Chapter 1 - ARJUNA’S DILEMMA, VISHAADA
Vishada or Dukha is one of the paths leading to God and is not your enemy, but a friend in disguise. Kunti wanted Vishada, Valmiki, Dhritarashtra, and Arjuna had Vishada. God knocks at your door to wake you up through Vishada.
Chapter 2 - TRANSCENDENTAL KNOWLEDGE
One can attain peace and Nirvana by:
- The knowledge that body is perishable and Soul is imperishable.
- Selfless performance of one's duty by Working to the best of one’s abilities without becoming attached to the fruits of work, and
- Control of the mind, senses, selfish desires and ego.
Chapter 3 - THE PATH OF DUTY
To help each other (3.10) is the first commandment of the creator (Brahma). Performance of one's duty, without any personal selfish motive as a service to God for the welfare of all, leads to Self-knowledge (SK) and salvation.
All work is done by the energy and power of nature, but due to delusion of ignorance people assume themselves to be the doer and incur Karmic bondage. (3.27)
Lust (Kama) is the origin of sin Kill Kama by controlling the mind and senses by intellect that has been purified by SK.
Chapter 4 - PATH OF RENUNCIATION WITH KNOWLEDGE
The acquisition and propagation of Self-knowledge are superior to any material gain or gift, O Arjuna. Because all actions in their entirety culminate in knowledge. (4.33)
As the blazing fire reduces wood to ashes; similarly, the fire of Self-knowledge reduces all bonds of Karma to ashes, O Arjuna. (4.37) Desires get roasted in the fire of SK and one becomes selfless.
In truth, there is no purifier in this world like the true knowledge of the Supreme Being. One who becomes purified by KarmaYoga discovers this knowledge within, naturally, in course of time. (4.38)
Chapter 5 - PATH OF RENUNCIATION
But, true renunciation, O Arjuna, is difficult to attain without KarmaYoga. A sage purified by KarmaYoga quickly attains Brahma. (5.06)
A KarmaYogi who does all work as an offering to the Lord --- abandoning selfish attachment to the results --- remains untouched by Karmic reaction or sin as a lotus leaf never gets wet by water. (5.10) while others, who are attached to the fruits of work, become bound by selfish work. (5.12)
Chapter 6 - THE PATH OF MEDITATION
For the wise who seeks to attain yoga (of meditation, or the equanimity of mind), KarmaYoga is said to be the means. For the one who has attained yoga, the calmness becomes the means of Self-realization. (6.03)
Those who perceive Me in everything and behold everything in Me, are not separated from Me, and I am not separated from them. (6.30)
Mind is subdued by constant vigorous spiritual practice with perseverance, and by detachment, O Arjuna. (6.35) A yogi is free from all Desires, has no Attachment to (fruits of work or) anything, has no personal Selfish motive, and no Doership and Ownership DASDO
Chapter 7 - SELF-KNOWLEDGE & ENLIGHTENMENT
All is nothing but God only. (7.19) God is everywhere and everything. The Supreme spirit is the basis of everything. Acceptance of this fact is the best spiritual discipline (Sadhana) and the gist of spiritual knowledge.
Four types of virtuous ones worship or seek Me, O Arjuna. They are: The distressed, the seeker of Self-knowledge, the seeker of wealth, and the enlightened one who has experienced the Supreme. (7.16)
Lord has transcendental form and personality by which He can take any visible physical form and remain invisible at the same time. (7.24)
Chapter 8 - THE ETERNAL BEING, BRAHMA
I am the enjoyer of all offerings. Whatever one thinks of at the time of death, one gets the same form after rebirth. Therefore, one should always think of God even while performing all his worldly duties, so that the thought of God persists at the time of death. Meditate on Krishna and utter OM during death to attain the supreme abode.
