak). All these people are the knowers of sacrifice, and their minds become puri­fied by their sacrifice. (4.30)

y=Nix={!=m=&t=B=uj==e, y==ònt= b=>É s=n==t=n=m=< +

n==y=] D==ek:=eCsty=< ay=Nsy=, ku:t==eCny=/ ku:os=T=m= ++àâ++

**he ku:oXe{@ (aj=*un=), y=N ke: p=>s==dOp=I N=n==m=&t= k:=e p=>=pt=k:r y==eg=Ij=n= s=n==t=n= p=rb=>É p=rm==tm== k:=e p=>=pt= k:rt=e hE]. y=N n= k:rn=e v==D=e m=n=u{y= ke: iD=A p=rD==ek: t==e ky==, y=h m=n=u{y= D==ek: B=I s=uK=d=y=k: n=hI] h=et==. (å.àâ)

Those who perform selfless service obtain the nectar of Self-knowledge as a result of their sacrifice and attain the Supreme Being. O Arjuna, if even this world is not a peaceful place for the non-sacrificer, how can the other world be? (See also 4.38, and 5.06). (4.31)

Av=] b=huiv=Q== y=N=, iv=t=t== b=>É[==e m=uK=e +

k:m=*j==n=< iv=i3 t==n=< s=v==*n=<, Av=] N=tv== iv=m==eZy=s=e ++àä++

v=ed=e] m=e] Aes=e an=ek: p=>k:=r ke: y=N=e] k:= v=[=*n= ik:y== g=y== hE. Wn= s=b= y=N=e] k:=e t=um= (x=rIr, m=n=, a=Er win7y==e] k:I) ik>:y== 8=r= s=mp=á h=en=e v==D=e j==n==e. ws= p=>k:=r j==n=k:r t=um= (k:m=*b=nQ=n= s=e) m=ukt= h=e j==a=eg=e. (å.àä)

Many types of spiritual disciplines are described in the Vedas. Know that all of them are the action of body, mind, and senses prompted by the forces of Nature. Understanding this, one shall attain Nirvana or salvation. (See also 3.14) (4.32)

            In order to attain salvation, spiritual discipline or sacrifice should be performed as a duty without attachment and with full understanding that oneself is not the doer.

A SUPERIOR SPIRITUAL PRACTICE

Xey==n=< 7vy=m=y==d< y=N=j=<, N=n=y=N/ p=r]t=p= +

s=v=]* k:m==*òK=D=] p==q=*, N=n=e p=irs=m==py=t=e ++àà++

**he p=r]t=p= aj=*un=, N=n=y=N 7vy=y=N s=e Xe{@ hE, ky==e]ik: he p==q=*, t=Tv=N=n= k:I p=>=ipt= hI s==re s==Q=n== k:= D=Zy= aq==*t=< p=r=k:={@= hE. (å.àà)

The acquisition and propagation of Self-knowledge are superior to any material gain or gift, O Arjuna. Because all spiritual practices in their entirety culminate in Self-knowledge. (4.33)

Purification of mind and intellect eventually leads to the dawn of transcendental knowledge and Self-realization ¾ the sole purpose of any spiritual practice.

t=d< iv=i3 p=>i[=p==t=en=, p=irp=>xn=en= s=ev=y== +

Wp=deZy=ònt= t=e N=n=], N=in=n=s=< t=Tv=dix=*n=/ ++àå++

**Ws= t=Tv=N=n= k:=e t=um= b=>Éin={@ a=c==y=* ke: p==s= j==k:r; Wnhe] a=dr, ij=N=s==, t=q== s=ev== s=e p=>s=á k:rke: s=IK==e. t=Tv=dx=I* N=n=I m=n=u{y= t=umhe] t=Tv=N=n= k:= Wp=dex= de]g=e. (å.àå)

Acquire this transcendental knowledge from a Self-realized master by humble reverence, by sin­cere inquiry, and by service. The empowered ones, who have realized the Truth, will give you this knowledge. (4.34)

            Contact with great souls who have realized the truth is helpful. Reading scriptures, giving charity, and doing spiritual practices alone may not give God-realization. Only a God-realized soul can awaken and kindle another soul. But no guru can give a se­cret for­mula for Self-realization without His grace. The Vedas say: One who knows the land gives direction to the one who does not know and asks (RV 9.70.09). It is also said that the precepts of Truth are essentially an individual process. People discover the truth by their own ef­forts. One has to row his or her boat through the turbulent waters of this material world.

            The Vedas prohibit the sale of God in any form. They say: O mighty Lord of countless wealth, I will not sell thee for any price (RV 8.01.05). The role of a guru is that of a guide and a giver, not of a taker. Before accepting a human guru, one must first have — or develop — full faith in the guru and leave the guru’s human frailties out of consideration, take the pearls of wisdom and throw away the oyster shells. If this is not possible, it should be remembered that the word ‘guru’ also means the light of Self-knowledge that dispels ignorance and delusion; and the light comes — automatically — from the Supreme Being, the internal guru, when one’s mind is purified by selfless service, spiritual practice, and surrender.

            There are four categories of gurus: A false guru, guru, realized guru, and the divine guru. In this age too many false gurus are coming to teach or just give a mantra for a price. These false gurus are the merchants of mantra. They take money from disciples to fulfill their personal material needs without giving the true knowledge of the Supreme Being. Jesus also said: Watch out for false prophets; they come to you looking like sheep on the outside, but they are really like wild wolves on the inside (MATTHEW 7.15). Saint Tulasidasa said that a guru who takes money from disciples and does not remove their ignorance, goes to hell (TR 7.98.04). A guru is one who imparts true knowledge and complete understanding of the Absolute and the temporal. A realized guru is a Self-realized master mentioned in this verse here. A realized guru helps the devotee maintain God-consciousness all the time by his or her own vested spiritual power.

            When the mind and intellect are purified, Supreme Lord, the divine guru, reflects Himself in the inner psyche of a devotee and sends a guru or a realized guru to him or her. A real guru is a giver. He never asks any money or a fee from a disciple because he depends on God only. A real guru would not ask anything from a disciple for personal or even for organization­al gain. However, a disciple is obliged to do the best he or she can to help the cause of the guru. It is said that one should not accept any fee from a pupil without giv­ing full instruction and understanding of the Absolute, divine kinetic energy (Maya), temporal material Nature, and the living entity (BrU 4.01.02).

            The Spirit within us is the divine guru. Outside teachers only help us in the beginning of the spiritual journey. Our own intellect — when purified by selfless service, prayer, meditation, worship, silent chanting of Lord’s name, congregational chanting of holy names, and scriptural study — becomes the best channel and guide for the flow of divine knowledge (See also Gita 4.38, and 13.22). The Divine Being within all of us is the real guru, and one must learn how to tune in with Him. It is said that there is no greater guru than one’s own pure mind. A pure mind becomes a spiritual guide and the inner divine guru leading to a real guru and Self-realization. This is expressed by the common saying that the guru comes to a person when he or she is ready. The word ‘guru’ also means vast and is used to de­scribe the Supreme Being — the divine guru and internal guide.

            The wise spiritual master disapproves the idea of blind personal service, or the guru cult, which is so common in India. A Self-realized (SR) master says that God only is the guru, and all are His disciples. A disciple should be like a bee seeking honey from flowers. If the bee does not get honey from one flower, it immediately goes to another flower and stays at that flower as long as it gets the nectar. Idoliza­tion and blind worship of a human guru may become a stumbling block in spiritual progress and is harmful to both the disciple and the guru.

y=j=< N=tv== n= p=un=r< m==ehm=<, Av=] y==sy=òs= p==[#v= +

y=en= B=Ut==ny=< ax=e{=e[=, 7Zy=sy=< a=tm=ny=< aq==e m=iy= ++àç++

ij=s=e j==n=k:r t=um= p=un=/ ws= p=>k:=r B=>m= k:=e n=hI] p=>=pt= h=eg=e; t=q== he aj=*un=, ws= N=n= ke: 8=r= s=]p=U[=* B=Ut==e] k:=e t=um= a=tm== ¾ aq==*t= m=uz= p=rb=>É p=rm==tm== ¾ m=e] deK==eg=e. (å.àç)

After knowing the transcendental science, O Arjuna, you shall not again become deluded like this. With this knowledge you shall see the entire creation within your own higher Self and thus within Me. (See also 6.29, 6.30, 11.07, 11.13) (4.35)

            The same life-force of the Supreme Being reflects in all living beings to support and activate them. Therefore, we are all part and parcel of the cosmic energy of Brahma, the Self, and connected with each other. At the dawn of enlightenment, one merges within the Absolute (Gita 18.55), and all diversities appear as nothing but the expansion of one’s own higher Self.

aip= c=ed< aòs= p==p=eBy=/, s=v=e*By=/ p==p=k&:T=m=/ +

s=v=*] N=n=pD=v=en=Ev=, v=&òj=n=] s=]t=ir{y=is= ++àê++

s=b= p==ip=y==e] s=e aiQ=k: p==p= k:rn=e v==D== m=n=u{y= B=I s=mp=U[=* p==p=Op=I s=m=u7 k:=e b=>ÉN=n=Op=I n==Ek:= 8=r= in=/s=ndeh p==r k:r j==y=g==. (å.àê)

Even if one is the most sinful of all sinners, one shall cross over the river of sin by the raft of Self-knowledge. (4.36)

y=q=EQ==]òs= s=im=3=eCògn=r<<, B=sm=s==t=< ku:ot=eCj=*un= +

N=n==ògn=/ s=v=*k:m==*i[=, B=sm=s==t=< ku:ot=e t=q== ++àë++

**ky==e]ik: he aj=*un=, j=Es=e aign= D=k:#ªI k:=e j=D== det=I hE, v=Es=e hI N=n=Op=I aign= k:m=* (ke: s==re b=]Q=n==e]) k:=e B=sm= k:r (m=uikt= k:= 8=r K==el)det=I hE. (å.àë)

The fire of Self-knowledge reduces all bonds of Karma to ashes, O Arjuna, like the blazing fire reduces wood to ashes. (4.37)

            The Bible also says: You shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free (JOHN 8.32). The fire of Self-knowledge burns all past Karma ¾ the root cause of the soul’s transmigration ¾ just as fire instantly burns a mountain of cotton. The present action does not produce any new Karma because the wise know that all work is done by the forces of nature; therefore, people are not the doer. Thus, when Self-knowledge dawns, only a part of the past Karma, known as fate that is responsible for the present birth, has to be exhausted before freedom from transmigration is attained by the enlightened person.

