10| 11| 12| 13| 14| 15| 16| 17| 18| Epilogue

aq= dx=m==eCQy==y=/






B=Uy= Av= m=h=b==h=ex=&&[=u m=e p=rm=] v=c=/ +

y=t=< t=eCh]] p=>Iy=m==[==y=v=Zy==im= iht=k:=my=y== ++‚++

%r$ bhagav|n uv|ca

bh~ya eva mah|b|ho%&[u me parama= vaca+

yat teíha= pr$yam|[|yavak^y|mi hitak|myay|


Lord Krishna said: O Arjuna, listen once again to My supreme word that I shall speak to you, who are very dear to Me, for your welfare. (10.01)


n= m=e iv=du/ s=urg=[==/p=>B=v=] n= m=h{=*y=/ +

ahm=< a=idr< ih dev==n==]m=h{=I*[==] c= s=v=*x=/ ++š++

na me vidu+ suraga[|+prabhava= na mahar^aya+

aham |dir hi dev|n|=mahar^$[|= ca sarva%a+


Neither the celestial controllers nor the great sages know My origin because I am the origin of celestial controllers and great sages also. (10.02)


y==e m==m=< aj=m=< an==id] c=v=eiT= D==ek:m=hexv=rm=< +

as=]m=U$/ s= m=ty=e*{=us=v=*p==p=E/ p=>m=ucy=t=e ++ŗ++

yo m|m ajam an|di= cavetti lokamahe%varam

asa=m~#ha+ sa martye^usarvap|pai+ pramucyate


One who knows Me as the unborn, the beginningless, and the Supreme Lord of the universe, is considered wise among mortals and becomes liberated from the bondage of Karma. (10.03)


b=ui3r< N=n=m=< as=]m==eh/Z=m== s=ty=] dm=/ x=m=/ +

s=uK=] du/K=] B=v==eCB==v==eB=y=] c==B=y=m=< Av= c= ++Ś++

buddhir j@|nam asa=moha+k^am| satya= dama+ %ama+

sukha= du+kha= bhavoíbh|vobhaya= c|íbhayam eva ca

aih]s== s=m=t== t=ui{!s=<t=p==e d=n=] y=x==eCy=x=/ +

B=v=Únt= B==v== B=Ut==n==]m=T= Av= p=&q=Úgv=Q==/ ++Á++

ahi=s| samat| tu^!istapo d|na= ya%oíya%a+

bhavanti bh|v| bh~t|n|=matta eva p&thagvidh|+


Discrimination, Self-knowledge, non-delusion, forgiveness, truthfulness, control over the mind and senses, tranquility, pleasure, pain, birth, death, fear, fearlessness, nonviolence, equanimity, contentment, austerity, charity, fame, ill fame -- these diverse qualities in human beings arise from Me alone. (10.04-05)

††††††††††† If you forgive others, your Father in heaven will also forgive you (Matthew 6.14). Resist no evil with evil (Matthew 5.39). Love your enemies, and pray for those who mistreat you (Matthew 5.44). One should control anger toward the wrong-doer. The controlled anger itself punishes the wrong-doer if the wrong-doer does not ask forgiveness (MB 5.36.05). One who does wrong is destroyed by the same act of wrong doing if he or she does not ask forgiveness (MS 2.163). One who unconditionally forgives others is happy because the anger of the forgiver is exterminated. Progress in spiritual discipline is impeded if one's interpersonal relationship is full of hurt and negative feeling, even for a single living entity. Therefore, one must learn to forgive and to ask forgiveness.

††††††††††† Even virtue has its own vice. Forgiveness may often be construed as a sign of weakness; therefore, clemency is the strength of the strong and a virtue for the weak. A person should be forgiven if he or she has sincerely asked forgiveness, if it is the first offense, if the offense was not intentional, and if the offender has been helpful in the past. The tool of punishment may be used -- without any feeling of revenge -- to correct and teach intentional and repeated offenders.


m=h{=*y=/ s=pt= p=Uv=e*c=tv==r=e m=n=v=s=< t=q== +

m=4=v== m==n=s== j==t==y=e{==] D==ek: wm==/ p=>j==/ ++Í++

mahar^aya+ sapta p~rvecatv|ro manavas tath|

madbh|v| m|nas| j|t|ye^|= loka im|+ praj|+

The great saints, sages, and all the creatures of the world were born from My potential energy. (10.06)

At==] iv=B=Uit=] y==eg=] c=m=m= y==e v=eiT= t=Tv=t=/ +

s==eCiv=k:mp=en= y==eg=en=y=ujy=t=e n==F= s=]x=y=/ ++Ž++

et|= vibh~ti= yoga= camama yo vetti tattvata+

soívikampena yogenayujyate n|ítra sa=%aya+


One who truly understands My manifestations and yogic powers, is united with Me by unswerving devotion. There is no doubt about it. (10.07)


ah] s=v=*sy= p=>B=v==em=T=/ s=v=*] p=>v=t=*t=e +

wit= m=tv== B=j=nt=e m==]b=uQ== B==v=s=m=Únv=t==/ ++Ť++

aha= sarvasya prabhavomatta+ sarva= pravartate

iti matv| bhajante m|=budh| bh|vasamanvit|+

I am the origin of all. Everything evolves from Me. The wise who understand this adore Me with love and devotion. (10.08)

††††††††††† That which is One has become this all (RV 8.58.02).

m=Úcc=T== m=d<g=t=p=>=[==b==eQ=y=nt=/ p=rsp=rm=< +

k:q=y=nt=xc= m==] in=ty=]t=u{y=Únt= c= rm=Únt= c= ++Ô++

maccitt| madgatapr|[|bodhayanta+ parasparam

kathayanta% ca m|= nitya=tu^yanti ca ramanti ca

My devotees remain ever content and delighted. Their minds remain absorbed in Me and their lives surrendered unto Me. They always enlighten each other by talking about Me. (10.09)

††††††††††† Devotees are the well wishers of everyone and help others to advance on the spiritual path.



t=e{==] s=t=t=y=ukt==n==]B=j=t==] p=>Iit=p=Uv=*k:m=< +

dd=im= b=ui3y==eg=] t=]y=en= m==m=< Wp=y==Únt= t=e ++‚Ó++

te^|= satata yukt|n|=bhajat|= pr$tip~rvakam

dad|mi buddhi yoga= ta=yena m|m upay|nti te

I give the powers of analysis and reasoning to understand the metaphysical science -- to those who are ever united with Me and lov≠ingly adore Me -- by which they come to Me. (10.10)

††††††††††† We are given powers of analysis and reasoning (Viveka) that can be used to understand the metaphysical science or Self-knowledge. Those who receive Him and believe in Him, He makes them come to the Father in heaven (John 1.12). Whosoever shall not receive the kingdom of God as a little child shall not enter therein (Luke 18.17).

t=e{==m=< Av==n=uk:mp==q=*m=<ahm=< aN=n=j=] t=m=/ +

n==x=y==my=< a=tm=B==v=sq==eN=n=dIp=en= B==sv=t== ++‚‚++

te^|m ev|nukamp|rthamaham aj@|naja= tama+

n|%ay|my |tmabh|vasthoj@|nad$pena bh|svat|

I, who dwell within their inner psyche as consciousness, destroy the darkness born of ignorance by the shining lamp of transcendental knowledge as an act of compassion for them. (10.11)

††††††††††† All other forms of Krishna can be achieved by different means of worship, but Krishna Himself can be achieved only by devotion and exclusive love (Chimanbhai). The lamp of spiritual knowledge and God-realization can be easily ignited by the intense spark of devotion, but never by in≠tellect and logic alone.

aj=u*n= Wv==c=

p=r] b=>… p=r] Q==m=p=iv=F=] p=rm=] B=v==n=< +

p=uo{=] x==xv=t=] idvy=m=<a=iddev=m=< aj=] iv=B=um=< ++‚š++

arjuna uv|ca

para= brahma para= dh|mapavitra= parama= bhav|n

puru^a= %|%vata= divyam|didevam aja= vibhum

a=hus=< tv==m=< P{=y=/ s=v=e*dev=i{=*r< n==rds=< t=q== +

aÚs=t==ee dev=D==e vy==s=/sv=y=] c=Ev= b=>v=Ii{= m=e ++‚ŗ++

|hus tv|m &^aya+ sarvedevar^ir n|radas tath|

asito devalo vy|sa+svaya= caiva brav$^i me

Arjuna said: You are the Supreme Being, the Supreme Abode, the Supreme Purifier, the Eternal Being, the primal god, the unborn, and the omnipresent. All saints and sages have thus acclaimed You, and now You Yourself are telling me that. (10.12-13)



s=v=*m=< At=d< Pt=] m=ny=ey=n=< m==] v=dÚs= ke:x=v= +

n= ih t=e B=g=v=n=< vy=Żkt=]iv=dur< dev== n= d=n=v==/ ++‚Ś++

sarvam etad &ta= manyeyan m|= vadasi ke%ava

na hi te bhagavan vyakti=vidur dev| na d|nav|+

O Krishna, I believe all that You have told me to be true. O Lord, nei≠ther the celestial controllers nor the demons fully understand Your real nature. (See also 4.06) (10.14)


sv=y=m=< Av==tm=n==tm==n=]v=etq= tv=] p=uo{==eT=m= +

B=Ut=B==v=n= B=Ut=ex=dev=dev= j=g=tp=t=e ++‚Á++

svayam ev|ítman|ítm|na=vettha tva= puru^ottama

bh~tabh|vana bh~te%adevadeva jagatpate


O Creator and Lord of all beings, God of all celestial rulers, the Supreme person, and Lord of the universe, You alone know Yourself by Yourself. (10.15)

††††††††††† The Vedas left the final question of the origin of ul≠timate Reality unanswered by stating that nobody knows the ultimate source from where this creation has come. Sages went further by stating that perhaps even He does not know (RV 10.129.06-07). One who says that I know God does not know; one who knows the Truth says that I do not know. God is the unknown to a person of true knowledge; only the ignorant claim to know God (KeU 2.01-03). The ultimate source of cosmic energy is and will remain a big mystery. Any specific description of God, including a description of heaven and hell, is nothing but a mental speculation.


v=kt=um=< ah*sy=< ax=e{=e[=idvy== ń< a=tm=iv=B=Ut=y=/ +

y==iB=r< iv=B=Uit=iB=r< D==ek:=n=<wm==]s=< tv=] vy==py= it={@Ús= ++‚Í++

vaktum arhasy a%e^e[adivy| hy |tmavibh~taya+

y|bhir vibh~tibhir lok|nim|=s tva= vy|pya ti^!hasi


Therefore, You alone are able to fully describe Your own divine glo≠ries or the manifestations by which You existpervading all the universes. (10.16)

k:q=] iv=6=m=< ah] y==eig=]s=<tv==] s=d= p=iric=nt=y=n=< +

ke:{=u ke:{=u c= B==v=e{=uic=nty==eCÚs= B=g=v=n=< m=y== ++‚Ž++

katha= vidy|m aha= yogi=stv|= sad| paricintayan

ke^u ke^u ca bh|ve^ucintyoísi bhagavan may|


How may I know You, O Lord, constantly contemplating on You? In what form of manifestation are You to be thought of by me, O Lord? (10.17)


iv=st=re[==tm=n==e y==eg=]iv=B=Uit=] c= j=n==d*n= +

B=Uy=/ k:q=y= t=&Úpt=r< ihx=&[v=t==e n==Úst= m=eCm=&t=m=< ++‚Ť++

vistare[|ítmano yoga=vibh~ti= ca jan|rdana

bh~ya+ kathaya t&ptir hi%&[vato n|sti meím&tam

O Lord, explain to me again, in detail, Your yogic power and glory because I am not satiated by hearing Your nectar-like words. (10.18)




hnt= t=e k:q=iy={y==im=idvy== ń< a=tm=iv=B=Ut=y=/ +

p=>=Q==ny=t=/ ku:oXe{@n==sty=< ant==e iv=st=rsy= m=e ++‚Ô++

%r$ bhagav|n uv|ca

hanta te kathayi^y|midivy| hy |tmavibh~taya+

pr|dh|nyata+ kuru%re^!han|ísty anto vistarasya me


Lord Krishna said: O Arjuna, now I shall explain to you My prominent divine manifestations because My manifestations are end≠less. (10.19)


ahm=< a=tm== g=u#=ke:x=s=v=*B=Ut==x=y=Úsq=t=/ +

ahm=< a=idxc= m=Qy=] c=B=Ut==n==m=< ant= Av= c= ++šÓ++

aham |tm| gu#|ke%asarvabh~t|%ayasthita+

aham |di%ca madhya= cabh~t|n|m anta eva ca


O Arjuna, I am the Supreme Spirit (or Supersoul) abiding in the inner psyche of all beings as soul (Atma). I am also the creator, maintainer, and destroyer -- or the beginning, the middle, and the end -- of all beings. (10.20)

††††††††††† Spirit has no origin and is a property of the Supreme Being, just as sunlight is a property of the sun (BS 2.03.17). The Supreme Being and Spirit are like sun and sunlight, different as well as non-different (BS 3.02.28). Within living beings, Spirit is the controller. Spirit is different from the physical body, just as fire is different from wood.