The path of light of Self-knowledge and the path of darkness of ignorance are thought to be the world’s two eternal paths. The former leads to salvation (Mukti, Nirvana), and the latter leads to rebirth. (8.26)
Chapter 9 - SUPREME KNOWLEDGE AND THE BIG MYSTERY
Knowledge of the nature of the supreme is the biggest mystery. Nobody can know the true nature of Reality. Only God knows God, even. He does not know!
This entire universe is an expansion of Mine. All beings depend on Me. I do not depend on them and they also do not depend on Me. (9.04-05)
The divine kinetic energy (Maya) --- with the help of material Nature --- creates all animate and inanimate objects under My supervision; thus, the creation keeps on going, O Arjuna. (9.10)
Everything is a manifestation of the Absolute. The Supreme Being has become everything. I am both the absolute and the temporal (Sat and Asat), O Arjuna. (9.16-19)
I personally take care of both the spiritual and material welfare of those ever-steadfast devotees who always remember and adore Me with single-minded contemplation. (9.22)
Whosoever offers Me a leaf, a flower, a fruit, or water with devotion, I accept and eat the offering of devotion by the pure-hearted. (9.26) O Arjuna, whatever you do, whatever you eat, whatever you offer as oblation to the sacred fire, whatever charity you give, whatever austerity you perform, do all that as an offering unto Me. (9.27) You shall thus become free from the bondage --- good and bad --- of Karma by this attitude of complete renunciation (Samnyasa). Becoming liberated, you shall come to Me. (9.28)
There is no one hateful or dear to Me. But those who worship Me with love and devotion are very close to Me, and I am also very close to them. (9.29)
Anybody --- no matter what caste, creed, community, country, colour, race, religion, stage of life, gender etc. they belong to --- can attain the supreme abode by just surrendering unto My will with loving devotion, O Arjuna. (9.32)
Chapter 10 - MANIFESTATION OF THE ABSOLUTE
God is the origin of everything including feelings and Gunas. Everything is a manifestation of God. The manifest creation is only a very small fraction of the divine power called Yogamaya. Understanding this, the wise adore Me with love and devotion. (10.08).
I give knowledge and understanding of metaphysical science --- to those who are ever united with Me and lovingly adore Me --- by which they come to Me. (10.10)
Chapter 11 - ISHVARA DARSHANA YOGA
One may not be prepared or qualified to see God, but by regarding the world as the manifestation of God as explained in Chapter 11, everybody can see the cosmic form of God anywhere anytime. God can be seen in four armed form by devotional love only. One who dedicates all works to Me, and to whom I am the supreme goal, who is my devotee, who has no attachment, and is free from enmity towards any being --- attains Me, O Arjuna. (11.55)
One should always remember that we are merely His instrument
Chapter 12. PATH OF DEVOTION
Worship of a personal form of God with loving devotion is easier and faster for most people.
The five paths to God are:
- Focus your mind on Me, and let your intellect dwell upon Me alone through meditation and contemplation.
- Perform any ritual or Sadhana of your choice.
- Perform your duty just to serve and please Him. Work for God without any selfish motive just as an instrument.
- Just surrender unto My will and renounce the attachment to, and the anxiety for the fruits of all work with subdued mind ---by learning to accept all results, as God's grace with calmness.
- One should sincerely try to develop divine qualities discussed in 2.55-59, 5.18-26, 6.27-32, 12.13-20, 13.07-11, 14.22-25, and 16.01-03.
Chapter 13 - CREATION AND THE CREATOR
One should know that entire creation is a play of Purusha and Prakriti. He is omnipresent. Jiva are born by combination of Purusha and Prakriti (spirit and matter). Whatever is born, animate or inanimate, know them to be born from the union of the matter and Spirit, O Arjuna. (13.26) To understand this is the true knowledge.
Purusha associates with Prakriti to enjoy the three Gunas of Prakriti by becoming Jiva (or individual soul) and gets trapped into the net of transmigration in 8.4 million species of life in the cosmos and tries to get liberated using different spiritual techhniques given in the Gita.