            The physical body and mind generate new Karma; the subtle body carries the fate; and the causal body is the repository of past Karma. Karma produces body, and body generates Karma. Thus, the cycle of birth and death continues indefinitely. Only selfless service can break this cycle, and selfless service is not possible without Self-knowledge. Thus, transcendental knowledge breaks the bonds of Karma and leads to salvation. This knowledge does not manifest to a sinful person ¾ or to any person whose time to receive the spiritual knowledge has not come.

            Loss and gain, life and death, fame and infamy lie in the hands of one’s Karma. Fate is all-powerful. This being so, one should neither be angry nor blame anybody (TR 2.171.01). People know virtue and vice, but one’s choice is ordained by fate or Karmic footprints because the mind and intellect are con­trolled by fate. When success does not come in spite of best efforts, it may be concluded that fate precedes endeavor.

TRANSCENDENTAL KNOWLEDGE IS AUTOMATICALLY REVEALED TO A KARMA-YOGI

n= ih N=n=en= s=d&x=], p=iv=F=m=< wh iv=6t=e +

t=t=< sv=y=] y==eg=s=]òs=3/, k:=D=en==tm=in= iv=ndit= ++àè++

**ws= s=]s==r m=e] t=Tv=N=n= ke: s=m==n= (ant=/k:r[= k:=e) x=u3 k:rn=e v==D== in=/s=]deh ku:% B=I n=hI] hE. Ws= t=Tv=N=n= k:=e, @Ik: s=m=y= a=n=e p=r, k:m=*y==eg=I ap=n=e a=p= p=>=pt= k:r D=et== hE. (å.àè)

Truly, there is no purifier in this world like the true knowledge of the Supreme Being. One discovers this knowledge within, naturally, in course of time (when one’s mind is cleansed of selfishness by KarmaYoga). (See also 4.31, 5.06, and 18.78). (4.38)

            The intense fire of devotion to God burns all Karma and purifies and illuminates the mind and intellect just as sunlight illumines the earth (BP 11.03.40). Selfless service should be per­formed to the best of one’s ability until purity of mind is attained (DB 7.34.15). True knowledge of the Self is automatically reflected in a pure consciousness (Chitta). KarmaYoga cleanses the dirt of selfishness from the mind and prepares it to receive Self-knowledge. Selfless service (KarmaYoga) and Self-knowledge are thus the two wings to take one to salvation.

X3=v==]\D=< D=B=t=e N=n=], t=tp=r/ s=]y=t=eòn7y=/ +

N=n=] D=bQv== p=r=] x==ònt=m=<, aic=re[==iQ=g=c%it= ++àï++

X3=v==n=<, s==Q=n=-p=r=y=[=, a=Er ij=t=ein7y= m=n=u{y= t=Tv=N=n= k:=e p=>=pt=k:r x=IQ=> hI p=rm= x==int= (m==eZ=) k:=e p=>=pt= k:rt== hE. (å.àï)

One who has faith in God, is sincere in yogic practice, and has control over the mind and senses, gains this transcendental knowledge. Having gained this knowledge, one quickly attains su­preme peace or liberation. (4.39)

            The fires of mental grief and sorrows, born of at­tachment, can be completely extinguished by the water of Self-knowledge (MB 3.02.26). There is no basis for right thought and action without Self-knowledge.

aNxc==Xd<dQ==n=xc=, s=]x=y==tm== iv=n=xy=it= +

n==y=] D==ek:=eeCòst= n= p=r=e, n= s=uK=] s=]x=y==tm=n=/ ++åî++

iv=v=ek:hIn=, X3=hIn=, t=q== s=]x=y= k:rn=e v==D=e (n==ist=k:) m=n=u{y= k:= a=v==g=m=n= h=et== hE. s=]x=y= k:rn=e v==D=e ke: iD=A n= y=h D==ek: hE, n= p=rD==ek: hE, a=Er n= s=uK= hI hE. (å.åî)

The irrational, the faithless, and the disbeliever (atheist) perish (or transmigrate). There is neither this world nor the world beyond nor happi­ness for a disbeliever. (4.40)

BOTH TRANSCENDENTAL KNOWLEDGE AND KARMA-YOGA ARE NEEDED

y==eg=s=]ny=st=k:m==*[=], N=n=s=]ò%nn=s=]x=y=m=< +

a=tm=v=nt=] n= k:m==*i[=, in=b=Qn=ònt= Q=n=]j=y= ++åâ++

he Q=n=]j=y= aj=*un=, ij=s=n=e k:m=*y==eg= ke: 8=r= s=m=st= k:m==e*] k:=e p=rm==tm== m=e] ap=*[= k:r idy== hE, t=q== N=n= a=Er iv=v=ek: 8=r= ij=n=ke: (p=rm==tm== ke: b==re m=e]) s=m=st= s=]x=y==e] k:= iv=n==x= h=e c=uk:= hE, Aes=e a=tm=N=n=I m=n=u{y= k:=e k:m=* n=hI] b==]Q=t=e hE] (å.åâ)

Work does not bind a Self-conscious person who has renounced work ¾ by renouncing the fruits of work ¾ through KarmaYoga and whose confusion (with regard to body and Spirit) is completely de­stroyed by Self-knowledge, O Arjuna. (4.41)

t=sm==d< aN=n=s=]B=Ut=], Åtsq=] N=n==òs=n==tm=n=/ +

ò%Tv=En=] s=]x=y=] y==eg=m=<, a=it={@=eiT={@ B==rt= ++åä++

**ws=iD=A he B=rt=v=]x=I aj=*un= t=um= ap=n=e m=n= m=e] isq=t= ws= aN=n=j=in=t= s=]x=y= k:=e N=n=Op=I t=D=v==r 8=r= k:=!k:r s=m=tv=Op=I k:m=*y==eg= m=e] isq=t= h=ek:r ap=n== k:m=* (aq==*t=< y=u3) k:r=e. (å.åä)

Therefore, cut the ignorance-born confusion (with regard to body and Spirit) by the sword of Self-knowledge, resort to KarmaYoga, and get up for the war, O Arjuna. (4.42)

aq= p=Jc=m==eCQy==y=/

F

CHAPTER 5

k:m=*s=]ny==s=y==eg=/

PATH OF RENUNCIATION

aj=*un= Wv==c=

s=]ny==s=] k:m=*[==] k&:{[=, p=un=r< y==eg=] c= x=]s=òs= +

y=c%Mey= At=y==er< Ak]:, t=n=< m=e b=>Uih s=uin=ûxc=t=m=< ++â++

aj=*un= v==eD=e¾ he k&:{[=, a=p= k:m=*s=]ny==s= a=Er k:m=*y==eg= d=en==e] k:I p=>x=]s== k:rt=e hE]. wn= d=en==e] m=e] Ak: j==e in=ixc=t=Op= s=e k:Dy==[=k:=rI h=e Ws=e m=ere iD=A k:ihy=e. (ç.â)

Arjuna asked: O Krishna, You praise the path of transcendental knowledge, and also the path of selfless service (KarmaYoga). Tell me, definitely, which one is the better of the two paths?   (See also 5.05) (5.01)

            Renunciation means complete renouncement of doership, ownership, and motive behind an action, not the renuncia­tion of work or worldly objects. Renunciation comes only af­ter the dawn of Self-knowledge. Therefore, the words ‘renunciation’ and ‘Self-knowledge’ are used interchangeably in the Gita. Renunciation is considered the goal of life. Selfless service (Seva, KarmaYoga) and Self-knowledge are the necessary means to achieve the goal. True renunciation is attaching all action and possession — including body, mind, and thought — to the service of the Supreme.