††††††††††† The senses, mind, and intellect cannot know Spirit or universal consciousness because the senses, mind, and intellect get their power to function from Spirit alone (KeU 1.06). Spirit supplies power and supports the senses, just as air burns and supports fire (MB 12.203.03). Spirit is the basis and support behind every form of power, movement, intellect, and life in this universe. It is the power by which one sees, hears, smells, thinks, loves, hates, and de≠sires objects.


a=idty==n==m=< ah] iv={[=ur<jy==eit={==] riv=r< a]x=um==n=< +

m=rIic=r< m=ot==m=< aÚsm=n=Z=F==[==m=< ah] x=x=I ++š‚++

|dity|n|m aha= vi^[urjyoti^|= ravir a=%um|n

mar$cir marut|m asminak^atr|[|m aha= %a%$


I am the sustainer. I am the radiant sun among the luminaries; I am the controller of wind; I am the moon among the stars. (10.21)

v=ed=n==] s==m=v=ed=eCÚsm=dev==n==m=< aÚsm= v==s=v=/ +

wÚn7y==[==] m=n=xc==Úsm=B=Ut==n==m=< aÚsm= c=et=n== ++šš++

ved|n|= s|mavedoísmidev|n|m asmi v|sava+

indriy|[|= mana% c|ísmibh~t|n|m asmi cetan|

I am the Vedas. I am the celestial rulers. I am the mind among the senses; I am the consciousness in living be≠ings. (10.22)

o7=[==] x=]k:rx=< c==Úsm=iv=T=ex==ey=Z=rZ=s==m=< +

v=s=Un==] p==v=k:x=< c==Úsm=m=eo/ ix=K=ir[==m=< ahm=< ++šŗ++

rudr|[|= %a=kara% c|ísmivitte%o yak^arak^as|m

vas~n|= p|vaka% c|ísmimeru+ %ikhari[|m aham


I am Lord Shiva. I am the god of wealth; I am the god of fire and the mountains. (10.23)


p=ur=eQ=s==] c= m=uKy=] m==]iv=i3 p==q=* b=&hsp=it=m=< +

s=en==n=In==m=< ah] sk:nd/s=rs==m=< aÚsm= s==g=r/ ++šŚ++

purodhas|= ca mukhya= m|=viddhi p|rtha b&haspatim

sen|n$n|m aha= skanda+saras|m asmi s|gara+


I am the priest and the army general of the celestial controllers, O Arjuna. I am the ocean among the bodies of water. (10.24)


m=h{=I*[==] B=&g=ur< ah]ig=r=m=< asmy=< Ak:m=< aZ=rm=< +

y=N=n==] j=p=y=N=eCÚsm=sq==v=r=[==] ihm==D=y=/ ++šÁ++

mahar^$[|= bh&gur aha=gir|m asmy ekam ak^aram

yaj@|n|= japayaj@oísmisth|var|[|= him|laya+


I am the great sage, Bhrigu. I am the monosyllable cosmic sound ĎAUMí among words; I am the silent repetition of mantra (Japa) among the spiritual disciplines, and I am the Himalaya among the mountains. (10.25)

††††††††††† A constant chanting of a mantra or any holy name of God is considered by saints and sages of all religions to be the easiest and most powerful method of Self-realization in the present age. The practice of this spiritual discipline with faith will drive sound vibrations into the deeper layers of mind where it works like a damper in preventing the rise of waves of negative thoughts and ideas, leading the way to inner awakening in due course of time. Meditation is the extended and higher stage of this process. One must first practice this before going into transcendental meditation. Swami Harihar says: There should be no desire to gain any worldly objects in exchange for the repetition of the divine name. The spiritual force of the divine name should not be applied even for the destruction of sin. It should be resorted to for divine re≠alization only.

††††††††††† The form of the Lord cannot be known nor compre≠hended by the human mind without a name. If one chants or meditates on the name without seeing the form, the form flashes on the screen of the mind as an object of love. Saint Tulasidasa said: Place the lamp of the name of the Lord near the door of your tongue if you want the light both inside and outside. The name of God is greater than both impersonal and personal aspects of God because the power of the name has control over both aspects of God. It is said that the best of all spiritual efforts is to always remember and repeat the name of God.



axv=tq=/ s=v=*v=&Z==[==]dev={=I*[==] c= n==rd/ +

g=nQ=v==*[==] ic=F=rq=/ Ús=3=n==] k:ip=D==e m=uin=/ ++šÍ++

a^vattha+ sarvav&k^|[|=devar^$[|= ca n|rada+

gandharv|[|= citraratha+siddh|n|= kapilo muni+


I am the holy fig tree among the trees, Narada among the sages, and I am all other celestial rulers. (10.26)


Wcc=E/Xv=s=m=< axv==n==]iv=i3 m==m=< am=&t==e4v=m=< +

Aer=v=t=] g=j=en7=[==]n=r=[==] c= n=r=iQ=p=m=< ++šŽ++

uccai+%ravasam a%v|n|=biddhi m|m am&todbhavam

air|vata= gajendr|[|=nar|[|= ca nar|dhipam


a=y=uQ==n==m=< ah] v=j=>]Q=en=Un==m=< aÚsm= k:=m=Q=uk<: +

p=>j=n=x=< c==Úsm= k:ndp=*/s=p==*[==m=< aÚsm= v==s=uik:/ ++šŤ++

|yudh|n|m aha= vajra=dhen~n|m asmi k|madhuk

prajana% c|smi kandarpa+sarp|[|m asmi v|suki+


Know Me as the celestial animals among the animals and the King among men. I am the thunderbolt among weapons, and I am Cupid for procreation. (10.27-28)


an=nt=x=< c==Úsm= n==g==n==]v=o[==e y==ds==m=< ahm=< +

ip=t=&[==m=< ay=*m== c==Úsm=y=m=/ s=]y=m=t==m=< ahm=< ++šÔ++

ananta% c|smi n|g|n|=varu[o y|das|m aham

pit*[|m aryam| c|smiyama+ sa=yamat|m aham

p=>h<D==dx=< c==Úsm= dEty==n==]k:=D=/ k:D=y=t==m=< ahm=< +

m=&g==[==] c= m=&g=en7=eCh]v=En=t=ey=xc= p=ÚZ=[==m=< ++ŗÓ++

prahl|da% c|smi daity|n|=k|la+ kalayat|m aham

m&g|[|= ca m&gendroíha=vainateya^ca pak^i[|m


I am the water-god and the manes. I am the controller of death. I am the time or death among the healers, lion among the beasts, and the king of birds among birds. (10.29-30)

p=v=n=/ p=v=t==m=< aÚsm=r=m=/ x=sF=B=&t==m=< ahm=< +

z={==[==] m=k:rx=< c==Úsm=s=>=et=s==m=< aÚsm= j==h<n=v=I ++ŗ‚++

pavana+ pavat|m asmir|ma+ %astrabh&t|m aham

jha^|[|= makara% c|smisrotas|m asmi j|hnav$


I am the wind among the purifiers and Lord R|ma among the warri≠ors. I am the crocodile among the sea creatures and the holy Gang| river among the rivers. (10.31)


s=g==*[==m=< a=idr< ant=xc=m=Qy=] c=Ev==hm=< aj=*un= +

aQy==tm=iv=6= iv=6=n==]v==d/ p=>v=dt==m=< ahm=< ++ŗš++

sarg|[|m |dir anta%camadhya= caiív|íham arjuna

adhy|tmavidy| vidy|n|=v|da+ pravadat|m aham


I am the beginning, the middle, and the end of all creation, O Arjuna. Among knowledge I am knowledge of the supreme Self. I am logic of the logician. (10.32)


aZ=r=[==m=< ak:=r=eCÚsm=8n8/ s==m==Ús=k:sy= c= +

ahm=< Av==Z=y=/ k:=D==eQ==t==h] iv=xv=t==em=uK=/ ++ŗŗ++

ak^ar|[|m ak|roísmidvandva+ s|m|sikasya ca

aham ev|ík^aya+ k|lodh|t|íha= vi%vatomukha+


I am the letter ĎAí among the alphabets. I am the dual compound among the compound words. I am endless time. I am the sustainer, and I am omniscient. (10.33)


m=&ty=u/ s=v=*hrxc==hm=<W4v=xc= B=iv={y=t==m=< +

k:Iit=*/ XIr< v==k<: c= n==rI[==]sm=&it=r< m=eQ== Q=&it=/ Z=m== ++ŗŚ++

m&tyu+ sarvahara% c|íhamudbhava%ca bhavi^yat|m

k$rti+ %r$r v|k ca n|r$[|=sm&tir medh| dh&ti+ k^am|


I am the all-devouring death and also the origin of future beings. I am the seven goddesses or guardian angels presiding over the seven qualities -- fame, prosperity, speech, memory, in≠tellect, resolve, and forgiveness. (10.34)


b=&hts==m= t=q== s==mn==]g==y=F=I %nds==m=< ahm=< +

m==s==n==] m==g=*x=I{==e*Chm=<Pt=Un==] ku:s=um==k:r/ ++ŗÁ++

b&hats|ma tath| s|mn|=g|yatr$ chandas|m aham

m|s|n|= m|rga%$r^oíham&t~n|= kusum|kara+


I am the Vedic and other hymns. I am the mantras; I am November-December among the months, I am spring among the seasons. (10.35)

6Ut=] %D=y=t==m=< aÚsm=t=ej=s=< t=ej=Úsv=n==m=< ahm=< +

j=y==eCÚsm= vy=v=s==y==eCÚsm=s=Tv=] s=Tv=v=t==m=< ahm=< ++ŗÍ++

dy~ta= chalayat|m asmitejas tejasvin|m aham

jayoísmi vyavas|yoísmisattva= sattvavat|m aham


I am gambling of the cheats, splendor of the splendid, victory of the victorious, resolution of the resolute, and goodness of the good. (10.36)

††††††††††† Both good and bad are the product of divine power (Maya). Maya creates a multitude of merits and demerits that have no real existence. The wise do not attach too much importance to it. One should develop good qualities and get rid of bad ones. After enlightenment, both good and bad, virtue and vice, are transcended, just as darkness vanishes after the sunrise. Vice and virtue are not two things, but one, the difference being only the degree of manifestation. It is true that God also dwells in the most sinful beings, but it is not proper to hate them or associate with them. Gandhi said: Hate the sin and not the sinner.