Chapter 14 - THREE MODES (GUNAS) OF NATURE
Three modes (goodness, passion and ignorance) are the ropes of material nature that bind the individual soul (Jiva, spirit) to the body. Three modes (or Gunas) are also the vehicles of transmigration for the individual soul. Gunas come from Me.
One’s next birth is determined by the mode in which a person leaves the body during death. In order to be free from the net of transmigration, it is necessary to transcend the three Gunas. One can transcend these three Gunas.
One who has transcended the three Gunas depends on the Lord and is indifferent to pain and pleasure; to him the dear and the unfriendly, a clod, a stone, and gold are alike.
Chapter 15 - THE SUPREME BEING
Creation or the world is like a cosmic tree created by the powers of Maya. The ego, attachment and desires --- the firm roots of this mighty tree --- should be cut by the axe of Self-knowledge and detachment.
Spirit is the essence of everything. It becomes everything and supports all living beings. The spirit is also the enjoyer. The spirit becomes Jiva and enjoys sense pleasures using six sensory faculties of hearing, touch, sight, taste, smell, and mind.
The eternal individual soul in the body of living beings is, indeed, My integral part. It associates with the six sensory faculties of perception --- including the mind --- and activates them. (15.07) Just as the air takes aroma away from the flower; similarly, the individual soul takes the six sensory faculties from the physical body it casts off during death to the new physical body it acquires in reincarnation (by the power of Karma). (15.08)
There are three entities (or Purushas) in the cosmos:
- The changeable or Temporal Divine Beings (Kshara Purusha).
- The unchangeable Eternal Being (Brahma, Akshara Purusha). and
- The Supreme Being or Para Brahma who sustains both the Temporal and the Eternal by pervading everything.
Chapter 16 - DIVINE AND THE DEMONIC QUALITIES
There are only two types of human beings: the wise or divine and the ignorant or demonic.
It is only due to one's evil deeds and misconduct that one suffers the repeated cycles of birth and death. Therefore, to be free from the cycle of birth and death, it is necessary to develop divine qualities and get rid of demonic qualities such as lust, anger, and greed, the three gates to hell. Let the scripture be your guide in determining what should be done and what should not be done. You should perform your duty following the scriptural injunction. (16.24)
Chapter 17 - THREEFOLD FAITH
Everything in nature (such as faith, food, yajna, austerity, charity, sacrifice, renunciation, knowledge, intellect, karma, resolve, animal, person, pleasure etc.) is of three types: Sattvika, Rajasika and Tamasika.
The faith of each is in accordance with one’s own nature governed by Karmic impressions. One can become whatever one wants to be if one constantly contemplates the object of desire with firm faith. (17.03)
Chapter 18 - LIBERATION THROUGH RENUNCIATION
Attainment of salvation through Duty, Discipline, and Devotion.
One attains perfection by worshipping the Supreme Being---from whom all beings originate, and by whom all this universe is pervaded --- through performance of one’s natural duty for Him. (18.46)
The person whose mind is always free from selfish attachment, who has subdued the mind and senses, and who is free from desires, attains the supreme perfection of freedom from the bondage of Karma by renouncing selfish attachment to the fruits of work. (18.49)
By devotion one truly understands what and who I am in essence. Having known Me in essence, one immediately merges with Me. (18.55)
Path of surrender: the ultimate path to God
Setting aside all meritorious deeds (Dharma), just surrender completely to My will (with firm faith and loving contemplation). I shall liberate you from all sins (or the bonds of Karma). Do not grieve. (18.66) (The meaning of abandoning all duties and taking refuge in the Lord is that one should perform duty without selfish attachment as an offering to the Lord, and totally depend only on Him for help and guidance. The Lord takes full responsibility for a person who totally depends on Him with a spirit of genuine self-surrender)
Learning and imparting of the spiritual knowledge of the Holy Gita is declared by Lord Krishna to be the highest form of Bhakti (18.68), Karma (18.69), and Jnana (18.70)