XIB=g=v==n=uv==c=

s=]ny==s=/ k:m=*y==eg=xc=, in=/Xey=s=k:r=v=< WB==E +

t=y==es=< t=u k:m=*s=]ny==s==t=<, k:m=*y==eg==e iv=ix={y=t=e ++ä++

XIB=g=v==n=< b==eD=e¾ k:m=*s=]ny==s= a=Er k:m=*y==eg= y=e d=en==e] hI p=rm= k:Dy==[=k:=rk: hE], p=rnt=u Wn= d=en==e] m=e] k:m=*s=]ny==s= s=e k:m=*y==eg= Xe{@ hE. (ç.ä)

Lord Krishna said: The path of Self-knowledge and the path of selfless service both lead to the supreme goal. But of the two, the path of selfless service is superior to path of Self-knowledge (because it is easier to practice for most people). (5.02)

Ney=/ s= in=ty=s=]ny==s=I, y==e n= 8ei{! n= k:=V<Z=it= +

in=8*n8=e ih m=h=b==h=e, s=uK=] b=nQ==t=< p=>m=ucy=t=e ++à++

j==e m=n=u{y= n= ik:s=I s=e 8e{= k:rt== hE, a=Er n= ik:s=I v=st=u k:I a=k:=]Z== k:rt== hE, v=Es=e m=n=u{y= k:=e s=d= s=]ny==s=I hI s=m=z=n== c==ihA; ky==e]ik: he m=h=b==h=e, r=g=-8e{==id 8n8=e] s=e riht= m=n=u{y= s=hj= hI b=nQ=n=-m=ukt= h=e j==t== hE. (ç.à)

A person should be considered a true renunciant who has nei­ther attachment nor aversion for anything. One is easily liberated from Karmic bondage by becoming free from attachment and aversion. (5.03)

BOTH PATHS LEAD TO THE SUPREME

s==]Ky=y==eg==E p=&q=gb==D==/, p=>v=dònt= n= p=û[#t==/ +

Ak:m=< apy=< a=òsq=t=/ s=my=g=<, WB=y==er< iv=ndt=e f:D=m=< ++å++

**aN=n=I D==eg= hI, n= ik: p=i[#t=j=n=, k:m=*s=]ny==s= a=Er k:m=*y==eg= k:=e Ak: dUs=re s=e iB=á s=m=z=t=e hE]; ky==e]ik: wn= d=en==e] m=e] s=e ik:s=I Ak: m=e] B=I ac%I t=rh s=e isq=t= m=n=u{y= d=en==e] ke: f:D= k:=e p=>=pt= k:r D=et== hE. (ç.å)

The ignorant — not the wise — consider the path of Self-knowledge and the path of selfless service (KarmaYoga) as different from each other. The person who has truly mastered one, gets the benefits of both. (5.04)

y=t=< s==]Ky=E/ p=>=py=t=e sq==n=], t=d< y==eg=Er< aip= g=my=t=e +

Ak:} s==]Ky=] c= y==eg=] c=, y=/ p=xy=it= s= p=xy=it= ++ç++

**N=n=y==eig=y==e] 8=r= j==e Q==m= p=>=pt= ik:y== j==t== hE, k:m=*y==eig=y==e] 8=r= B=I v=hI p=>=pt= ik:y== j==t== hE. at=/ j==e m=n=u{y= k:m=*s=]ny==s= a=Er k:m=*y==eg= k:=e f:D=Op= m=e] Ak: deK=t== hE, v=hI v==st=v= m=e] deK=t== (aq==*t=< s=m=z=t==) hE. (ç.ç)

Whatever goal a renunciant reaches, a KarmaYogi also reaches the same goal. Therefore, one who sees the path of renunciation and the path of unselfish work as the same, really sees. (See also 6.01 and 6.02) (5.05)

s=]ny==s=s=< t=u m=h=b==h=e, du/K=m=< a=pt=um=< ay==eg=t=/ +

y==eg=y=ukt==e m=uin=r< b=>É, n=ic=re[==iQ=g=c%it= ++ê++

**he aj=*un=, k:m=*y==eg= k:I in=/sv==q=* s=ev== ke: ib=n== x=u3 s=]ny==s=-B==v= (aq==*t=< s=mp=U[=* k:m==e]]]** m=e] k:t==*p=n= ke: B==v= k:= ty==g=) k:= p=>=pt= h=en== k:i@n= hE. s=cc== k:m=*y==eg=I x=IG=> hI p=rm==tm== k:=e p=>=pt= k:rt== hE. (ç.ê)

But true renunciation (the renunciation of doership and ownership), O Arjuna, is difficult to attain without KarmaYoga. A sage equipped with KarmaYoga quickly attains Nirvana. (See also 4.31, 4.38, 5.08) (5.06)

            Selfless service (KarmaYoga) provides the preparation, discipline, and purification necessary for renunciation. Self-knowledge is the upper limit of KarmaYoga, and renunciation of doership and ownership is the upper limit of Self-knowledge.

y==eg=y=ukt==e iv=x=u3=tm==, iv=òj=t==tm== òj=t=eòn7y=/ +

s=v=*B=Ut==tm=B=Ut==tm==, ku:v=*nn=< aip= n= òD=py=t=e ++ë++

in=m=*D= ant=/k:r[= v==D== k:m=y==eg=I ij=s=k:= m=n= a=Er win7y==] ap=n=e v=x= m=e] hE, a=EEr j==e s=B=I p=>=i[=y==e] m=e] Ak: hI a=tm== k:=e deK=t== hE, v=h k:m=* k:rt=e huA B=I Wn=s=e iD=pt= n=hI] h=et==. (ç.ë)

A KarmaYogi, whose mind is pure, whose mind and senses are under control, and who sees one and the same Spirit in all beings, is not bound by Karma, though engaged in work. (5.07)

A TRANSCENDENTALIST DOES NOT CONSIDER ONESELF AS THE DOER

n=Ev= ik:}ic=t=< k:r=em=Iit=, y=ukt==e m=ny=et= t=Tv=iv=t=< +,

p=xy=J=< x=&[v=n=< sp=&x=J=< òj=G=>nn=< axn=n=< g=c%n=< sv=p=J=< xv=s=n=< ++

p=>D=p=n=< iv=s=&j=n=< g=&h<[=nn=<<, Wònm={=n=< in=im={=nn=< aip= +

wòn7y==[=Iòn7y==q=e*{=u, v=t=*nt= wit= Q==ry=n=< ++ï++

t=Tv=N=n= k:=e j==n=n=e v==D== k:m=*y==eg=I Aes== s=m=z=t== hE ik: m=E] t==e ku:% B=I n=hI] k:rt== hU]. deK=t==, s=un=t==, sp=x=* k:rt==, s=U]G=t==, K==t==, c=D=t==, s==et==, xv==s= D=et==, det==, D=et==, b==eD=t==, t=q== a=]K==e] k:=e K==eD=t== a=Er b=nd k:rt== hua= B=I v=h Aes== j==n=t== hE ik: s=m=st= win7y==] hI ap=n=-ap=n=e iv={=y==e] m=e] iv=c=r[= k:r rhI hE]. (ç.è- ï)

The wise who know the truth think: "I do nothing at all.” In seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, eating, walking, sleeping, breath­ing, speaking, giving, taking, as well as opening and closing the eyes; the wise be­lieve that only the senses are operating upon their objects. (See also 3.27, 13.29, and 14.19) (5.08-09)

            Senses need not be subdued if the activities of the senses are spiritualized by perceiving that all work, good or bad, is done by the powers of God.

A KARMA-YOGI WORKS FOR GOD

b=>É[y=< a=Q==y= k:m==*i[=, s=V<g=] ty=ktv== k:r=eit= y=/ +

òD=py=t=e n= s= p==p=en=, p=5p=F=m=< wv==mB=s== ++âî++

**j==e m=n=u{y= k:m=*f:D= m=e] a=s=ikt= k:= ty==g=k:r, s=B=I k:m==e*] k:=e p=rm==tm== m=e] ap=*[= k:rt== hE, v=h k:m=D= ke: p=T=e k:I t=rh p==p=Op=I j=D= s=e k:B=I iD=pt= n=hI] h=et==. (ç.âî)

One who does all work as an offering to God — abandoning attachment to results — remains untouched by Karmic reaction or sin, just as a lo­tus leaf never gets wet by water. (5.10)

            A KarmaYogi does not work with selfish motives and therefore does not incur any sin. Selfless service is always sinless. Selfishness is the mother of sin. One becomes happy, peaceful, purified, and enlightened by performing one’s prescribed duties as an offering to God while remaining detached inwardly.

k:=y=en= m=n=s== b=u3Y=, ke:v=D=Er< wòn7y=Er< aip= +

y==eig=n=/ k:m=* ku:v=*ònt=, s=V<g=] ty=ktv==tm=x=u3y=e ++ââ++

k:m=*y==eg=Ij=n= x=rIr, m=n=, b=ui3, a=Er win7y==e] 8=r= a=s=ikt= k:=e ty==g=k:r ke:v=D= ant=/k:r[= k:I x=ui3 ke: iD=A hI k:m=* k:rt=e hE]. (ç.ââ)

The KarmaYogis perform action ¾ without attachment ¾ with their body, mind, intellect, and senses only for the purification of their mind and intellect. (5.11)

y=ukt=/ k:m=*f:D=] ty=ktv==, x==ònt=m=< a=pn==eit= n=Ei{@k:Im=< +

ay=ukt=/ k:=m=k:=re[=, f:D=e s=kt==e in=b=Qy=t=e ++âä++

**k:m=*y==eg=I k:m=*f:D= k:=e ty==g=k:r (aq==*t=< p=rm=exv=r k:=e ap=*[=k:r) p=rm= x==int= k:=e p=>=pt= h=et== hE, a=Er s=k:=m= m=n=u{y= k:m=*f:D= m=e] a=s=ikt= ke: k:=r[= b=]Q= j==t== hE. (ç.âä)

A KarmaYogi attains Supreme peace by abandoning attachment to the fruits of work, while others who are attached to the fruits of work become bound by desire-prompted work. (5.12)

THE PATH OF KNOWLEDGE

s=v=*k:m==*i[= m=n=s==, s=]ny=sy==st=e s=uK=] v=x=I +

n=v=8=re p=ure dehI, n=Ev= ku:v=*n=< n= k:=ry=n=< ++âà++

k:m=*y==eg=I s=B=I k:m==e*] (ke: f:D= m=e] a=s=ikt=) k:=e s=v=*q== ap=n=e m=n= s=e h!=k:r ¾ n= k:=ew* k:m=* k:rt== hua=, a=Er n= k:rv==t== hua= ¾ n==E 8=r v==D=e x=rIrOp=I G=r m=e] s=uK= s=e rht== hE. (ç.âà)

A person, who has completely renounced the attachment to the fruits of all work from his or her mind, dwells happily in the City of Nine Gates, neither performing nor directing action. (5.13)

            The human body has been called the City of Nine Gates (or openings) in the scriptures. The nine openings are: Two openings each for the eyes, ears, and nose; and one each for the mouth, anus, and urethra. The Lord of all beings and the universe who resides in this city as an individual soul or the living entity (Jiva) is called the Spiritual Being (Purusha) performing and directing all action.