††††††††††† One should view the marvelous cosmic drama, full of pairs of opposites in life, with ever-joyous heart because there is no good or evil, only different masks of the cosmic actor. The scriptures de≠nounce the idea of growing rich by unfair means, such as gambling, gifts, and bribes. They recommend honest labor, sweat of the brow, such as cultivating a cornfield, that is good for society as well as the in≠dividual (RV 10.34.13).


v=&{[=In==] v==s=udev==eCism=p==[#v==n==] Q=n=]j=y=/ +

m=un=In==m=< apy=< ah] vy==s=/k:v=In==m=< Wx=n== k:iv=/ ++ŗŽ++

v&^[$n|= v|sudevoísmip|[#av|n|= dana=jaya+

mun$n|m apy aha= vy|sa+kav$n|m u%an| kavi+

d[#=e dm=y=t==m=< aÚsm=n=Iit=r< aÚsm= Új=g=I{=t==m=< +

m==En=] c=Ev==Úsm= g=uń=n==]N=n=] N=n=v=t==m=< ahm=< ++ŗŤ++


da[do damayat|m asmin$tir asmi jig$^at|m

mauna= caiív|ísmi guhy|n|=j@|na= j@|navat|m aham


I am Krishna, Vyasa, Arjuna, and the power of rulers, the statesmanship of the seekers of victory. I am silence among secrets and Self-knowledge of the knowl≠edgeable. (10.37-38)


y=c=< c==ip= s=v=*B=Ut==n==]b=Ij=] t=d< ahm=< aj=*un= +

n= t=d< aÚst= iv=n== y=t=< sy==n=<m=y== B=Ut=] c=r=c=rm=< ++ŗÔ++

yac c|ípi sarvabh~t|n|=b$ja= tad aham arjuna

na tad asti vin| yat sy|nmay| bh~ta= car|caram


I am the origin of all beings, O Arjuna. There is nothing, ani≠mate or inanimate, that can exist without Me. (See also 7.10 and 9.18) (10.39)

††††††††††† A big tree -- with many branches, leaves, flow≠ers, fruits, and seeds -- remains inside a tiny seed in unmanifest form and becomes manifest again and again into a tree. The tree again be≠comes unmanifest into the seed. Similarly, all manifestations remain in the Absolute in unmanifest form and become manifest during creation and unmanifest during dissolution again and again. The fruit remains hidden in the seed and the seed in the fruit; similarly, God is in human beings and human beings in God.



n==nt==eCÚst= m=m= idvy==n==]iv=B=UUt=In==] p=r]t=p= +

A{= t=Ud<dex=t=/ p=>=ekt==eiv=B=Ut=er< iv=st=r=e m=y== ++ŚÓ++

n|íntoísti mama divy|n|=vibh~t$n|= para=tapa

e^a t~ídde%ata+ proktovibh~ter vistaro may|


There is no end of My divine manifestations, O Arjuna. This is only a brief description by Me of the extent of My divine manifestations. (10.40)

††††††††††† The variety in the universe, from the highest celestial controllers to the smallest insects and even the inert dust, is nothing but a manifestation of One and the same Absolute.

y=d< y=d< iv=B=Uit=m=t=< s=Tv=]XIm=d< ~Új=*t=m=< Av= v== +

t=t=< t=d< Av==v=g=c% tv=]m=m= t=ej==eC}x=s=}B=v=m=< ++Ś‚++

yad yad vibh~timat sattva=%r$mad ~rjitam eva v|

tat tad ev|ívagaccha tva=mama tejo=í%a sa=bhavam


Whatever is endowed with glory, brilliance, and power -- know that to be a manifestation of a very small fraction of My splendor. (10.41)

††††††††††† Through the word, His cosmic sound vibration, God made all things; not one thing in creation was made without His cosmic energy (John 1.03). This cosmic manifestation is non-separate from the Absolute just as sunshine is not separate from the sun (BP 4.31.16). The entire creation is a partial revelation and part and parcel of the Infinite. The divine manifests its glory through creation. The beauty and splendor of the visible universe are only a small fraction of His glory.


aq=v== b=hun=Et=en=ik]: N=t=en= t=v==j=*un= +

iv={!By==hm=< wd] k&:tsn=m=<Ak:]=x=en= isq=t==ee j=g=t=< ++Śš++

athav| bahunaiítenaki= j@|tena tav|írjuna

vi^!abhy|íham ida= k&tsnamek|=%ena sthito jagat


What is the need for this detailed knowledge, O Arjuna? I continually support the entire universe by a very small fraction of My divine power. (10.42)

††††††††††† Quantitatively, manifest creation is a very small fraction of the Absolute. The universe reflects the divine splen≠dor for human beings to see the invisible Lord. One should learn to perceive God, not only as a person or vision, but also through His splendor as manifested in the universe and through His laws that govern and control nature and life. He is existence, goodness, and beauty.

aq= Ak:=dx==eCQy==y=/





aj=u*n= Wv==c=

m=dn=ug=>h=y= p=rm=]g=uńm=< aQy==tm=s=]iNt=m=< +

y=t=< tv=y==ekt=] v=c=s=< t=en=m==eh=eCy=] iv=g=t==e m=m= ++‚++

arjuna uv|ca

madanugrah|ya parama=guhyam adhy|tma s=j@itam

yat tvayoíkta= vacas tenamohoíya= vigato mama


Arjuna said: My illusion is dispelled by the profound words of wisdom You spoke out of compassion for me about the supreme secret of the Self. (11.01)


B=v==py=y==E ih B=Ut==n==]Xut==E iv=st=rx==e m=y== +

tv=T=/ k:m=D=p=F==Z=m==h=tmy=m=< aip= c==vy=y=m=< ++š++

bhav|pyayau hi bh~t|n|=%rutau vistara%o may|

tvatta+ kamalapatr|k^am|h|tmyam api c|ívyayam


O Krishna, I have heard from You in detail about the origin and disso≠lution of beings and Your immutable glory. (11.02)



Av=m=< At=d< y=q==tq= tv=m=<a=tm==n=] p=rm=exv=r +

7{!um=< wc%=im= t=e Op=m=<Aexv=r] p=uo{==eT=m= ++ŗ++

evam etad yath|íttha tvam|tm|na= parame%vara

dra^!um icch|mi te r~pamai%vara= puru^ottama


O Lord, You are as You have said; yet I wish to see Your divine cos≠mic form, O Supreme Being. (11.03)


m=ny=s=e y=id t=c=< %ky=]m=y== 7{!um=< wit= p=>B==e +

y==eg=exv=r t=t==e m=e tv=]dx=*y==tm==n=m=< avy=y=m=< ++Ś++

manyase yadi tac chakya=may| dra^!um iti prabho

yoge%vara tato me tva=dar%ay|ítm|nam avyayam


O Lord, if You think it is possible for me to see Your universal form, then, O Lord of the yogis, show me Your transcendental form. (11.04)

††††††††††† There is no way to know God before experiencing Him. Faith in God rests on a shaky ground without a psychic vision of the object of devotion. All our spiritual discipline is aimed at this vision. The vision is essential to overcome the last bit of emotional impurity and any lingering doubt in the mind of the seeker because, to a human mind, seeing is believing. Therefore, Arjuna, like any other devotee, longs to see the transcendental form of the Lord.



p=xy= m=e p==q=* Op==i[=x=t=x==eCq= s=hs=>x=/ +

n==n==iv=Q==in= idvy==in=n==n==v=[==*k&:t=Iin= c= ++Á++

%r$ bhagav|n uv|ca

pa%ya me p|rtha r~p|[i%ata%oítha sahasra%a+

n|n|vidh|ni divy|nin|n|var[|ík&t$ni ca

p=xy==idty==n=< v=s=Un=< o7=n=<aÚxv=n==E m=ot=s=< t=q== +

b=hUny=< ad&{!p=Uv==*i[=p=xy==xc=y==*i[= B==rt= ++Í++

pa%y|ídity|n vas~n rudr|na%vinau marutas tath|

bah~ny ad&^!ap~rv|[ipa%y|í%cary|[i bh|rata

whEk:sq=] j=g=t=< k&:tsn=]p=xy==6 s=c=r=c=rm=< +

m=m= dehe g=u#=ke:x=y=c=< c==ny=d< 7{!um=< wc%Ús= ++Ž++

ihaiíkastha= jagat k&tsna=pa%y|ídya sacar|caram

mama dehe gu#|ke%ayac c|ínyad dra^!um icchasi


Lord Krishna said: O Arjuna, behold My hundreds and thou≠sands of multifarious divine forms of different colors and shapes. Behold all the celestial beings and many wonders never seen before. Also behold the entire creation -- animate, inanimate, and whatever else you would like to see -- all at one place in My body. (11.05-07)


n= t=u m==] x=ky=s=e 7{!um=<an=en=Ev= sv=c=Z=u{== +

idvy=] dd=im= t=e c=Z=u/p=xy= m=e y==eg=m=< Aexv=rm=< ++Ť++

na tu m|= %akyase dra^!umanenaiva svacak^u^|

divya= dad|mi te cak^u+pa%ya me yogam ai%varam


But you are not able to see Me with your physical eye; therefore, I give you the divine eye to see My majestic power and glory. (11.08)

††††††††††† No one can see Him with the physical eye. His tran≠scendental form is beyond our field of vision. He is revealed through the faculty of intuition of the intellect that, residing within the inner psyche, con≠trols the mind. Those who know Him become immortal (KaU 6.09). We, like color blinds, are not able to see the full range of cosmic color and light with human eyes. The divine vision, which is a gift of God, is needed to see the beauty and glory of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.



s=]j=y= Wv==c=

Av=m=< Wktv== t=t==e r=j=n=<m=h=y==eg=exv=r=e hir/ +

dx=*y==m==s= p==q==*y=p=rm=] Op=m=< Aexv=rm=< ++Ô++



sa=jaya uv|ca

evam uktv| tato r|janmah|yoge%varo hari+

dar%ay|m|sa p|rth|yaparama= r~pam ai%varam


Sanjaya said: O King, having said this, Lord Krishna, the great Lord of the mystic power of yoga, revealed His supreme majestic form to Arjuna. (11.09)


an=ek:v=kF=n=y=n=m=<an=ek:=4ut=dx=*n=m=< +

an=ek:idvy==B=r[=]idvy==n=ek:=e6t==y=uQ=m=< ++‚Ó++

aneka vaktra nayanamanek|dbhuta dar%anam

aneka divy|bhara[a=divy|nekodyat|yudham

idvy=m==Dy==mb=rQ=r]idvy=g=nQ==n=uD=ep=n=m=< +

s=v==*xc=y=*m=y=] dev=m=<an=nt=] iv=xv=t==em=uK=m=< ++‚‚++

divya m|ly|mbara dhara=divya gandh|nulepanam

sarv|%caryamaya= devamananta= vi%vatomukham


Arjuna saw the Universal Form of the Lord with many mouths and eyes, and many marvelous visions with numerous divine ornaments, holding many divine weapons, wearing divine garlands and apparel, anointed with celestial perfumes and ointments, full of all wonders -- the limitless God with faces on all sides. (11.10-11)


idiv= s=Uy=*s=hs=>sy=B=v=ed< y=ug=p=d< WÚtq=t== +

y=id B==/ s=d&x=I s== sy==d<B==s=s=< t=sy= m=h=tm=n=/ ++‚š++

divi s~rya sahasrasyabhaved yugapad utthit|

yadi bh|+ sad&%$ s| sy|dbh|sas tasya mah|tmana+


If the splendor of thousands of suns were to blaze forth all at once in the sky, even that would not resemble the splendor of that exalted be≠ing. (11.12)

††††††††††† He came to tell about the light. This was the real light, the light that comes into the world and sustains everything (John 1.09). O Lord, not even a million suns could match You (RV 8.70.05). Robert Oppenheimer spoke this verse as he witnessed the explosion of the first atom bomb.


t=F=Ek:sq=] j=g=t=< k&:tsn=]p=>iv=B=kt=m=< an=ek:Q== +

ap=xy=d< dev=dev=sy=x=rIre p==[#v=s=< t=d= ++‚ŗ++

tatraiíkastha= jagat k&tsna=pravibhaktam anekadh|

apa%yad devadevasya%ar$re p|[#avas tad|


Arjuna saw the entire universe, divided in many ways, but standing as all in One and One in all in the transcendental body of Krishna, the Lord of celestial rulers. (See also 13.16 and 18.20 (11.13)


t=t=/ s= iv=sm=y==iv={!=eŇ{!r=em== Q=n=]j=y=/ +

p=>[=my= ix=rs== dev=]k&:t==J=<j=ÚD=r< aB=={=t= ++‚Ś++

tata+ sa vismay|vi^!oh&^!arom| dhana=jaya+

pra[amya %iras| deva=k&t|@jalir abh|^ata


Having seen the cosmic form of the Lord, Arjuna was filled with wonder and his hairs standing on end, bowed his head to the Lord and prayed with folded hands. (11.14)



p=xy==im= dev==]s=< t=v= dev= dehe

s=v==*]s=< t=q== B=Ut=iv=x=e{=s=]G==n=< +

b=>…=[=m=< w*x=] k:m=D==s=n=sq=m=<

P{=I]xc= s=v==*n=< Wrg==]xc= idvy==n=< ++‚Á++

arjuna uv|ca

pa%y|mi dev|=s tava deva dehe

sarv|=s tath| bh~ta vi%e^a sa=gh|n


brahm|[am $%a= kamal|sanastha=

&^$=%ca sarv|n urag|=%ca divy|n†††


Arjuna said: O Lord, I see in Your body all supernatural controllers, and multitudes of beings, sages, and celestials. (11.15)



p=xy==im= tv==] s=v=*t==eCn=nt=Op=m=< +

n==nt=] n= m=Qy=] n= p=un=s=< t=v==id]

p=xy==im= iv=xv=exv=r iv=xv=Op= ++‚Í++

aneka b|h~dara vaktra netra=

pa%y|mi tv|= sarvatoínantar~pam

n|ínta= na madhya= na punas tav|ídi=

pa%y|mi vi%ve%vara vi%var~pa


O Lord of the universe, I see You everywhere with infinite forms, with many arms, stomachs, faces, and eyes. O Universal Form, I see neither your beginning nor the middle nor the end. (11.16)

††††††††††† The Self is omnipresent, all pervading, beginnin≠gless and endless.


ik:rIi!n=] g=idn=] c=ik>:[=] c=

t=ej==er=ix=] s=v=*t==e dIÚpt=m=nt=m=< +

p=xy==im= tv==] duin=*rIZy=] s=m=nt==d<

dIpt==n=D==k*:6uit=m=< ap=>m=ey=m=< ++‚Ž++

kir$!ina= gadina= cakri[a= ca

tejor|%i= sarvato d$ptimantam

pa%y|mi tv|= durnir$k^ya= samant|d

d$pt|nal|rkadyutim aprameyam


I see You with Your crown, club, discus, and massive radiance, diffi≠cult to behold, shining all around like the immeasurable brilliance and blazing fire of the sun. (11.17)


tv=m=< aZ=r] p=rm=] v=eidt=vy=]

tv=m=< asy= iv=xv=sy= p=r] in=Q==n=m=< +

tv=m=< avy=y=/ x==xv=t=Q=m=*g==ept==

s=n==t=n=s=< tv=] p=uo{==e m=t==e m=e ++‚Ť++

tvam ak^ara= parama= veditavya=

tvam asya vi%vasya para= nidh|nam

tvam avyaya+ %|%vata dharma gopt|

san|tanas tva= puru^o mato me

I believe You are the Supreme Being to be realized. You are the ultimate resort of the universe. You are the Spirit and protector of the eternal order (Dharma). (11.18)


an==idm=Qy==nt=m=< an=nt=v=Iy=*m=<

an=nt=b==hu] x=ix=s=Uy=*n=eF=m=< +

p=xy==im= tv==] dIpt=hut==x=v=kF=]

sv=t=ej=s== iv=xv=m=< wd] t=p=nt=m=< ++‚Ô++

an|di madhy|ntam ananta v$ryam

ananta b|hu= %a%is~rya netram

pa%y|mi tv|= d$pta hut|%a vaktra=

svatejas| vi%vam ida= tapantam

I see You with infinite power, without beginning, middle, or end; with many arms; with the sun and the moon as Your eyes; with Your mouth as a blazing fire, scorching all the universe with Your radiance. (11.19)

6=v==p=&iq=vy==er< wdm=< ant=r] ih

vy==pt=] tv=y=Eke:n= idx=xc= s=v==*/ +

d&{!<v==4ut=] Op=m=< Wg=>] t=v=ed]

D==ek:F=y=] p=>vy=iq=t=] m=h=tm=n=< ++šÓ++

dy|v|p&thivyor idam antara= hi

vy|pta= tvayaiíkena di%a%ca sarv|+

d&^tv| ídbhuta= r~pam ugra= taveída=

lokatraya= pravyathita= mah|tman


O Lord, You pervade the entire space between heaven and earth in all directions. Seeing Your marvelous and terrible form, the three worlds are trembling with fear. (11.20)


am=I ih tv==] s=urs=]G== iv=x=Únt=

ke:ic=d< B=It==/ p=>=J=<j=D=y==e g=&[=Únt= +

sv=st=Ity=< Wktv== m=hi{=*Ús=3s=]G==/

st=uv=Únt= tv==] st=uit=ÚB=/ p=u{k:D==ÚB=/ ++š‚++†††

am$ hi tv|= surasa=gh| vi%anti

kecid bh$t|+ pr|@jalayo g&[anti

svast$íty uktv| mahar^i sidhasa=gh|+

stuvanti tv|= stutibhi+ pu^kal|bhi+


Hosts of supernatural rulers enter into You. Some with folded hands sing Your names and glories in fear. A multitude of perfected beings hail and adore You with abundant praises. (11.21)


o7=idty== v=s=v==e y=e c= s==Qy==

iv=xv=eCÚxv=n==E m=ot=x=< c==e{m=p==xc= +


v=IZ=nt=e tv==] iv=Úsm=t==x=< c=Ev= s=v=e* ++šš++

rudr|dity| vasavo ye ca s|dhy|

vi%ve í%vinau maruta% coí^map|% ca

gandharva yak^|sura siddha sa=gh|

v$k^ante tv|= vismit|% caiíva sarve



Op=] m=ht=< t=e b=huv=kF=n=eF=]

m=h=b==h=e b=hub==hUop==dm=< +††

b=hUdr] b=hud]{!M=k:r=D=]

d&{!<v== D==ek:=/ p=>vy=iq=t==s=< t=q==Chm=< ++šŗ++

r~pa= mahat te bahu vaktra netra=

mah|b|ho bahu b|h~ rup|dam

bah~dara= bahu da=^!r|kar|la=

d&^!v| lok|+ pravyathit|s tath| íham

All the celestial beings gaze at You in amaz≠ement. Seeing your infinite form with many mouths, eyes, arms, thighs, feet, stomachs, and many fearful tusks, the worlds are trembling with fear, and so do I, O mighty Lord. (11.22-23)



n=B=/sp=&x=] dIpt=m=< an=ek:v=[=*]

vy==T==n=n=] dIpt=iv=x==D=n=eF=m=< +

d&{!<v== ih tv==] p=>vy=iq=t==nt=r=tm==

Q=&it=] n= iv=nd=im= x=m=] c= iv={[==e ++šŚ++

nabha+ sp&%a= d$ptam aneka var[a=

vy|tt|nana= d$pta vi%|la netram

d&^!v| hi tv|= pravyathit| íntar|tm|

dh&ti= na vind|mi %ama= ca vi^[o


I am frightened and find neither peace nor courage, O Krishna, after seeing Your effulgent and colorful form touching the sky and Your wide open mouth with large shining eyes. (11.24)


d]{!M=k:r=D==in= c= t=e m=uK==in=

d&{!<v=Ev= k:=D==n=D=s=inn=B==in= +

idx==e n= j==n=e n= D=B=ee c= x=m=*

p=>s=Id dev=ex= j=g=inn=v==s= ++šÁ++

da=^!r|kar|l|ni ca te mukh|ni

d&^!vaiíva k|l|nala sannibh|ni

di%o na j|ne na labhe ca %arma

pras$da deve%a jaganniv|sa


I lose my sense of direction and find no comfort after seeing Your mouths with fearful tusks glowing like fires of cosmic dissolution. Have mercy on me, O Lord of celestial rulers, and refuge of the universe! (11.25)


am=I c= tv==] Q=&t=r={!Msy= p=uF==/

s=v=e* s=hEv==v=in=p==D=s=]G=E/ +

B=I{m==e 7=e[=/ s=Ut=p=uF=s=< t=q==s==E

s=h=sm=dIy=Er< aip= y==eQ=m=uKy=E/ ++šÍ++

am$ ca tv|= dh&tar|^!rasya putr|+

sarve sahaiív|ívanip|lasa=ghai+

bh$^mo dro[a+ s~taputras tath|ísau

sah|ísmad$yair api yodhamukhyai+


v=kF==i[= t=e tv=rm==[== iv=x=Únt=

d]{!M=k:r=D==in= B=y==n=k:=in= +

ke:ic=d< iv=D=gn== dx=n==nt=re{=u

s=]d&xy=nt=e c=Ui[=*t=Er< WT=m==V<g=E/ ++šŽ++

vaktr|[i te tvaram|[| vi%anti

da=^!r|kar|l|ni bhay|nak|ni

kecid vilagn| da%an|ntare^u

sa=d&%yante c~r[itair uttam|]gai+††††



All my cousin brothers, along with the hosts of other kings and warriors of the other side, together with chief warriors on our side, are also quickly en≠tering into Your fearful mouths with terrible tusks. Some are seen caught in between the tusks with their heads crushed. (11.26-27)

y=q== n=dIn==] b=hv==eCmb=uv=eg==/

s=m=u7m=< Av==iB=m=uK== 7v=Únt= +

t=q== t=v==m=I n=rD==ek:v=Ir=

iv=x=Únt= v=kF==[y=< aiB=iv=jv=D=Únt= ++šŤ++

yath| nad$n|= bahavo ímbuveg|+

samudram ev|íbhimukh| dravanti

tath| tav|ím$ naralokav$r|

vi%anti vaktr|[y abhivijvalanti††


These warriors of the mortal world are entering Your blazing mouths as many torrents of rivers enter into the ocean. (11.28)


y=q== p=>dIpt=] jv=D=n=] p=t=V<g==

iv=x=Únt= n==x==y= s=m=&3v=eg==/ +

t=q=Ev= n==x==y= iv=x=Únt= D==ek:=s=<

t=v==ip= v=kF==i[= s=m=&3v=eg==/ ++šÔ++

yath| prad$pta= jvalana= pata]g|

vi%anti n|%|ya sam&dhaveg|+

tathaiíva n|%|ya vi%anti lok|s

tav|ípi vaktr|[i sam&dhaveg|+


All these people are rapidly rushing into Your mouths for de≠struction as moths rush with great speed into the blazing flame for destruction. (11.29)

D=eÚD=ńs=e g=>s=m==n=/ s=m=nt==D=<

D==ek:=n=< s=m=g=>=n=< v=dn=Er< jv=D=i4/ +

t=ej==eiB=r< a=p=Uy=*j=g=t=< s=m=g=>]

B==s=s=< t=v==eg=>=/ p=>t=p=Únt= iv={[==e ++ŗÓ++

lelihyase grasam|na+ samant|l

lok|n samagr|n vadanair jvaladbhi+

tejobhir |p~rya jagat samagra=

bh|sas tavoígr|+ pratapanti vi^[o

You are licking up all the worlds with Your flaming mouths, swallow≠ing them from all sides. Your powerful radiance is filling the entire universe with effulgence and burning it, O Krishna. (11.30)


a=Ky==ih m=e k:=e B=v==n=< Wg=>Op==e

n=m==eCst=u t=e dev=v=r p=>s=Id +

iv=N=t=um=< wc%=im= B=v=nt=m=< a=6]

n= ih p=>j==n==im= t=v= p=>v=&iT=m=< ++ŗ‚++††

|khy|hi me ko bhav|n ugrar~po

namo ístu te devavara pras$da

vij@|tum icch|mi bhavantam |dya=

na hi praj|n|mi tava prav&ttim

Tell me, who are You in such a fierce form? My salutations to You, O best of all celestial rulers. Be merciful! I wish to understand You, O primal Being, because I do not know Your mission. (11.31)



k:=D==eCÚsm= D==ek:Z=y=k&:t=< p=>v=&3=e

D==ek:=n=< s=m==ht=*um=< wh p=>v=&T=/ +

Ąt=eCip= tv==] n= B=iv={y=Únt= s=v=*e

y=eCv=Úsq=t==/ p=>ty=n=Ike:{=u y==eQ==/ ++ŗš++


%r$ bhagav|n uv|ca

k|lo ísmi lokak^ayak&t prav&dho

lok|n sam|hartum iha prav&tta+

&te ípi tv|= na bhavi^yanti sarve

ye ívasthit|+ pratyan$ke^u yodh|+††


Lord Krishna said: I am death, the mighty destroyer of the world. I have come here to destroy all these people. Even without your participation in the war, all the warriors stand≠ing arrayed in the opposing armies shall cease to exist. (11.32)


t=sm==t=< tv=m=< WiT={@ y=x==e D=B=sv=

Új=tv== x=F=Un=< B=uV<Zv= r=jy=] s=m=&3m=< +

m=y=Ev=Et=e in=ht==/ p=Uv=*m=< Av=

in=im=T=m==F=] B=v= s=vy=s==ic=n=< ++ŗŗ++

tasm|t tvam utti^!ha ya%o labhasva

jitv| %atr~n bhu]k^va r|jya= sam&dham

mayaiívaiíte nihat|+ p~rvam eva

nimittam|tra= bhava savyas|cin


Therefore, get up and attain glory. Conquer your enemies, and en≠joy a prosperous kingdom. I have already destroyed all these warriors. You be a mere instrument of Mine, O Arjuna. (11.33)

††††††††††† This is My battle, not yours. I use you, O Arjuna, only as an instrument. I do everything through your body. One must remember at all times that all battles are His, not ours. The Koran also says: You are but an instrument, and Allah is in charge of all things. (Surah 11.12). The will and power of God do everything. No one can do anything without His power and will. It is God only who makes one restless for material life or spiritual life. Those who are not Self-realized mistakenly take their will as Godís will and do wrong things. When doing your duty, consider yourself to be a mere instrument of God and not the doer.