n= k:t=*&tv=] n= k:m==*i[=, D==ek:sy= s=&j=it= p=>B=u/ +

n= k:m=*f:D=s=]y==eg=], sv=B==v=s=< t=u p=>v=t=*t=e ++âå++

w*xv=r p=>=i[=y==e] m=e] k:t==*p=n=, k:m=*, t=q== k:m=*f:D= ke: s=]y==eg= k:=e v==st=v= m=e] n=hI] rc=t== hE. p=>k&:it= m==] hI (ap=n=e g=u[==e] s=e) s=b= ku:% k:rv==t=I hE. (ç.âå)

The Lord neither creates the urge for action nor the feeling of doership nor the attachment to the results of action in people. The powers of material Nature do all these. (5.14)

n==dT=e k:sy=ic=t=< p==p=], n= c=Ev= s=uk&:t=] iv=B=u/ +

aN=n=en==v=&t=] N=n=], t=en= m=uÄònt= j=nt=v=/ ++âç++

w*xv=r ik:s=I ke: p==p= a=Er p=u[y= k:m=* k:= B==g=I n=hI] h=et==. aN=n= ke: 8=r= N=n= k:=e $k: j==n=e ke: k:=r[= hI s=b= j=Iv= B=>im=t= h=et=e hE] (t=q== p==p= k:m=* k:rt=e hE]). (ç.âç)

The Lord does not take responsibility for the good or evil deeds of anybody. The veil of ignorance covers Self-knowledge; thereby people become deluded and do evil deeds. (5.15)

            God does not punish or reward anybody. We our­selves do this by the misuse or the right use of our own power of rea­soning and free will. Bad things happen to good people to make them better.

N=n=en= t=u t=d< aN=n=], y=e{==] n==ix=t=m=< a=tm=n=/ +

t=e{==m=< a=idty=v=j=< N=n=], p=>k:=x=y=it= t=t=< p=rm=< ++âê++

p=rnt=u ij=n=k:= aN=n= t=Tv=N=n= 8=r= n={! h=e j==t== hE, Wn=k:= t=Tv=N=n= s=Uy=* k:I t=rh s=icc=d=n=nd p=rm==tm== k:=e p=>k:=ix=t= k:r det== hE. (ç.âê)

Transcendental knowledge destroys the ignorance of the Self and reveals the Supreme Being, just as the sun reveals the beauty of objects of the world. (5.16)

t=d<b=u3y=s=< t=d=tm==n=s=<, t=inn={@=s=< t=tp=r=y=[==/ +

g=c%nty=< ap=un=r=v=&iT=], N=n=in=Q=U*t=k:Dm={==/ ++âë++

**ij=n=k:= m=n= a=Er ij=n=k:I b=ui3 p=rm==tm== m=e] isq=t= hE, p=rm==tm== m=e] ij=n=k:I in={@= hE, b=>É hI ij=n=k:= p=rm= D=Zy= hE, Aes=e m=n=u{y= N=n= ke: 8=r= p==p=riht= h=ek:r p=rm=g=it= k:=e p=>=pt= h=et=e hE] (aq==*t=< Wn=k:= p=un=j=*nm= n=hI] h=et==). (ç.âë)

Persons whose mind and intellect are totally merged in the Eternal Being, who are firmly devoted to the Supreme, who have God as their supreme goal and sole refuge, and whose impurities are destroyed by the knowledge of the Self, do not take birth again. (5.17)

ADDITIONAL MARKS OF AN ENLIGHTENED PERSON

iv=6=iv=n=y=s=]p=nn=ee, b=>=É[=e g=iv= hòst=in= +

x=uin= c=Ev= xv=p==ke: c=, p=ò[#t==/ s=m=dòx=*n=/ ++âè++

**N=n=Ij=n= (s=b==e] m=e] p=rm==tm== k:=e hI deK=n=e ke: k:=r[=) iv=6= a=Er iv=n=y= s=e s=mp=á b=>=É[=, t=q== g==y=, h=q=I, ku:T=e, c==[#=D=, a=id s=b==e] k:=e s=m=B==v= s=e deK=t=e hE]. (ç.âè)

An enlightened person — by perceiving God in all — looks at a learned person, an outcast, even a cow, an elephant, or a dog with an equal eye. (See also 6.29) (5.18)

            Just as a person does not consider parts of the body, such as arms and legs, different from the body itself, similarly a Self-realized person does not consider any living entity different from all pervading Eternal Being (BP 4.07.53). Such a person sees God everywhere, in everything, and in every being. After discovering the metaphysical truth, one looks at everything with reverence, compassion, and kind­ness because everything in the material world is part and parcel of the cosmic body of Lord Vishnu.

whEv= t=Er< òj=t=/ s=g==e*, y=e{==] s==my=e òsq=t=] m=n=/ +

in=d=e*{=] ih s=m=] b=>É, t=sm==d< b=>Éi[= t=e òsq=t==/ ++âï++

Aes=e s=m=dx=0* m=n=u{y==e] n=e ws=I j=Iv=n= m=e] hI s=]s==r ke: s=mp=U[=* k:=y==e*] k:=e s=m==pt= k:r iD=y== hE. v=e b=>É m=e] hI isq=t= rht=e hE], ky==e]ik: b=>É in=d=e*{= a=Er s=m= hE. (ç.âï)

Everything has been accomplished in this very life by one whose mind is set in equality. Such a person has realized the Supreme Being because the Supreme Being is flawless and impartial. (See also 18.55) (5.19)

            To have a feeling of equality for everybody is the greatest worship of God (BP 7.08.10). Those who do not have such a feeling discriminate. Therefore, the victims of injustice and discrimination should feel sorry for the discriminator and pray to the Lord for a change of the discriminator’s heart rather than get upset, angry, or vengeful.

n= p=>Å{y=et=< ip=>y=] p=>=py=, n==ei8j=et=< p=>=py= c==ip=>y=m=< +

òsq=rb=ui3r< as=]m=U$=e, b=>Éiv=d< b=>Éi[= òsq=t=/ ++äî++

j==e m=n=u{y= ip=>y= k:=e p=>=pt=k:r hi{=*t= n= h=e, a=Er aip=>y= k:=e p=>=pt=k:r Wi8gn= n= h=e; Aes== isq=rb=ui3, s=]x=y=riht=, a=Er b=>É k:=e j==n=n=e v==D== m=n=u{y= p=rb=>É p=rm==tm== m=e] in=ty= isq=t= rht== hE. (ç.äî)

One who neither rejoices on obtaining what is pleasant nor grieves on obtaining the unpleasant, who has a steady mind, who is undeluded, and who is a knower of the Supreme Being ¾ such a person eternally abides with the Supreme Being. (5.20)

b==Äsp=x=e*{v=< as=kt==tm==, iv=ndty==tm=in= y=t=< s=uK=m=< +

s= b=>Éy==eg=y=ukt==tm==, s=uK=m=< aZ=y=m=< axn=ut=e ++äâ++

**Aes== b=>Éy=ukt= vy=ikt= ¾ ap=n=e ant=/k:r[= m=e] b=>É=n=nd k:=e p=>=pt=k:r ¾ win7y==e] ke: iv={=y==e] s=e an==s=kt= h=e j==t== hE, a=Er aiv=n==x=I p=rm= s=uK= k:= an=uB=v= k:rt== hE. (ç.äâ)

Such a person who is in union with the Supreme Being becomes unattached to external sensual pleasures by discov­ering the joy of the Self (through contemplation) and enjoys transcendental bliss. (5.21)

y=e ih s=]sp=x=*j== B==eg==, du/K=y==en=y= Av= t=e +

a=6nt=v=nt=/ k:=Ent=ey=, n= t=e{=u rm=t=e b=uQ=/ ++ää++

win7y= a=Er iv={=y==e] ke: s=]y==eg= s=e Wtp=á h=en=e v==D=e s=uK==e] k:= a=id a=Er ant= h=et== hE, t=q== v=e (ant= m=e]) du/K= ke: k:=r[= h=et=e hE]. ws=iD=A he k:=Ent=ey=, b=ui3m==n=< m=n=u{y= Wn=m=e] a=s=kt= n=hI] h=et=e. (ç.ää)

Sensual pleasures are, in fact, the source of misery (in the end) and have a begin­ning and an end. Therefore, the wise, O Arjuna, do not rejoice in sensual pleas­ures. (See also 18.38) (5.22)

            The wise constantly reflect on the futility of sensual pleasures that inevitably become the cause of misery; therefore, they do not become victims of sensual crav­ings.

x=kn==et=IhEv= y=/ s==e$u], p=>=k<: x=rIriv=m==eZ=[==t=< +

k:=m=k>:=eQ==e4v=] v=eg=], s= y=ukt=/ s= s=uK=I n=r/ ++äà++

j==e m=n=u{y= m=&ty=u s=e p=hD=e k:=m= a=Er k>:=eQ= s=e Wtp=á h=en=e v==D=e v=eg= k:=e s=hn= k:rn=e m=e] s=m=q=* h=et== hE, v=hI y==eg=I hE, a=Er v=hI s=uK=I hE. (ç.äà)

One who is able to withstand the impulses of lust and anger before death is a yogi and a happy person. (5.23)

y==eCnt=/s=uK==eCnt=r=r=m=s=<, t=q==nt=r< jy==eit=r< Av= y=/ +

s= y==eg=I b=>Éin=v==*[=], b=>ÉB=Ut==eCiQ=g=c%it= ++äå++

j==e y==eg=I a=tm== m=e] hI s=uK= p==t== hE, a=tm== m=e] hI rm=[= k:rt== hE, t=q== a=tm=N=n=I hE, v=h b=>Éin=v==*[= aq==*t=< m=uikt= p=>=pt= k:rt== hE. (ç.äå)