7=e[=] c= B=I{m=] c= j=y=7q=] c=

k:[=*] t=q==ny==n=< aip= y==eQ=v=Ir=n=< +

m=y== ht==]s=< tv=] j=ih m== vy=iq={@=

y=uQy=sv= j=et==Ús= r[=e s=p=tn==n=< ++ŗŚ++

dro[a= ca bh$^ma= ca jayadratha= ca

kar[a= tath|íny|n api yodhav$r|n

may| hat|=s tva= jahi m| vyathi^!h|

yudhyasva jet|si ra[e sapatn|n


Kill all these great warriors, who are already killed by Me. Do not fear. You will certainly conquer the enemies in the battle; therefore, fight! (11.34)



s=]j=y= Wv==c=

At=c=< %Mutv== v=c=n=] ke:x=v=sy=

k&:t==J=<j=ÚD=r< v=ep=m==n=/ ik:rI!I +

n=m=sk&:tv== B=Uy= Av==h k&:{[=]

s=g=d<g=d] B=It=B=It=/ p=>[=my= ++ŗÁ++

sa=jaya uv|ca

etac chrutv| vacana= ke%avasya

k&t|@jalir vepam|na+ kir$!$

namask&tv| bh~ya ev|ha k&^[a=

sagadgada= bh$tabh$ta+ pra[amya


Sanjaya said: Having heard these words of Krishna, the crowned Arjuna, trembling with folded hands, prostrated with fear, spoke to Krishna in a choked voice. (11.35)


aj=u*n= Wv==c=

sq==n=e Ň{=Ike:x= t=v= p=>k:Ity==*

j=g=t=< p=>Ň{y=ty=< an=urjy=t=e c= +††

rZ==]Ús= B=It==in= idx==e 7v=Únt=

s=v=e* n=m=sy=Únt= c= Ús=3s=]G==/ ++ŗÍ++


arjuna uv|ca

sth|ne h&^ike%a tava prak$rty|

jagat prah&^yaty anurajyate ca

rak^|=si bh$t|ni di%o dravanti

sarve namasyanti ca siddhasa=gh|+


Arjuna said: Rightly, O Krishna, the world delights and rejoices in glori≠fying You. Terrified demons flee in all directions. The hosts of sages bow to You in adoration. (11.36)


k:sm==c=< c= t=e n= n=m=ern=< m=h=tm=n=<

g=rIy=s=e b=>…[==eCpy=< a=idk:F=e* +

an=nt= dev=ex= j=g=inn=v==s=

tv=m=< aZ=r] s=d< as=t=< t=tp=r] y=t=< ++ŗŽ++

kasm|c ca te na nameran mah|tman

gar$yase brahma[o ípy |dikartre

ananta deve%a jaganniv|sa

tvam ak^ara= sad asat tatpara= yat


Why should they not, O great soul,bow to You -- the original Creator -- who is even greater than Brahm|, the creator of material worlds? O infinite Lord, O God of all celestial rulers, O abode of the universe, You are both Eternal and Temporal, and the Supreme Being that is beyond Eternal and Temporal. (See also 9.19 and 13.12 for a commentary) (11.37)



tv=m=< a=iddev=/ p=uo{=/ p=ur=[=s=<

tv=m=< asy= iv=xv=sy= p=r] in=Q==n=m=< +

v=eT==Ús= v=e6] c= p=r] c= Q==m=

tv=y== t=t=] iv=xv=m=< an=nt=Op= ++ŗŤ++


tvam |dideva+ puru^a+ pur|[as

tvam asya vi%vasya para= nidh|nam

vett|si vedya= ca para= ca dh|ma

tvay| tata= vi%vam anantar~pa


You are the primal God, the most ancient Person. You are the ultimate resort of the entire universe. You are the knower, the object of knowledge, and the Supreme Abode. O Lord of the infinite form, You pervade the entire universe. (11.38)


v==y=ur< y=m==eCigŪr< v=o[=/ x=x==V<k:/

p=>j==p=it=s=< tv=] p=>ip=t==m=hxc= +

n=m==e n=m=st=eCst=u s=hs=>k&:tv=/

p=un=xc= B=Uy==eCip= n=m==e n=m=st=e ++ŗÔ++

v|yur yamo íagnir varu[a+ %a%|]ka+

praj|patis tva= prapit|maha% ca

namo namaste ístu sahasrak&tva+

puna%ca bh~yo ípi namo namaste†††


You are the fire, the wind, the water god, the moon god, the Creator (Brahm|), as well as the father of the Creator (Brahm|), and the controller of death. Salutations to You a thousand times, and again and again salutations to You. (11.39)


n=m=/ p=urst==d< aq= p=&{@t=s=< t=e

n=m==eCst=u t=e s=v=*t= Av= s=v=* +

an=nt=v=Iy==*im=t=iv=k>:m=s=< tv=]

s=v=*] s=m==pn==ei{= t=t==eCÚs= s=v=*/ ++ŚÓ++

nama+ purast|d atha p&^!hatas te

namo ístu te sarvata eva sarva

ananta v$ry|mita vikramas tva=

sarva= sam|pno^i tato ísi sarva+†††

My salutations to You from front and from behind. O Lord, my obei≠sance to You from all sides. You are infinite valor and boundless might. You pervade everything, and, therefore, You are everywhere and in everything. (11.40)


s=K=eit= m=tv== p=>s=B=] y=d< Wkt=]

he k&:{[= he y==dv= he s=K=eit= +

aj==n=t== m=ihm==n=] t=v=ed]

m=y== p=>m==d=t=< p=>[=y=en= v==ip= ++Ś‚++

sakheti matv| prasabha= yad ukta=

he k&^[a he y|dava he sakheti

aj|nat| mahim|na= taveída=

my| pram|d|t pra[ayena v|pi†††


Considering You merely as a friend and not knowing Your greatness, I have inadvertently addressed You as O Krishna, O Yadava, and O friend merely out of affection or carelessness. (11.41)


y=c=< c==v=h=s==q=*m=< as=tk&:t==eCÚs=

iv=h=rx=yy==s=n=B==ej=n=e{=u +

Ak:=eCq=v==py=< acy=ut= t=ts=m=Z=]

t=t=< Z==m=y=e tv==m=< ahm=< ap=>m=ey=m=< ++Śš++

yac c|ívah|s|rtham asatk&to ísi

vih|ra %ayy|sana bhojane^u

eko íthav|py acyuta tat samak^a=

tat k^|maye tv|m aham aprameyam


In whatever way I may have insulted You in jokes while playing, re≠posing in bed, sitting, or at meals; when alone or in front of others, O Krishna, the immeasurable One, I implore You for forgiveness. (11.42)



ip=t==Ús= D==ek:sy= c=r=c=rsy=

tv=m=< asy= p=Ujy=xc= g=uor< g=rIy==n=< +

n= tv=ts=m==eCsty=< aBy=iQ=k:/ ku:t==eCny==e

D==ek:F=y=eCpy=< ap=>it=m=p=>B==v= ++Śŗ++

pit|ísi lokasya car|carasya

tvam asya p~jya%ca gurur gar$y|n

na tvatsamo ísty abhyadhika+ kuto ínyo

lokatraye ípy apratima prabh|va


You are the father of this animate and inanimate world and the great≠est guru to be worshipped. No one is even equal to You in the three worlds; how can there be one greater than You, O Being of incomparable glory? (11.43)


t=sm==t=< p=>[=my= p=>i[=Q==y= k:=y=]

p=>s==dy=e tv==m=< ahm=< w*x=m=< w*#Ym=< +

ip=t=ev= p=uF=sy= s=K=ev= s=Ky=u/

ip=>y=/ ip=>y==y==h*Ús= dev= s==e$um=< ++ŚŚ++

tasm|t pra[amya pra[idh|ya k|ya=

pras|daye tv|m aham $%am $#yam

piteva putrasya sakheva sakhyu+

priya+ priy|y|írhasi deva so#hum


Therefore, O adorable Lord, I seek Your mercy by bowing down and prostrating my body before You. Bear with me as a father to his son, as a friend to a friend, and as a husband to his wife, O Lord. (11.44)


ad&{!p=Uv=*] Ňi{=t==eeCÚsm= d&{!<v==

B=y=en= c= p=>vy=iq=t=] m=n==e m=e +

t=d< Av= m=e dx=*y= dev= Op=]

p=>s=Id dev=ex= j=g=inn=v==s= ++ŚÁ++


ad&^!ap~rva= h&^ito ísmi d&^!v|

bhayena ca pravyathita= mano me

tad eva me dar%aya deva r~pa=

pras$da deve%a jaganniv|sa††††


Beholding that which has never been seen before delights me, and yet my mind is tormented with fear. Therefore, O God of celestial rulers, the refuge of the universe, have mercy on me and show me your four-armed form. (11.45)



ik:rIi!n=] g=idn=] c=k>:hst=m=<

wc%=im= tv==] 7{!um=< ah] t=q=Ev= +

t=en=Ev= Op=e[= c=t=uB=u*j=en=

s=hs=>b==h=e B=v= iv=xv=m=Ut=e* ++ŚÍ++

kir$tina= gadina= cakrahastam

icch|mi tv|= dra^!um aha= tathaiíva

tenaiíva r~pe[a caturbhujena

sahasrab|ho bhava vi%vam~rte

I wish to see You with a crown, holding mace and discus in Your hand. Therefore, O Lord, with thousand arms and universal form, please appear in the four-armed form. (11.46)


m=y== p=>s=nn=eeen= t=v==j=*un=ed]

Op=] p=r] dix=*t=m=< a=tm=y==eg==t=< +

t=ej==em=y=] iv=xv=m=< an=nt=m=< a=6]

y=n=< m=e tv=dny=en= n= d&{!p=Uv=*m=< ++ŚŽ++

%r$ bhagav|n uv|ca

may| prasannena tav|írjuneída=

r~pa= para= dar^itam |tmayog|t

tejomaya= vi%vam anantam |dya=

yan me tvadanyena na d&^!ap~rvam

Lord Krishna said: O Arjuna, being pleased with you I have shown you, through My own yogic powers, My particular supreme, shining, uni≠versal, infinite, and primal form that has never been seen be≠fore by anyone other than you. (11.47)


n= v=edy=N=Qy=y=n=Er< n= d=n=Er<

n= c= ik>:y==iB=r< n= t=p==eiB=r< Wg=>E/ +

Av=]Op=/ x=ky= ah] n=&D==eke:

7{!u] tv=dny=en= ku:op=>v=Ir ++ŚŤ++

na vedayaj@|dhyayanair na d|nair

na ca kriy|bhir na tapobhir ugrai+

eva=r~pa+ %akya aha= n&loke

dra^!u= tvadanyena kuruprav$ra


O Arjuna, neither by study of the Vedas nor by sacrifice nor by charity nor by rituals nor by severe austerities can I be seen in this cosmic form by any one other than you in this human world. (11.48)




m== t=e vy=q== m== c= iv=m=U$B==v==e

d&{!<v== Op=] G==erm=< w*d&V<m=m=edm=< +

vy=p=et=B=I/ p=>It=m=n==/ p=un=s=< tv=]

t=d< Av= m=e Op=m=< wd] p=>p=xy= ++ŚÔ++


m| te vyath| m| ca vim~#habh|vo

d&^!v| r~pa= ghoram $d&] mameídam

vyapetabh$+ pr$taman|+ punas tva=

tad eva me r~pam ida= prapa%ya

Do not be perturbed and confused by seeing such a terrible form of Mine as this. With fearless and cheerful mind, now behold My four-armed form. (11.49)


s=]j=y= Wv==c=

wty=< aj=u*n=] v==s=udev=s=< t=q==ektv==

sv=k]: Op=] dx=*y==m==s= B=Uy=/ +

a=xv==s=y==m==s= c= B=It=m=< An=]