One who finds happiness with the Supreme Being, who rejoices with the Supreme Being within, and who is illuminated by Self-knowledge ¾ such a yogi attains Nirvana and goes to the Supreme Being. (5.24)

D=B=nt=e b=>Éin=v==*[=m=<, P{=y=/ Z=I[=k:Dm={==/ +,

ò%nn=8EQ== y=t==tm==n=/, s=v=*B=Ut=iht=e rt==/ ++äç++`

ij=n=ke: s=b= p==p= n={! h=e g=y=e hE], ij=n=ke: s=B=I s=]x=y= N=n= 8=r= n={! h=e c=uke: hE], ij=n=k:= m=n= v=x= m=e] hE, a=Er j==e s=B=I p=>=i[=y==e] ke: iht= m=e] rt= rht=e hE]; Aes=e b=>Év=eT== m=n=u{y= b=>É k:=e p=>=pt= h=et=e hE]. (ç.äç)

Seers whose sins (or imperfections) are destroyed, whose doubts about the existence of the Universal Self have been dispelled by Self-knowledge, whose minds are disciplined, and who are engaged in the welfare of all beings, attain the Supreme Being. (5.25)

k:=m=k>:=eQ=iv=y=ukt==n==], y=t=In==] y=t=c=et=s==m=< +

aiB=t==e b=>Éin=v==*[=], v=t=*t=e iv=idt==tm=n==m=< ++äê++

k:=m= a=Er k>:=eQ= s=e riht=, j=It=e huA ic=T= v==D=e, t=q== a=tm=N=n=I y=it=y==e] k:=e a=s==n=I s=e b=>Éin=v==*[= k:I p=>=ipt= h=et=I hE. (ç.äê)

Those who are free from lust and anger, who have subdued the mind and senses, and who have realized the existence of the Self, easily attain Nirvana. (5.26)

THE PATH OF DEVOTIONAL MEDITATION AND CONTEMPLATION

sp=x==*n=< k&:tv== b=ihr< b==Ä=]x=<, c=Z=uxc=Ev==nt=re B=>uv==e/ +

p=>=[==p==n==E s=m==E k&:tv==, n==s==By=nt=rc==ir[==E ++äë++

y=t=eòn7y=m=n==eb=ui3r<, m=uuin=r< m==eZ=p=r=y=[=/ +

iv=g=t=ec%=B=y=k>:=eQ==e, y=/ s=d= m=ukt= Av= s=/ ++äè++

iv={=y==e] k:= ic=nt=n= n= k:rt== hua=, n=eF==e] k:I d&i{! k:=e B==E]h=e] ke: b=Ic= m=e] isq=t= k:rke:, n==is=k:= m=e] iv=c=rn=e v==D=e p=>=[= a=Er ap==n= v==y=u k:=e s=m= k:rke:, ij=s=k:I win7y==], m=n= a=Er b=ui3 v=x= m=e] hE, j==e m==eZ= p=r=y=[= hE, t=q== j==e wc%=, B=y= a=Er k>:=eQ= s=e s=v=*q== riht= hE; v=h m=uin= s=d= m=ukt= hI hE. (ç.äë-äè)

A sage is, in truth, liber­ated by renouncing all sense enjoyments, focusing the eyes and the mind between the eye-brows, equalizing the breath moving through the nostrils by using yogic techniques, keeping the senses, mind, and intellect under control, having salvation as the prime goal, and by becoming free from lust, anger, and fear. (5.27-28)

            The invisible astral channels of flow of energy in the human body are called Nadis. When the cosmic currents — flowing through Nadis in the astral spinal cord — are separated by the opening of the main Sushumna Nadi by the practice of yogic techniques, breath flows through both nostrils with equal pressure; the mind calms down; and the field is prepared for deep meditation leading to trance.

B==ekt==r] y=Nt=p=s==], s=v=*D==ek:m=hexv=rm=< +

s=uÅd] s=v=*B=Ut==n==], N=tv== m==] x==ònt=m=< Pc%it= ++äï++

m=er= B=kt= m=uz=k:=e s=b= y=N a=Er t=p==e] k:= B==ekt==, s=mp=U[=* D==ek:=e] k:= m=hexv=r, a=Er s=m=st= p=>=i[=y==e] k:= im=F= j==n=k:r x==int= k:=e p=>=pt= k:rt== hE. (ç.äï)

One attains everlasting peace by knowing Me, the Supreme Being, as the enjoyer of sacrifices and austerities, as the great Lord of the entire universe, and as the friend of all beings. (5.29)

aq= {={@=eCQy==y=/

CHAPTER 6

a=tm=s=]y=m=y==eg=/

PATH OF MEDITATION

XIB=g=v==n=uv==c=

an==iXt=/ k:m=*f:D=], k:=y=*] k:m=* k:r=eit= y=/ +

s= s=]ny==s=I c= y==eg=I c=, n= in=rògn=r< n= c==ik>:y=/ ++â++

**XIB=g=v==n=< b==eD=e¾ j==e m=n=u{y= ke:v=D= k:m=*f:D= (k:= B==eg=) ke: iD=A hI k:m=* n=hI] k:rt== hE, v=hI s=cc== s=]ny==s=I a=Er y==eg=I hE; ke:v=D= aign= k:= ty==g= k:rn=e v==D== s=]ny==s=I n=hI] h=et==, t=q== ik>:y==a=e] k:= ty==g=n=e v==D== y==eg=I n=hI] h=et==. (ê.â)

A KARMA-YOGI IS A RENUNCIANT

Lord Krishna said: One who performs the prescribed duty with­out seeking its fruit (for personal enjoyment) is both a renunciant and a KarmaYogi. One does not become a renunciant merely by not lighting the fire, and one does not become a yogi merely by abstaining from work. (6.01)

y=] s=]ny==s=m=< wit= p=>=hur<, y==eg=] t=] iv=i3 p==[#v= +

n= Ä< as=]ny=st=s=]k:Dp==e, y==eg=I B=v=it= k:xc=n= ++ä++

**he p==[#v=, ij=s=e s=]ny==s= k:ht=e hE], Ws=I k:=e t=um= k:m=*y==eg= s=m=z==e; ky==e]ik: sv==q=* ke: ty==g= ke: ib=n== m=n=u{y= k:m=*y==eg=I n=hI] h=e s=k:t==. (ê.ä)

O Arjuna, renunciation (Samnyasa) is the same as KarmaYoga because, no one becomes a KarmaYogi who has not renounced the mo­tive behind an action. (See also 5.01, 5.05, 6.01, and 18.02) (6.02)

A DEFINITION OF YOGA

a=ooZ==er< m=un=er< y==eg=], k:m=* k:=r[=m=< Wcy=t=e +

y==eg==O$sy= t=sy=Ev=, x=m=/ k:=r[=m=< Wcy=t=e ++à++

y=d= ih n=eòn7y==q=e*{=u, n= k:m=*sv=< an=u{=jj=t=e +

s=v=*s=]k:Dp=s=]ny==s=I, y==eg==O$s=< t=d=ecy=t=e ++å++,

**in={k:=m= k:m=*y==eg= k:=e s=m=tv=y==eg= k:I p=>=ipt= k:= s==Q=n= k:h= g=y== hE, a=Er y==eg==O$ª s==Q=k: ke: iD=A s=m=tv= (aq==*t=< m==n=is=k: s=]t=uD=n=, a=tm=s=]y=m=) hI w*xv=rp=>=ipt= k:= s==Q=n= hE. j=b= m=n=u{y= win7y==e] ke: B==eg==e] m=e], t=q== k:m=*f:D= m=e] a=s=kt= n=hI] rht== hE, Ws= s=m=y= s=mp=U[=* k:=m=n==a=e] k:= ty==g= k:rn=e v==D=e (s=]t=uiD=t=) vy=ikt= k:=e y==eg=I k:ht=e hE]. (ê.à-å)

For the wise, who seek to attain yoga of meditation or the equanimity of mind, KarmaYoga is said to be the means. For one who has at­tained yoga, equanimity becomes the means of Self-realization. A person is said to have attained yogic perfection when he or she has no desire for sensual pleasures or attachment to the fruits of work and has renounced all motives. (6.03-04)

            Yogic perfection can be achieved only when one does all activities just to please the Supreme Lord Krishna in the spirit of total surrender. KarmaYoga or selfless service produces tranquility of mind. When one per­forms action as a matter of duty without any motive, the mind is not disturbed by the fear of failure; it becomes tranquil, and one at­tains yogic perfection through meditation. The equanimity of mind necessary for Self-realization comes only after giving up all motives and desires. Selfishness is the root cause of other impure desires in the mind. The desireless mind becomes peaceful. Thus KarmaYoga is recommended to persons desiring success in yoga of meditation. Perfection in meditation results in control over the senses, bringing forth tranquility of mind that ultimately leads to God-realization.