B=Utv== p=un=/ s==Emy=v=p=ur< m=h=tm== ++ÁÓ++

sa=jaya uv|ca

ity arjuna= v|sudevas tathoíktv|

svaka= r~pa= dar%ay|m|sa bh~ya+

|%v|say|m|sa ca bh$tam ena=

bh~tv| puna+ saumyavapur mah|tm|


Sanjaya said: After speaking like this to Arjuna, Krishna revealed His four-armed form. And then assuming His pleasant human form, Lord Krishna, the Great One, consoled Arjuna, who was terrified. (11.50)

aj=u*n= Wv==c=

d&{!<v=ed] m==n=u{=] Op=]t=v= s==Emy=] j=n==d*n= +

wd=n=Im=< aÚsm= s=]v=&T=/s=c=et==/ p=>k&:it=] g=t=/ ++Á‚++

arjuna uv|ca

d&^!veída= m|nu^a= r~pa=tava saumya= jan|rdana

id|n$m asmi sa=v&tta+sacet|+ prak&ti= gata+



Arjuna said: O Krishna, seeing this lovely human form of Yours, I have now become tranquil and normal again. (11.51)






s=udud*x=*m=< wd] Op=]d&{!v==n=Ús= y=n=< m=m= +

dev== apy=< asy= Op=sy=in=ty=] dx=*n=k:=V<iZ=[=/ ++Áš++

%r$ bhagav|n uv|ca

sudurdar%am ida= r~pa=d&^!av|nasi yan mama

dev| apy asya r~pasyanitya= dar%ana k|]k^i[a+


Lord Krishna said: This four-armed form of Mine that you have seen is very difficult, indeed, to see. Even celestial controllers are ever longing to see this form. (11.52)

n==h] v=edEr< n= t=p=s==n= d=n=en= n= c=ejy=y== +

x=ky= Av=]iv=Q==e 7{!u]d&{!v==n=Ús= m==] y=q== ++Áŗ++

n|íha= vedair na tapas|na d|nena na ceíjyay|

%akya eva=vidho dra^!u=d&^!av|nasi m|= yath|


This four-armed form of Mine that you have just seen cannot be seen even by study of the Vedas or by austerity or by acts of charity or by the performance of rituals. (11.53)

††††††††††† No one attains the almighty Lord by good works alone (RV 8.70.03, AV 20.92.18). The omnipresent form of the Lord cannot be perceived by organs, but by the eyes of intuition and faith. The vi≠sion and yogic powers are the special gift and grace of God that may be granted, even without asking, when one is found fit by the Lord to use them in His service. According to Saint Ramdas, all visions of lights and forms have to be transcended before realization of the ultimate Truth. Yogic powers may become a hindrance on the path of spiritual journey.


B=kty== tv=< an=ny=y== x=ky=ahm=< Av=]iv=Q==eCj=*un= +

N=t=u] 7{!u] c= t=Tv=en=p=>v=e{!u] c= p=r]t=p= ++ÁŚ++

bhakty| tv ananyay| %akyaaham eva=vidhoírjuna

j@|tu= dra^!u= ca tattvenaprave^!u= ca para=tapa


But by single-minded devotion, I can be seen in this form, can be known in essence, and also can be reached, O Arjuna. (11.54)


m=tk:m=*k&:n=< m=tp=rm==em=4kt=/ s=V<g=v=Új=*t=/ +

in=v=*Er/ s=v=*B=Ut=e{=uy=/ s= m==m=< Ait= p==[#v= ++ÁÁ++

matkarmak&n matparamomadbhakta+ sa]gavarjita+

nirvaira+ sarvabh~te^uya+ sa m|m eti p|[#ava


One who dedicates all works to Me and to whom I am the supreme goal, who is my devotee, who has no attachment, and who is free from malice toward any creature -- reaches Me, O Arjuna. (See also 8.22 ) (11.55)


aq= 8=dx==eCQy==y=/








aj=*un= Wv==c=

Av=] s=t=t=y=ukt== y=eB=kt==s=< tv==] p=y=*up==s=t=e +

y=e c==py=< aZ=rm=< avy=kt=]t=e{==] ke: y==eg=iv=T=m==/ ++‚+

arjuna uv|ca

eva= satata yukt| yebhakt|s tv|= paryup|sate

ye c|py ak^aram avyakta=te^|= ke yogavittam|+

Arjuna asked: Which of these has the best knowledge of yoga -- those ever-steadfast devotees who wor≠ship Your personal aspect, or those who worship Your impersonal aspect, the formless Absolute? (12.01)

††††††††††† Lord Krishna explained the superiority of the path of spiritual knowledge in the fourth chapter (4.33, and 4.34). He explained the importance of worship of the formless Supreme (or Self) in verses 5.24-25, 6.24-28, and 8.11-13. He also emphasized the worship of God with form or Krishna in 7.16-18, 9.34, and 11.54-55. It was thus natural for Arjuna to ask which path is better for most people in general.



m=yy=< a=v=exy= m=n==e y=e m==]in=ty=y=ukt== Wp==s=t=e +

X3y== p=ry==ep=et==s=<t=e m=e y=ukt=t=m== m=t==/ ++š++

%r$ bhagav|n uv|ca

mayy |ve%ya mano ye m|=nityayukt| up|sate

%raddhay| parayopet|ste me yuktatam| mat|+

Lord Krishna said: I consider the best yogis to be those ever steadfast devotees who worship with supreme faith by fixing their mind on Me as their personal God. (See also 6.47 ) (12.02)

††††††††††† Devotion is defined as the highest love for God (SBS 02). True devotion is motiveless intense love of God to attain Him (NBS 02). Real devotion is seeking Godís grace and serving with love to please Him. Thus, devotion is doing oneís duty as an offering to the Lord with love of God in oneís heart. It is also said that devotion is granted by the grace of God. A loving relationship with God is easily developed through a personal God. The faithful followers of the path of devotion to the personal God in human form such as Rama, Krishna, Moses, Buddha, Christ, and Muhammad are considered the best. The Bible says: I am the way; no one goes to Father except through me (John 14.06). Some saints consider devotion superior to Self-knowledge (SBS 05).

††††††††††† All spiritual practices are useless in the absence of devotion, the deep love of God. The pearl of Self-knowledge is born on the nucleus of faith and devo≠tion only. Saint Ramanuja said that those who worship the manifest reach their goal sooner and with less difficulty. Love of God and all His creatures is the essence of all religion. Jesus also said: You shall love the Lord with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your mind; and you shall love everybody as yourself (Matthew 22.37-39).


y=e tv=< aZ=rm=< ain=de*xy=m=<avy=kt=] p=y=*up==s=t=e +

s=v=*F=g=m=< aic=nty=] c=kU:!sq=m=< ac=D=] Q=>uuv=m=< ++ŗ++

ye tv ak^aram anirde%yamavyakta= paryup|sate

sarvatragam acintya= cak~!astham acala= dhruvam

s=]in=y=my=eÚn7y=g=>=m=]s=v=*F= s=m=b=u3y=/ +

t=e p=>=pn=uuv=Únt= m==m=< Av=s=v=*B=Ut=iht=e rt==/ ++Ś++

sa=niyamyeíndriyagr|ma=sarvatra samabuddhaya+

te pr|pnuvanti m|m evasarvabh~ta hite rat|+


They also attain Me who worship the unchangeable, the inexplicable, the invisible, the omnipresent, the inconceivable, the unchanging, the immov≠able, and the formless -- My impersonal aspect -- restraining all the senses, even-minded under all circumstances, en≠gaged in the welfare of all creatures. (12.03-04)

††††††††††† A person who is competent to worship the formless aspect of God must have a complete mastery over the senses, be tranquil under all circumstances, and be engaged in the welfare of all creatures. The path of personalism allows one to relish the name, form, and pastimes of the Lord as they happened when He manifested on the earth. The path of impersonalism is dry, full of difficulties, and advancement on this path is very slow as discussed in the next verse.




kD=ex==eCiQ=k:t=rs=< t=e{==m=<avy=kt==s=kt=c=et=s==m=< +

avy=kt== ih g=it=r< du/K=]dehv=i4r< av==py=t=e ++Á++

kle%oídhikataras te^|mavyakt|saktacetas|m

avyakt| hi gatir du+kha=dehavadbhir av|pyate


Self-realization is more difficult for those who fix their mind on the impersonal, unmanifest, and formless Absolute, because worship of the unmanifest is difficult for ordinary human beings. (12.05)

††††††††††† One must be free from body-feeling and be established in feeling the existence of the Self alone if one wants to succeed in worship of formless Absolute. One becomes free from the bodily conception of life when one is fully purified and acts solely for the Supreme Lord. Attainment of such a state is not possible for the average human being, but only for advanced souls. Therefore, the natural course for the ordinary seeker is to worship God with a form. Thus the method of worship depends on the individual. One should find out for oneself which method suits one best. It is quite fruitless to ask a child to worship a formless God, whereas a sage sees God in every form and does not need a statue or even a picture of God for worship.

††††††††††† Loving contemplation and deity worship of a per≠sonal God is a necessary first step for realization of the impersonal Absolute. It is also said that devotion to the personal aspect of God leads one to the transcendental aspect. God is not only an ex≠tra cosmic, all-powerful Being, but the very Self in all beings. The worship of God as a person in the form of one's personal favorite deity stimulates divine love that rouses Self-consciousness and experience of unity in due course of time. God, the transcendent, is revealed in oneís pure inner psyche after the loving con≠templation of God, the immanent.

††††††††††† There is no real difference between the two paths ó the path of devotion to a personal God and the path of Self-knowledge of the impersonal God ó in their higher reaches. In the highest stage of realization they merge and become one. Other sages also consider the path of devotion easier for most people, particularly for beginners. According to Tulasidasa, the path of Self-knowledge is difficult to comprehend, to explain, and to follow. It is also very easy to fall down from the path of knowledge or retreat to the lower sensual plane of consciousness (TR 7.118.00). In the next two verses, the Lord says that the path of devotion is not only eas≠ier, but also faster than the path of knowledge.

††††††††††† The personal and the impersonal, the physical form and the transcendental form, are the two sides of the coin of ultimate Reality. Ramakrishna said: ďImage worship is necessary in the beginning, but not afterwards, just as a scaffolding is necessary during the construction of a building.Ē The subconscious or meditative (Alpha) state of mind knows the language of pictures or visualization only. The conscious mind knows reasoning. A per≠son must learn to fix thoughts and mind first on a personal God with a form and then, after succeeding therein, fix them upon the transcendental form. The highest lib≠eration is possible only by realization of God as the very Self in all beings, (BS 4.3.15, ShU 3.07) and it comes only through maturity of devo≠tion to the personal God and His grace. This realization is the second (or spiritual) birth, or the second coming of Christ. Jesus said: The Kingdom of the Father is spread upon the earth, and people do not see. Another great saint said: It is like a fish in the water remaining thirsty and searching for water.

††††††††††† According to ancient scriptures, any spiritual practice becomes more powerful when it is done with knowl≠edge, faith, and contemplation of a personal deity (ChU 1.01.10). Ascetic practice, prayer, charity, penance, performance of sacrifice, vows, and other religious observances fail to evoke Lordís compassion to the same degree as unalloyed de≠votion does. The magnet of devotion easily attracts the Lord (TR 6.117.00).


y=e t=u s=v==*Ú[= k:m==*Ú[=m=iy= s=]ny=sy= m=tp=r=/ +

an=ny=en=Ev= y==eg=en=m==] Qy==y=nt= Wp==s=t=e ++Í++

ye tu sarv|[i karm|[imayi sa=nyasya matpar|+

ananyenaiva yogenam|= dhy|yanta up|sate††††

t=e{==m=< ah] s=m=u3t==*m=&ty=us=]s==rs==g=r=t=< +

B=v==im= n=ic=r=t=< p==q=*m=yy=< a=v=eÚx=t=c=et=s==m=< ++Ž++

te^|m aha= samuddhart|m&tyu sa=s|ra s|gar|t

bhav|mi nacir|t p|rthamayy |ve%ita cetas|m


But to those devotees -- whose minds are set on My personal form, who worship Me meditating on My personal form with unswerving devotion, setting Me as their supreme goal, offering all actions to Me -- I swiftly become their savior from the world that is the ocean of death and transmigration, O Arjuna. (12.06-07)

††††††††††† One can easily cross the ocean of transmigration with the help of the boat of unswerving love and devotion to a personal God with form (TR 7.122.00). The following verses explain four different methods of worship of God with or without the help of a form of God or deity.