MIND IS THE BEST FRIEND AS WELL AS THE WORST ENEMY

W3red< a=tm=n==tm==n=], n==tm==n=m=< av=s==dy=et=< +

a=tm=Ev= Ä=tm=n==e b=nQ=ur<, a=tm=Ev= irp=ur< a=tm=n=/ ++ç++

b=nQ=ur< a=tm==tm=n=s=< t=sy=, y=en==tm=Ev==tm=n== òj=t=/ +

an==tm=n=s=< t=u x=F=utv=e, v=t=e*t==tm=Ev= x=F=uv=t=< ++ê++

**m=n=u{y= ap=n=e m=n= 8=r= ap=n== W3=r k:re, t=q== ap=n== p=t=n= n= k:re; ky==e]ik: m=n= hI m=n=u{y= k:= im=F= B=I hE, a=Er m=n= hI m=n=u{y= k:= x=F=u B=I hE. ij=s=n=e ap=n=e m=n= a=Er win7y==e] k:=ee b=ui3 8=r= j=It= iD=y== hE, Ws=ke: iD=A m=n= Ws=k:= im=F= h=et== hE, p=rnt=u ij=n=k:I win7y==] v=x= m=e] n=hI] h=et=I], Ws=ke: iD=A m=n= x=F=u ke: s=m==n= a=c==r[= k:rt== hE. (ê.ç-ê)

One must elevate ¾ and not degrade ¾ oneself by one’s own mind. The mind alone is one’s friend, as well as one’s enemy. The mind is the friend of those who have control over it, and the mind acts like an enemy for those who do not control it. (6.05-06)

            There is no enemy other than an uncontrolled mind in this world (BP 7.08.10). Therefore, one should first try to control and conquer this enemy by regular practice of meditation with a firm determination and effort. All spiritual practices are aimed towards the conquest of the mind. Guru Nanak said: “Master the mind, and you master the world.” Sage Patanjali defines yoga as control over the activities (or the thought waves, Chitta Vritti) of mind and intellect (PYS 1.02). Firm control of the mind and senses is known as yoga (KaU 6.11). Control of the mind and senses is called austerity and yoga (MB 3.209.53). The purpose of meditation is to control the mind so that one can focus on God and live according to His instructions and will. The mind of a yogi is under control; a yogi is not under the control of the mind. Meditation is effortless control of the natural ten­dency of the mind to wander and tuning it with the Supreme. Yogi Bhajan says: A one-pointed, relaxed mind is the most powerful and creative mind ¾ it can do anything.

            The mind, indeed, is the cause of bondage as well as liberation of the living entity. The mind becomes the cause of bondage when controlled by modes of material Nature, and the same mind, when at­tached to the Supreme, becomes the cause of salvation (BP 3.25.15). The mind alone is the cause of salvation as well as bondage of human beings. The mind becomes the cause of bondage when con­trolled by sense objects, and it becomes the cause of salvation when controlled by the intellect (VP 6.07.28). Absolute control over mind and senses is a prerequisite for any spiritual practice for Self-realization. One who has not become the master of the senses cannot progress to­wards the goal of Self-realization. Therefore, after establishing con­trol over the activities of the mind, one should take the mind away from the enjoyment of sensual pleasures and fix it on God. When the mind is disengaged from sense pleasures and engaged with God, sense impulses become ineffective because the senses obtain their power from the mind. The mind is the ruler of the other five senses. One who becomes master of the mind becomes master of all the senses.

òj=t==tm=n=/ p=>x==nt=sy=, p=rm==tm== s=m==iht=/ +

x=It==e{[=s=uK=du/K=e{=u, t=q== m==n==p=m==n=y==e/ ++ë++

ij=s=n=e m=n= k:=e ap=n=e v=x= m=e] k:r iD=y== hE, v=h s=dI*-g=m=I*, s=uK=-du/K=, t=q== m==n=-ap=m==n= m=e] x==nt= rht== hE; Aes=e ij=t=ein7y= m=n=u{y= k:= m=n= s=d= p=rm==tm== m=e] isq=t= rht== hE. (ê.ë)

One who has control over the lower self ¾ the mind and senses ¾ is tranquil in heat and cold, in pleasure and pain, in honor and dishonor, and remains ever steadfast with the supreme Self. (6.07)

            One can realize God only when the mind becomes tran­quil and completely free from desires and dualities, such as pain and pleasure. However, people are rarely completely free from desires and duality. But one can become free from the bonds of desire and duality if one uses the mind and senses in the service of the Lord. They who master their mind get the spiritual wealth of knowledge and bliss. Self can only be realized when the lake of the mind becomes still, just as the reflection of the moon is seen in a lake when the water is still. (See also 2.70)

N=n=iv=N=n=t=&pt==tm==, kU:!sq==e iv=òj=t=eòn7y=/ +

y=ukt= wty=ucy=t=e y==eg=I, s=m=D==e{!=xm=k:=Jc=n=/ ++è++

b=>ÉN=n= a=Er iv=v=ek: s=e p=irp=U[=*, òj=t=eòn7y=, a=Er s=m=tv= b=ui3 v==D== m=n=u{y= ¾ij=s=ke: iD=A im=!<!I, p=tq=r, a=Er s==en== s=m==n= hE¾ p=rm==tm== s=e y=ukt= aq==*t=< y==eg=I k:hD==t== hE. (ê.è)

A person is called yogi who has both Self-knowledge and Self-realization, who is tranquil, who has control over the mind and senses, and to whom a clod, a stone, and gold are the same. (6.08)

s=uÅònm=F==y=*ud=s=In=-m=Qy=sq=8e{y=b=nQ=u{=u +

s==Q=u{v=< aip= c= p==p=e{=u, s=m=b=ui3r< iv=ix={y=t=e ++ï++

**j==e m=n=u{y= s=uÅd<, im=F=, v=ErI, Wd=s=In=, m=Qy=sq=, 8e{=I s=mb=inQ=y==e], Q=m==*tm==a=e], a=Er p==ip=y==e] m=e] B=I s=m==n= B==v= rK=t== hE, v=h Xe{@ s=m=z== j==t== hE. (ê.ï)

A person is considered superior who is impartial toward companions, friends, enemies, neutrals, arbiters, haters, relatives, saints, and sin­ners. (6.09)

TECHNIQUES OF MEDITATION

y==eg=I y=uJ=<j=It= s=t=t=m=<, a=tm==n=] rhòs= òsq=t=/ +

Ak:=k:I y=t=ic=T==tm==, in=r=x=Ir< ap=irg=>h/ ++âî++

a=x==riht= a=Er sv==im=tv=riht= s==Q=k: ap=n=e m=n= a=Er win7y==e] k:=e v=x= m=e] k:rke:, Ak:=nt= sq==n= m=e] b=E@k:r, Ak:=g=> ic=T= s=e m=n= k:=e in=rnt=r p=rm==tm== ke: Qy==n= m=e] D=g==v=e. (ê.âî)

A yogi, seated in solitude, should constantly contemplate the Supreme Being only; after bringing the mind and senses under control and becoming free from desires and proprietorship. (6.10)

            The place of meditation should have the serenity, solitude, and spiritual atmosphere of odor-free, noise-free, and light-free caves of the Himalayas. Massive, gorgeous buildings with ex­quisite marble figures of celestial controllers are not enough. These often come at the expense of spirituality and help religious commerce only.

            The eight steps of meditation based on Patanjali’s YogaSutras (PYS 2.29) are: (1) Moral restraints, (2) Regulative principles, (3) Right posture and yogic exercises, (4) Yogic breathing, (5) Sense withdrawal, (6) Con­cen­tration, (7) Meditation, and (8) Trance or supercon­scious state of mind.

            One must follow these eight steps, one by one, under proper guidance to make progress in meditation. Use of breathing and concentration techniques without necessary puri­fication of the mind and without sublimation of feelings and desires by moral conduct and spiritual discipline (See 16.24) may lead to a dangerous, neu­rotic state of mind. Patanjali says: The sitting posture for meditation should be stable, relaxed, and comfortable for the individual’s physi­cal body (PYS 2.46).

            Yogic breathing is not the forcible ¾ and often harm­ful ¾ retention of breath in the lungs as is commonly misunderstood and wrongly practiced. Patanjali defines it as control of the Prana ¾ the bioimpulses or the astral life forces ¾ that cause the breath­ing process (PYS 2.49). It is a gradual process of bringing under con­trol or slowing down ¾ by using standard yogic techniques, such as yogic postures, breathing exercises, locks, and gestures ¾ the bioimpulses that activate the motor and sensory nerves that regulate breathing, and over which we normally have no control.

            When the body is super­charged by the huge reservoir of omnipresent cosmic current flowing through the medulla oblongata, the need for breathing is reduced or eliminated and the yogi reaches the breathless state of trance, the last milestone of the spiritual journey. The Upanishad says: No mortal ever lives by breathing oxygen in the air alone. Mortals depend on something else (KaU 5.05). Jesus said: One shall not live by bread (food, water, and air) alone, but by every word (or the cosmic en­ergy) that comes out of the mouth of God (MATTHEW 4.04). The cord of breath ties the living entity (soul) to the body-mind complex. A yogi unties the soul from the body and ties it with the Supersoul during the breath­less state of trance.

            The withdrawal of the senses from the sense-objects is a major obstacle in the attainment of the goal of a yogi. When sense withdrawal has been accomplished, concentration, meditation, and Samadhi become very easy to master. The mind should be controlled and trained to follow the intellect rather than let it be drawn towards and controlled by gross sense objects, such as hearing, touch, sight, taste, and smell. The mind is restless by nature. Watching the natural flow of breath coming in and going out, and alternate breath­ing help to make the mind steady.

            The two most common techniques of sense with­drawal are these: (1) Focus your full attention on the point between the eyebrows. Perceive and expand a sphere of white, rotating light there, (2) Mentally chant a mantra or any holy name of the Lord as quickly as possible for a long time and let the mind get completely absorbed into the sound of mental chanting until you do not hear the ticking sound of a nearby clock. The speed and loudness of mental chanting should be increased with the restlessness of the mind, and vice versa. In meditation, one may tap the power of subconscious mind to achieve a noble desired goal in life.