††††††††††† People are born different. Anybody who prescribes one method for all is certainly deluded because there is no panacea. A single method or system cannot meet the spiritual needs of all. Hinduism, with its many branches and sub-branches, offers a very wide choice of spiritual practices to suit persons in any stage of spiritual development. All paths lead to salvation because they all culminate in devotion -- the intense love of God.


m=yy=ev= m=n= a=Q=tsv=m=iy= b=ui3] in=v=ex=y= +

in=v=Ús={y=Ús= m=yy=ev=at=~Qv=*] n= s=]x=y=/ ++Ť++

mayyeva mana |dhatsvamayi buddhi= nive%aya

nivasi^yasi mayyevaata ~rdhva= na sa=%aya+


Therefore, focus your mind on My personal form and let your intellect dwell upon Me alone through meditation and contemplation. Thereafter, you shall certainly attain Me. (12.08)

††††††††††† This is the path of meditation (See Chapter 6 for more details) for the contemplative mind. Thinking of a chosen form of God all the time is different from worshipping that form, but both practices are the same in quality and effect. In other words, contemplation is also a form of worship.

aq= ic=T=] s=m==Q==t=u]n= x=kn==eei{= m=iy= Úsq=rm=< +

aBy==s=y==eg=en= t=t==em==m=< wc%=pt=u] Q=n=]j=y= ++Ô++

atha citta= sam|dh|tu=na %akno^i mayi sthiram

abhy|sa yogena tatom|m icch|ptu= dhana=jaya


If you are unable to focus your mind steadily on Me, then long to at≠tain Me by practice of any other spiritual discipline, such as a ritual, or deity worship that suits you. (12.09)

††††††††††† This is the path of ritual, prayer, and devotional worship recommended for people who are emotional, have more faith but less reasoning and intellect (See also 9.32 ). Constantly contemplate and concentrate your mind on God, using symbols or mental pictures of a personal God as an aid to develop devotion.


aBy==s=eCpy=< as=m=q==e*CÚs=m=tk:m=*p=rm==e B=v= +

m=dq=*m=< aip= k:m==*Ú[=ku:v=*n=< Ús=i3m=< av==psy=Ús= ++‚Ó++

abhy|seípy asamarthoísimatkarmaparamo bhava

madartham api karm|[ikurvan siddhim av|psyasi


If you are unable even to do any spiritual discipline, then dedicate all your work to Me (or do your duty just for Me). You shall attain perfection by doing your prescribed duty for Me (without any personal motive, just as an instrument, to serve and please Me). (12.10)

††††††††††† This is the path of transcendental knowledge or renunciation, acquired through contemplation and scriptural study for people who have realized the truth that we are only divine instruments. (See also 9.27 and 18.46 ). Lord Himself guides every endeavor of the person who works for the good of humanity, and success comes to a person who dedicates his or her life to the service of God.


aq=Et=d< apy=< ax=kt==eCÚs=k:t=u*] m=6=eg=m=< a=ÚXt=/ +

s=v=*k:m=*f:D=ty==g=]t=t=/ ku:o y=t==tm=v==n=< ++‚‚++

athaitad apy a%aktoísikartu= madyogam |%rita+

sarva karmaphala ty|ga=tata+ kuru yat|tmav|n


If you are unable to dedicate your work to Me, then just surrender unto My will with subdued mind and renounce (the attachment to and the anxiety for) the fruits of all work (by learning to accept all results with equanimity as God's grace). (12.11)

††††††††††† This is the path of KarmaYoga, the selfless service to humanity, discussed in Chapter 3, for householders who cannot renounce worldly activity and work full-time for God, as discussed in verse 12.10, above. The main thrust of verses 12.08-11 is that one must establish some relationship with the Lord -- such as the progenitor, fa≠ther, mother, beloved, child, savior, guru, master, helper, guest, friend, and even an enemy.

††††††††††† KarmaYoga, or the renunciation of attachment to fruits of work, is not a method of last resort -- as it may appear from verse 12.11. It is explained in the following verse.



Xey==e ih N=n=m=< aBy==s==j=<N=n==d< Qy==n=] iv=Úx={y=t=e +

Qy==n==t=< k:m=*f:D=ty==g=s=<ty==g==c=< %=Únt=r< an=nt=rm=< ++‚š++

%reyo h$ j@|nam abhy|s|jj@|n|d dhy|na= vi%i^yate

dhy|n|t karmaphala ty|gasty|g|c ch|ntir anantaram


Knowledge of scriptures is better than mere ritualistic practice; meditation is better than plain scriptural knowledge; renunciation of (attachment to) the fruits of work is better than meditation because peace immediately follows renunciation of all motives. (See more on renunciation in 18.02, and 18.09) (12.12)

††††††††††† When true knowledge of the Self increases, all Karma is gradually eliminated because one who is situated in Self-knowledge thinks he or she is not the doer but an instrument working at the pleasure of the creator. Such an action in God-consciousness becomes devotion -- free from any Karmic bondage. Thus, there is no sharp demarcation between the paths of selfless service, spiritual knowledge, and devotion. Renunciation of attachments and desires is the backbone and the ultimate goal of any spiritual practice. Renunciation is also relatively easy to practice and is essence of the teachings of the Gita.


a8e{!= s=v=*B=Ut==n==]m=EF=/ k:o[= Av= c= +

in=m=*m==e in=rh]k:=r/s=m=du/K=s=uK=/ Z=m=I ++‚ŗ++

adve^!| sarva bh~t|n|=maitra+ karu[a eva ca

nirmamo niraha=k|ra+samadu+khasukha+k^am$

s=]t=u{!/ s=t=t=] y==eg=Iy=t==tm== d&$in=xc=y=/ +

m=yy=< aip=*t=m=n==eb=ui3r<y==e m=4kt=/ s= m=e ip=>y=/ ++‚Ś++

sa=tu^!a+ satata= yog$yat|tm| d&#hani%caya+

mayy arpita manobuddhiryo madbhakta+ sa me priya+


One is dear to Me who does not hate any creature, who is friendly and compassion≠ate, who is free from the notion of ĎIí and Ďmyí, who is even-minded in pain and pleasure, who is forgiving, who is ever content, who has subdued the mind, whose re≠solve is firm, whose mind and intellect are engaged in dwelling upon Me, and who is devoted to Me. (12.13-14)

††††††††††† To attain oneness with God, one has to become per≠fect like Him by cultivating moral virtues. The Bible also says: Try to perfect yourself, just as your Father in the heaven is perfect (Matthew 5.48). Saint Tulasidasa said: O Lord, anyone on whom You shower Your favor becomes an ocean of perfection. The monstrous squad of lust, anger, greed, infatuation, and pride haunts the mind so long as the Lord does not abide in the inner psyche. Virtues and discipline are two sure means of devotion. A list of forty (40) virtues and values is given in verses 12.13-12.19 by describing the qualities of an ideal devotee, or a Self-realized person. All these noble qualities become manifest in a devotee.


y=sm==n=< n==eei8j=t=e D==ek:=eD==ek:=n=< n==ei*8j=t=e c= y=/ +

h{==*m={=*B=y==e8eg=Er<m=ukt==e y=/ s= c= m=e ip=>y=/ ++‚Á++

yasm|n nodvijate lokolok|n nodvijate ca ya+

har^|mar^abhayodvegairmukto ya+ sa ca me priya+

One is also dear to Me who does not agitate others and who is not agitated by them, who is free from joy, envy, fear, and anxiety. (12.15)


an=p=eZ=/ x=uic=r< dZ=Wd=s=In==e g=t=vy=q=/ +

s=v==*rmB=p=irty==g=Iy==e m=4kt=/ s= m=e ip=>y=/ ++‚Í++

anapek^a+ %ucir dak^aud|s$no gatavyatha+

sarv|rambha parity|g$yo madbhakta+ sa me priya+


One who is desireless, pure, wise, impartial, and free from anxiety; who has renounced the doership in all undertakings -- such a devotee is dear to Me. (12.16)


y==e n= Ň{y=it= n= 8eÚ{!n= x==ec=it= n= k:=V<Z=it= +

x=uB==x=uB=p=irty==g=IB=Żkt=m==n=< y=/ s= m=e ip=>y=/ ++‚Ž++

yo na h&^yati na dve^!ina %ocati na k|]k^ati

%ubh|%ubha parity|g$bhaktim|n ya+ sa me priya+


One who neither rejoices nor grieves, neither likes nor dislikes, has renounced both the good and the evil, and is full of devotion -- is also dear to Me. (12.17)


s=m=/ x=F==E c= im=F=e c=t=q== m==n==p=m==n=y==e/ +

x=It==e{[=s=uK=du/K=e{=us=m=/ s=V<g=iv=v=Új=*t=/ ++‚Ť++

sama+ %atrau ca mitre catath| m|n|pam|nayo+

%$to^[a sukha du+khe^usama+ sa]gavivarjita+

t=uDy=in=nd=st=uit=r< m==En=Is=]t=u{!=e y=en= ke:n=ic=t=< +

ain=ke:t=/ Úsq=rm=it=r<B=Żkt=m==n=< m=e ip=>y==e n=r/ ++‚Ô++

tulya nind| stutir maun$sa=tu^!o yena kenacit

aniketa+ sthiramatirbhaktim|n me priyo nara+


One who remains the same towards friend or foe, in honor or dis≠grace, in heat or cold, in pleasure or pain; who is free from attach≠ment; who is indifferent to censure or praise; who is quiet, and content with whatever one has, unattached to a place, a country, or a house; who is tranquil, and full of devotion -- that person is dear to Me. (12.18-19)

††††††††††† It is said that divine Controllers with their exalted qualities, such as the knowledge of God, wisdom, renunciation, detachment, and equanimity, always reside in the inner psyche of a pure devotee. Thus, perfect devotees who have renounced affinity for the world and its objects and have love for God are rewarded by the Lord with divine qualities discussed above and elsewhere in the Gita, and are dear to the Lord. But what about those who are imperfect, but trying sincerely for perfection? The answer comes in the next verse.



y=e t=u Q=my==*m=&t=m=< wd]y=q==ekt=] p=y=*up==s=t=e +

Xd<dQ==n== m=tp=rm==B=kt==s=< t=eCt=Iv= m=e ip=>y==/ ++šÓ++

ye tu dharmy|m&tam ida=yathokta= paryup|sate

%raddadh|n| matparam|bhakt|s teít$va me priy|+


But those sincere devotees, who set Me as their supreme goal of life and make sincere effort to achieve it, are very dear to Me. (12.20)

††††††††††† One may not have all the virtues, but a sincere effort to develop virtues is most appreciated by the Lord. Thus the striver is very dear to the Lord. The upper-class devotees do not desire anything, including salvation from the Lord, ex≠cept for one boon: devotion to the lotus feet of a personal God, birth after birth (TR 2.204.00). Lower class devotees use God as a ser≠vant to fulfill their material demands and desires. The development of unswerving love and devotion to the lotus feet of the Lord is the ultimate aim of all spiritual discipline and meri≠torious deeds, as well as the goal of human birth. A true devotee con≠siders oneself the servant, the Lord as the master, and the entire creation as His body.

††††††††††† The path of devotion is a better path for most people, but devotion does not develop without a combination of personal effort, faith, and the grace of God. Nine techniques for cultivating devotion -- an intense love for God as a personal Being -- based on Tulasi Ramayana (TR 3.34.04-3.35.03), are: (1) The company of the holy and wise, (2) Hearing and reading the glories and stories of Lordís incarnations and His activities of creation, pres≠ervation and dissolution as given in the religious scriptures, (3) Seva or serving God through service to the needy, the saints, and society, (4) Congregational chanting and singing of the glories of God, (5) Repeating the Lordís name and mantra with firm faith, (6) Discipline, con≠trol over the six senses, and detachment, (7) Seeing your personal God everywhere and in everything, (8) Contentment and lack of greed as well as overlooking othersí faults, and (9) Simplicity, lack of anger, jealousy, and hatred. The best thing a person should do is develop love of God. Lord Rama said that one needs to follow any one of the above methods with faith to develop love of God and become a devotee.

††††††††††† Good company of saints and sages is a very powerful tool for God-realization. It is said that friendship, discussions, dealings, and marriage should be with equals or those who are better than oneself, not with persons of lower level of intellect (MB 5.13.117). A person is known by the company he or she keeps. According to most saints and sages, the path of devotion is very simple and easy to perform. One can begin by simply chanting a personal mantra or any holy name of God. There is no restriction on the correct time or place for chanting the holy name of God. The process of devotional service consists of one or more of the following practices: hearing discourses, chanting the holy name of God, remembering and contemplating God, worshipping Him, praying to Him, serving God and humanity, and surrendering to His will.

††††††††††† The four inter-connected paths of yoga discussed in the first twelve chapters of the Gita may be summarized as follows:

††††††††††† The practice of KarmaYoga leads to purification of the mind from the stain of selfishness that paves the way for knowledge of God to be revealed. Knowledge develops into devotional love of God. Constant thinking of God, the object of our love due to devotion, is called meditation and contemplation that eventually lead to enlightenment and salvation.