            Concentration on a particular part of a de­ity, on the sound of a mantra, on the flow of breath, on various energy centers in the body, on the mid-brows, on the tip of the nose, or on an imaginary crimson lotus inside the chest center, stills the mind and stops it from wandering.

x=uc==E dex=e p=>it={@=py=, òsq=rm=< a=s=n=m=< a=tm=n=/ +

n==ty=uòc%Mt=] n==it=n=Ic=], c=ED==òj=n=ku:x==eT=rm=< ++ââ++

t=F=Ek:=g=>] m=n=/ k&:tv==, y=t=ic=T=eòn7y=ik>:y=/ +

Wp=iv=xy==s=n=e y=uJ=<jy==d<, y==eeg=m==tm=iv=x=u3y=e ++âä++

s==Q=k: sv=c% B=Uim= ke: ~p=r k>:m=x=/ ku:x=, m=&g=%=D==, a=Er v=sF= ib=%e huA ap=n=e a=s=n= p=r ¾ j==e n= b=hut= ~]c== a=Er n= b=hut= n=Ic== h=e ¾ b=E@k:r m=n= k:=e p=rm==tm== m=e] Ak:=g=> k:rke:, ic=T= a=Er win7y==e] k:I ik>:y==a=e] k:=e v=x= m=e] k:rke:, ant=/k:r[= k:I x=ui3 ke: iD=A Qy==n=y==eg= k:= aBy==s= k:ree. (ê.ââ-âä)

One should sit on his or her own firm seat that is neither too high nor too low, covered with grass, a deerskin, and a cloth, one over the other, in a clean spot. Sitting there in a comfortable position and concentrating the mind only on God, controlling the thoughts and the activities of the senses, one should practice meditation to purify the mind and senses. (6.11-12)

            A yogi should contemplate any beautiful form of God until the form becomes ever present in the mind. Short meditation with full concentration is better than long meditation without concentration. Fixing the mind on a sin­gle object of contemplation for twelve (12) seconds, two and one-half (2.5) minutes, and half an hour is known as concentration, meditation, and trance, respectively. Meditation and trance are the spontaneous re­sult of concentration. Meditation occurs when the mind stops oscillating off the point of concentration.

            In the lower stage of trance, the mind becomes so centered on a particular part of the deity ¾ such as the face or the feet ¾ that it forgets everything. This is like a dream in a wakeful state where one remains aware of one’s mind, thoughts, and the surround­ings. In the higher stage of trance, the body becomes still and mo­tionless, and the mind experiences various aspects of the Truth. The mind loses its individual identity and becomes one with the cos­mic mind.

             The superconscious state of mind is the highest stage of trance. In this state of mind, the normal human consciousness becomes connected to (or overpowered by) cosmic consciousness; one reaches a thoughtless, pulseless, and breathless state and does not feel anything except peace, joy, and supreme bliss. In the highest state of trance, the energy center (Chakra) on the top of the head opens up; the mind is merged into the infi­nite; and there is no mind or thought, but only the feeling of His transcendental existence, awareness, and bliss. A person who reaches this state is called a sage.

            Attaining the blissful state of trance seems difficult for most people. Muniji gives a simple method. He says: When you are immersed in Him and His work is flowing through you, you become ever happy, ever joyful, and ever blissful.

s=m=] k:=y=ix=r=eg=>Iv=], Q==ry=nn=< ac=D=] òsq=r/ +

s=]p=>eZy= n==òs=k:=g=>] sv=], idx=xc==n=v=D==ek:y=n=< ++âà++

p=>x==nt==tm== iv=g=t=B=Ir<, b=>Éc==irv=>t=e òsq=t=/ +

m=n=/ s=]y=my= m=òcc=T==e, y=ukt= a=s=It= m=tp=r/ ++âå++

ap=n=e x=rIr, g=D=e, a=Er is=r k:=e ac=D= a=Er s=IQ== rK=k:r; k:hI] dUs=rI a=er n= deK=t=e huA, ap=n=I a=]K= a=Er Qy==n= k:=e n==is=k:= ke: ag=> B==g= p=r j=m==k:r, b=>Éc=y=*v=>t= m=e] isq=t=, B=y=m=ukt=, t=q== x==nt= h=ek:r, m=uz=e hI ap=n== p=rm= D=Zy= m==n=k:r, m=uz= m=e] Qy==n= D=g==v=e. (ê.âà-âå)

One should sit by holding the waist, spine, chest, neck, and head erect, motionless and steady; fix the eyes and the mind steadily on the front of the nostril without looking around; make your mind serene and fearless; practice celibacy; have the mind under control; think of Me, and have Me as the supreme goal. (See also 4.29, 5.27, 8.10, and 8.12) (6.13-14)

            Swami Hariharananda suggests keeping pinpointed attention penetrat­ing four inches deep between the eyebrows near the master gland — the pi­tuitary. The Bible says: If your eyes are single, your whole body will (seem to) be full of light (MATTHEW 6.22). Fixing the gaze on the nose tip is one of the gestures of KriyaYoga recommended by Swami Sivananda to awaken the Kundalini power located at the base of the spine. After a little prac­tice each day, the eyes will become accustomed and slightly convergent and see the two sides of the nose. As you gaze at the nose tip, concentrate on the movement of breath through the nos­trils. After ten minutes, close your eyes and look into the dark space in front of your closed eyes. If you see a light, concentrate on it be­cause this light can completely absorb your consciousness and lead you to trance according to yogic scriptures. The beginner should first prac­tice fixing the gaze at the mid-brows, as mentioned in verse 5.27, or at the cerebrum, as hinted in verse 8.12, before learning to fix the gaze on the tip of the nose. The help of a teacher and use of a mantra is highly recommended.

            Celibacy helps to still the mind and awaken the dormant Kundalini. Celibacy and certain breathing exercises cleanse the subtle body. The subtle body is nourished by seminal and ovarian energy, just as the gross body needs food for nour­ish­ment. Sarada Ma warned her disciples not to be intimate with per­sons of the opposite gender even if God came in that form. The role of celibacy in spiritual life is overlooked in the West because it is not an easy task for most people. The individual should choose the right life partner for a successful spiritual journey if celibacy is not possi­ble. It is very dangerous to force celibacy on disciples who are not ready for it. The scripture says: Just as a King, protected by castle walls, wins over the enemy, similarly those who want victory over the mind and senses should try to subdue them by living as a householder (BP 5.01.18).

            Sublimation of the sex impulse precedes enlighten­ment (AV 11.05.05). One sense organ, attached to its object, can drain the intellect, just as one hole in a water pot can empty the water (MS 2.99). One commits sin by engaging senses to sense objects and ob­tains yogic powers by controlling the senses (MS 2.93). Transmutation of the life force of procreative energy leads to yoga. It is difficult but possible to transcend sex by beholding the presence of the divine in the body of all human beings and mentally bowing down to them.

y=uJ=<<j=nn=<< Av=] s=d=tm==n=], y==eg=I in=y=t=m==n=s=/ +                                        start

x==ònt=] in=v==*[=p=rm==], m=ts=]sq==m=< aiQ=g=c%it= ++âç++

ws= t=rh s=d= m=n= k:=e p=rm==tm== m=e] Qy==n= D=g==n=e k:= aBy==s= k:rt== hua= s=]y=im=t= m=n= v==D== y==eg=I p=rm= in=v==*[=Op=I x==int= (aq==*t=< m=uikt=) p=>=pt=k:r m=ere p==s= a=t== hE. (ê.âç)

Thus, by always practicing to keep the mind fixed on Me, the yogi whose mind is subdued attains the Supreme peace of Nirvana and unites with Me. (6.15)

n==ty=xn=t=s=< t=u y==eg==eCòst=, n= c=Ek:=nt=m=< an=xn=t=/ +

n= c==it= sv=pn=x=ID=sy=, j==g=>t==e n=Ev= c==j=*un= ++âê++

p=rnt=u he aj=*un=, y=h y==eg= Ws= m=n=u{y= ke: iD=A s=mB=v= n=hI] h=et== j==e aiQ=k: K==n=e v==D== hE, y== ib=Dku:D= n= K==n=e v==D== hE, t=q== j==e aiQ=k: s==en=e v==D== hE, y== s=d= j==g=n=e v==D== hE. (ê.âê)

This yoga is not possible, O Arjuna, for one who eats too much or who does not eat at all, who sleeps too much or too little. (6.16)

y=ukt==h=riv=h=rsy=, y=ukt=c=e{!sy= k:m=*s=u +

y=ukt=sv=pn==v=b==eQ=sy=, y==eg==e B=v=it= du/K=h= ++âë++

s=m=st= du/K==e] k:= n==x= k:rn=e v==D== y=h y==eg= in=y=im=t= a=h=r a=Er iv=h=r, k:m==e*] m=e] y=q==y==egy= c=e{!=, t=q== y=q==y==egy= s==en=e a=Er j==g=n=e v==D=e k:=e hI is=3 h=et== hE. (ê.âë)

The yoga of meditation destroys all sorrow for the one who is moderate in eating, recreation, working, sleep­ing, and waking. (6.17)

            The Gita teaches that extremes should be avoided at all costs in all spheres of life. This moderation of the Gita was eulogized by Lord Buddha who called it the middle path, the right way, or the noble path. A healthy mind and body are required for successful performance of any spiritual practice. Therefore, it is required that a yogi should regulate his daily bodily functions, such as eating, sleeping, bathing, resting and recreation. Those who eat too much or too little may become sick or fragile. It is recommended to fill half of the stomach with food, one fourth with water, and leave the rest empty for air. If one sleeps more than six hours, one’s lethargy, passion, and bile may increase. A yogi should avoid extreme indulgence in uncontrolled desires as well as the opposite extreme of yogic disci­pline ¾ the torturing of the body and mind.

y=d= iv=in=y=t=] ic=T=m=<, a=tm=ny=< Av==v=it={@t=e +

in=/sp=&h/ s=v=*k:=m=eBy==e, y=ukt= wty=< Wcy=t=e t=d= ++âè++

j=b= p=U[=*Op= s=e v=x= m=e] ik:y== hua= ic=T= s=m=st= k:=m=n==a=e] s=e riht= h=ek:r p=rm==tm== m=e] hI B=D=IB==]it= isq=t= h=e j==t== hE, t=b= m=n=u{y= y==eg=I k:h= j==t== hE. (ê.âè)

A person is said to have achieved yoga, union with the Self, when the perfectly disciplined mind becomes free from all desires and gets completely united with the Self in trance. (6.18)

y=q== dIp==e in=v==t=sq==e, n=eV<g=t=ee s==ep=m== sm=&t== +

y==eig=n==e y=t=ic=T=sy=, y=uJ=<j=t==e y==eg=m=< a=tm=n=/ ++âï++

ij=s= t=rh v==y=uriht= sq==n= m=e] isq=t= dIp=k: c=D==y=m==n= n=hI] h=et==; p=rm==tm== m=e] D=g=e huA y==eg=I ke: s=m==iht= ic=T= k:I v=Es=I hI Wp=m== dI g=y=I hE. (ê.âï)

The lamp (of mind) in a spot sheltered (by wall of the Self) from the wind (of desire) does not flicker. This simile is used for the subdued mind of a yogi absorbed in meditation on the Self. (6.19)

            The sign of yogic perfection is that the mind remains always undisturbed like the flame of a lamp in a windless place.

y=F==ep=rm=t=e ic=T=], in=o3] y==eg=s=ev=y== +

y=F= c=Ev==tm=n==tm==n=], p=xy=nn=< a=tm=in= t=u{y=it= ++äî++

j=b= Qy==n=y==eg= ke: aBy==s= s=e ic=T= x==nt= h=e j==t== hE, t=b= s==Q=k: p=rm==tm== k:=e (Qy==n= s=e x=u3 huA m=n= a=Er) b=ui3 8=r= deK=k:r p=rm==tm== m=e] hI s=]t=u{! rht== hE. (ê.äî)

When the mind, disciplined by the practice of meditation, becomes steady and quiet, one becomes content with the Self by beholding the Self with purified intellect. (6.20)

            The self is present in all living beings as fire is present in wood. Friction makes the presence of fire in the wood visible to the eyes, similarly meditation makes the Self, residing in the body, per­ceivable (MB 12.210.42). A psychophysical transformation (or the superconscious state) of mind in trance is necessary for God-reali­zation. Each of us has access to the superconscious mind that is not limited by time and space.

            One cannot comprehend the Infinite by reason. Reason is powerless to grasp the nature of the beginningless Absolute. The highest faculty is not reasoning but intuition, the comprehension of knowledge coming from the Self and not from the fallible senses or reasoning. Self can be perceived only by the intuitive experience in the highest state of trance and by no other means. Yogananda said: Meditation can enlarge the magic cup of intuition to hold the ocean of infinite wisdom.

s=uK=m=< a=ty=ònt=k:} y=t=< t=d<, b=ui3g=>=Äm=< at=Iòn7y=m=<+

v=eiT= y=F= n= c=Ev==y=], òsq=t=x=< c=D=it= t=Tv=t=/ ++äâ++

m=n=u{y= win7y==e] s=e p=re, b=ui3 8=r= g=>h[= k:rn=e y==egy= an=nt= s=uK= k:= an=uB=v= k:rt== hE; ij=s=e p==k:r v=h p=rm==tm== s=e k:B=I dUr n=hI] h=et==. (ê.äâ)

One feels infinite bliss that is perceivable only through the intellect, and is beyond reach of the senses. After realizing the Absolute Reality, one is never separated from it. (6.21)

y=] D=bQv== c==p=r] D==B=], m=ny=t=e n==iQ=k]: t=t=/ +

y=òsm=n=< òsq=t==e n= du/K=en=, g=uo[==ip= iv=c==Dy=t=e ++ää++

p=rm==tm== k:I p=>=ipt= ke: b==d s==Q=k: Ws=s=e aiQ=k: dUs=r= ku:% B=I D==B= n=hI] m==n=t== hE. ws= av=sq== m=e] isq=t= y==eg=I b=#eª B==rI du/K= s=e B=I iv=c=iD=t= n=hI] h=et== hE. (ê.ää)

After Self-realization (SR), one does not regard any other gain supe­rior to SR. Established in SR, one is not moved even by the greatest calamity. (6.22)

t=] iv=6=d< du/K=s=]y==eg=-iv=y==eg=] y==eg=s=]òNt=m=< +

s= in=xc=y=en= y==ekt=vy==e, y==eg==eCin=iv=*[[=c=et=s== ++äà++

du/K= ke: s=]y==eg= s=e iv=y==eg= hI y==eg= k:hD==t== hE, ij=s=e j==n=n== c==ihA; t=q== ws= Qy==n=y==eg= k:= aBy==s= Wts==h, a=Er in=xc=y=p=Uv=*k: k:rn== c==ihA. (ê.äà)

The state of severance from union with sorrow is called yoga. This yoga should be practiced with firm determination, and without any mental reservation. (6.23)

            Yoga is attained after long, constant, vigor­ous practice of meditation with firm faith (PYS 1.14).

s=]k:Dp=p=>B=v==n=< k:=m==]s=<, ty=ktv== s=v==*n=< ax=e{=t=/ +

m=n=s=Ev=eòn7y=g=>=m=], iv=in=y=my= s=m=nt=t=/ ++äå++

x=n=E/ x=n=Er< Wp=rm=ed<, b=u3Y= Q=&it=g=&hIt=y== +

a=tm=s=]sq=] m=n=/ k&:tv==, n= ik:}ic=d< aip= ic=nt=y=et=< ++äç++

s=mp=U[=* s=k:=m= k:m==e*] k:= p=irty==g=k:r; b=ui3 8=r= s=B=I win7y==e] k:=e ac%I t=rh v=x= m=e] k:rke:; any= ku:% B=I ic=nt=n= n= k:rt== hua=; Q=Ire-Q=Ire aBy=st= b=ui3 8=r= m=n= k:=e p=rm==tm== m=e] D=g==k:r s==Q=k: x==int= p=>=pt= k:rt== hE. (ê.äå-äç)

One gradually attains tranquility of mind by totally abandoning all desires, completely restraining the senses by the intellect, and keeping the mind fully absorbed in the Self by means of a well-trained and purified intellect and thinking of nothing else. (6.24-25)

            When the mind is freed with the help of spiritual practices from the impurities of lust and greed born out of the feeling of ‘I, me, and my’, it remains tranquil in material happiness and distress (BP 3.25.16).

y=t==e y=t==e in=xc=rit=, m=n=xc=Jc=D=m=< aòsq=rm=< +

t=t=s=< t=t==e in=y=my=Et=d<, a=tm=ny=ev= v=x=] n=y=et=< ++äê++

** y=h c=]c=D= a=Er aisq=r m=n= ij=n=-ij=n= iv={=y==e] m=e] iv=c=r[= k:re, hm= m==F= dx=*k:-Op= s=e ap=n=e a=tm== 8=r= s=d= Ws=k:= p=>eZ=[= (supervision) k:rt=e rhe]. (ê.äê)

Wherever this restless and unsteady mind wanders (during meditation), one should bring it back under the control of the intellect. (6.26)

            The mind plays tricks to wander and roam in the world of sensuality. The meditator should keep the mind fixed on the Self by always pondering that one is the soul, not the body. Just watch and laugh at the wanderings of the mind and gently bring it back under the supervision and control of the intellect.

            The natural tendency of the mind is to wander. We know from personal experience that the mind is very difficult to control. To control the mind is an impossible task like controlling the wind. The human mind can be subdued by any sincere spiritual practice such as meditation and detachment (Gita 6.34-35). Most commentators, however, have stated that the mind or self should be brought back under the control of the Self when it starts to wander during meditation.

            Atma is considered supe­rior to the body, senses, mind, and the intellect. (Gita 3.42). Thus we can use the awareness of the Atma to subdue the mind. Swami Vishvas has developed a meditation technique based on a slightly different interpretation of verse 6.26. This Method of meditation, based on the theory: Never let the mind wander unsupervised, is described below:

            Assume the meditative posture given in verse 6.13. It is a very good practice, before starting any work, to invoke the grace of the personal god of your choice that you believe in. Lord Ganesha, Lord Krishna or one’s guru should be also invoked by Hindus.

            The main aim of meditation, or any spiritual practice, is to get oneself out of the outer world and its activities, start the journey within, and become an introvert. Always keep in mind that you are not the body nor the mind nor the intellect, but Self (Atma) that is separate and superior to the body-mind-ego (BME) complex. Detach your Self from the BME and make the Self a witness during meditation. Withdraw your mind from the outside world and fix your gaze at any one center of your choice (pituitary gland, the sixth Chakra, front of the nostrils, the heart center, or the naval center) where you feel most comfortable. Witness the activities of the mind without becoming judgmental ¾ good or bad ¾ about the thoughts coming to your mind. Just relax, take a joy ride in the back seat of the vehicle of mind, and watch the wanderings of mind in the thought-world. The mind will wander because this is its nature. It will not remain quiet in the beginning. Do not be in a hurry to slow down, pressure, control, or try to engage the mind in any other way, such as by chanting a mantra, concentrating on any object or thought.

            Detach yourself completely from your mind and watch the play of Maya, the mind. Do not forget that your job is to see your (lower) self, the mind, with the (higher) Self, the Atma. Do not get attached or carried away by the thought waves (Vritti) of the mind; just witness or follow it. After  serious and sincere practice, the mind will start slowing down when it finds out that it is being constantly watched and followed. Do not add anything to the process of witnessing the inner world of thought process (Chitta-vritti). Slowly, your power of concentration will increase; the mind will join the inward journey as a friend (Gita 6.05-06); and a state of bliss will radiate all around you. You will go beyond thought to the thoughtless world of Nirvikalp Samadhi. Practice this for half an hour in the morning and evening or at any other convenient, but fixed, time of your choice. The progress will depend on several factors beyond your control, but just persist without procrastination. Always conclude the meditation process with the triple sound vibration of Aum, and thank God.

WHO IS A YOGI?