††††††††††† Lord Krishna has been talking about both manifest and unmanifest aspects of God in the previous chapters. Arjunaís question has been answered in great detail in this chapter, but people still argue that one method of worship or certain religious practices are better than others. Such persons only understand half the truth. In our opinion, it is quite clear that the method of worship depends on the nature of the individual. The person or the personís guru should find out which path will be most suitable for the individual, depending on the person's temperament. To force his or her own method of worship on people is the greatest disservice a guru can do to disciples. Introverts should worship a personal God, whereas extroverts may contemplate the impersonal aspect. The important thing is to develop faith in and love of God. God has the power to manifest before a devotee in any form, regardless of the devoteeís chosen form of worship.

††††††††††† What has worked for one may not work for all, so what makes you think your method is universal? There was no need for the Lord to discuss different paths of yoga if there was one path for all. If the chosen path of spiritual discipline does not give one peace or God-realization, then it must be understood that one is not practicing correctly or the path is not right for the individual.

aq= F=y==edx==eCQy==y=/







wd] x=rIr] k:=Ent=ey=Z=eF=m=< wty=< aiB=Q=Iy=t=e +

At=d< y==e v=eiT= t=] p=>=hu/Z=eF=N wit= t=i8d/ ++‚++

%r$ bhagav|n uv|ca

ida= %ar$ra= kaunteyak^etram ity abhidh$yate

etad yo vetti ta= pr|hu+k^etraj@a iti tadvida+

Lord Krishna said: O Arjuna, this physical body, the miniature universe, may be called the field or creation. One who knows the creation is called the Creator (or the Spirit, Atma, God, Ishvara) by the seers of truth. (13.01)

††††††††††† Whatever is here in the body is also there in the cosmos; whatever is there, the same is here (KaU 4.10). The human body, the microcosm, is a replica of the universe, the macrocosm. The body is called the field of activities for the soul. The body or creation is different from the soul or the Creator. To experience this difference is the metaphysical knowledge.


Z=eF=N] c==ip= m==] iv=i3s=v=*Z=eF=e{=u B==rt= +

Z=eF=Z=eF=Ny==er< N=n=]y=t=< t=j=< N=n=] m=t=] m=m= ++š++

k^etraj@a= c|ípi m|= viddhisarvak^etre^u bh|rata

k^etra k^etraj@ayor j@|na=yat taj j@|na= mata= mama

O Arjuna, know Me to be the Creator of all the creation. I consider the true under≠standing of both the Creator and the creation to be transcendental knowledge. (13.02)

††††††††††† The body (or creation) and Spirit (or the Creator) are dis≠tinct from one another. Yet, the ignorant are not able to distinguish between them. That knowledge is the true knowledge by which one is able to make a clear distinction between body and Spirit. Body is called the field (or the medium) of activities for the Spirit. The human body is the medium by which the individual soul enjoys the material world, gets entangled, and in the end attains liberation. The soul inside the body knows all the activities of its own body; it is, therefore, called the knower of the field of activities. The Supersoul knows all the bodies, whereas the individual soul knows only his own body. When one clearly understands the difference between the body, the individual soul inside the body, and the Supersoul, one is said to have real knowledge.


t=t=< Z=eF=] y=c=< c= y==d&k<: c=y=i8k:=ir y=t=xc= y=t=< +

s= c= y==e y=tp=>B==v=xc=t=t=< s=m==s=en= m=e x=&[=u ++ŗ++

tat k^etra= yac ca y|d&k cayadvik|ri yata%ca yat

sa ca yo yat prabh|va%catat sam|sena me %&[u


What creation is, what it is like, what its transformations are, where the source of creation is, who that Creator is, and what His powers are -- hear all these from Me in brief. (13.03)


Pi{=iB=r< b=huQ== g=It=]%nd=eiB=r< iv=iv=Q=E/ p=&q=k<: +

b=>…s=UF=p=dExc=Ev=het=um=i4r< iv=in=Żxc=t=E/ ++Ś++

&^ibhir bahudh| g$ta=chandobhir vividhai+ p&thak

brahmas~trapadai% caiívahetumadbhir vini%citai+


The seers have separately described the creation and the Creator in different ways in the Vedic hymns and also in the conclusive and convincing verses of other scriptures. (13.04)

††††††††††† The Gita also expounds on the truths of other scrip≠tures. All scriptures, as well as saints and sages of all religions, draw the water of truth from the same ocean of Spirit. Their accent var≠ies with the need of the individual and the society at the time.


m=h=B=Ut==ny=< ah]k:=r=eb=ui3r< avy=kt=m=< Av= c= +

wÚn7y==i[= dx=Ek]: c=p=Jc= c=eÚn7y=g==ec=r=/ ++Á++

mah|bh~t|ny aha=k|robuddhir avyaktam eva ca

indriy|[i da%aiíka= capa@ca ceíndriyagocar|+

wc%= 8e{=/ s=uK=] du/K=]s=]G==t=xc=et=n== Q=&it=/ +

At=t=< Z=eF=] s=m==s=en=s=iv=k:=rm=< Wd=Ňt=m=< ++Í++

icch| dve^a+ sukha= du+kha=sa=gh|ta% cetan| dh&ti+

etat k^etra= sam|senasavik|ram ud|h&tam

The primary material Nature, the cosmic intellect, ĎIí consciousness or ego, five basic elements, ten organs, mind, five sense objects, and desire, hatred, pleasure, pain, the physical body, consciousness, and willpower -- thus the entire field has been briefly described with its transformations. (See also 7.04 ) (13.05-06)

††††††††††† According to Sankhya doctrine (BP 3.26.10-18, 11.22.10-16), Spirit undergoes twenty-five basic transformations in the following order: Spiritual Being (Purusha, Chetan|, Ishvara) and the following twenty-four transformations of Total Energy (Prakriti, Mahat): Mind, Intellect, Consciousness (Chitta), and the conception of individuality (ego); the five sense objects (sound, touch, sight, taste, and smell); the five basic elements, or raw ingredients, in subtle and gross form (ether or subtle substance, air, fire, water, and earth); the five sense organs (ear, skin, eye, tongue, and nose); and the five organs of action (mouth, hand, leg, anus, and urethra).

††††††††††† The Supreme Intellect is known by various names, based on functions performed in the body. It is called mind when it feels and thinks, intellect when it reasons, thought waves (Chitta Vritti) when it does the act of remembering and wandering from one thought to another, and ego when it has the feeling of doership and individuality. The subtle senses consist of all four ó mind, intellect, thought waves, and ego. It is the Karmic footprints that actually make the final decision with the help of mind and intellect. When the cosmic power does the functions of the body, it is called the bioimpulse (Vital life forces, Pr|na). The Supreme Spirit or Consciousness manifests Itself as both energy and matter. Matter and energy are nothing but condensed forms of Consciousness. According to Einstein, mind and matter are both energies (Pr|na). Ramana Maharshi said: The mind is a form of energy. It manifests itself as the world.



am==in=tv=m=< adÚmB=tv=m=<aih]s== Z==Únt=r< a=j=*v=m=< +

a=c==y==e*p==s=n=] x==Ec=]sq=Ey=*m=< a=tm=iv=in=g=>h/ ++Ž++

am|nitvam adambhitvamahi=s| k^|ntir |rjavam

|c|ryop|sana= %auca=sthairyam |tmavinigraha+

wÚn7y==q=e*{=u v=Er=gy=m=<an=h]k:=r Av= c= +

j=nm=m=&ty=uj=r=vy==ÚQ=-du/K=d=e{==n=udx=*n=m=< ++Ť++

indriy|rthe^u vair|gyamanaha=k|ra eva ca

janma m&tyu jar| vy|dhi-du+kha do^|nudar%anam

Humility, modesty, nonviolence, forgiveness, honesty, service to guru, purity of thought, word, and deed, steadfastness, self-control, aversion for sense objects, absence of ego, constant reflection on the pain and suffering inherent in birth, old age, disease, and death. (13.07-08)

††††††††††† Verse 13.08 of the Gita formed the foundation of Buddhism. The constant contemplation and understanding of agony and suffering inherent in birth, old age, disease, and death are called the understanding of the Fourfold Noble Truth in Buddhism. A clear understanding of this truth is necessary before starting the spiritual journey. A disgust and discontent for the meaninglessness and unreal≠ity of the world and its objects become a necessary prelude to the spiritual journey. As birds seek the shelter of a tree when tired, simi≠larly, human beings seek the divine shelter after discovering the frus≠trations and joylessness of material existence.

as=Żkt=r< an=ÚB={v=V<g=/p=uF=d=rg=&h=id{=u +

in=ty=] c= s=m=ic=T=tv=m=<w{!=in={!=ep=p=iT={=u ++Ô++

asaktir anabhi^va]ga+putra d|ra g&h|di^u

nitya= ca samacittatvami^!|íni^!opapatti^u

m=iy= c==n=ny=y==eg=en= B=Żkt=r< avy=iB=c==ir[=I +

iv=iv=kt=dex=s=eiv=tv=m=<arit=r< j=n=s=]s=id ++‚Ó++

mayi c|ínanyayogenabhaktir avyabhic|ri[$

vivikta de%a sevitvamaratir janasa=sadi

aQy==tm=N=n=in=ty=tv=]t=Tv=N=n==q=*dx=*n=m=< +

At=j=< N=n=m=< wit= p=>=ekt=m=<aN=n=] y=d< at==eCny=q== ++‚‚++

adhy|tma j@|na nityatva=tattva j@|n|rtha dar%anam

etaj j@|nam iti proktamaj@|na= yad atoínyath|

Detachment with family members, home, etc.; unfailing equanimity upon attainment of the desirable and the undesirable and unswerving devotion to Me through single-minded contemplation; taste for soli≠tude; distaste for social gatherings and gossips; steadfastness in acquiring the knowledge of the Self; and seeing the omnipresent Supreme Being everywhere -- this is said to be (the means of) Self-knowledge. That which is contrary to this is ignorance. (13.09-11)

††††††††††† Cultivating the virtues described in verses 13.07-11 will enable one to perceive the body as different from the Self. Thus, one will attain Self-knowledge. Therefore, these virtues are called knowledge. Those who do not possess these virtues cannot get the true knowledge of the Self and will remain in the darkness of body-consciousness or ignorance.

††††††††††† When one becomes firmly convinced that God alone is everything -- father, mother, brother, friend, enemy, sustainer, destroyer, and refuge -- and there is nothing higher than Him to attain, and one has no thought of any other object, one is said to have developed unswerving devotion to the Lord through single-minded contemplation. In this state of mind, the seeker and the sought-after become qualitatively one and the same.



Ney=] y=t=< t=t=< p=>v=Zy==im=y=j=< N=tv==Cm=&t=m=< axn=ut=e +

an==idm=t=< p=r] b=>…n= s=t=< t=n=< n==s=d< Wcy=t=e ++‚š++

j@eya= yat tat pravak^y|miyaj j@|tv|ím&tam a%nute

an|dimat para= brahmana sat tan n|ísad ucyate

I shall fully describe the Supreme Being -- the object of knowledge. By knowing this one at≠tains immortality. The beginningless Supreme Being is said to be neither eternal nor temporal. (See also 9.19, 11.37 and 15.18 ) (13.12)

††††††††††† In the beginning there was neither Eternal Being (Sat, Brahma) nor temporal (Asat, Divine Beings, Devas)-- no sky, no air, neither day nor night. There was nothing whatsoever other than the Absolute Supreme Being (RV 10.129.01, AiU 1.01). The Absolute is beyond both Divine Beings (celestial controllers, Devas) and the Eternal Being (Spirit) (Gita 15.18). Therefore, He is neither temporal nor eternal. The Supreme Being or the Absolute is also both temporal and eternal (Gita 9.19) and beyond both temporal and eternal (Gita 11.37 and 15.18) because He is everywhere, in everything, and also beyond everything. Therefore, the Absolute is all three -- neither temporal nor eternal, beyond both temporal and eternal, as well as both temporal and eternal -- at the same time.


s=v=*t=/p==i[=p==d] t=t=<s=v=*t==eCiZ=ix=r=em=uK=m=< +

s=v=*t=/Xuit=m=D=< D==eke:s=v=*m=< a=v=&ty= it={@it= ++‚ŗ++

sarvata+ p|[ip|da= tatsarvatoík^i%iromukham

sarvata+ %rutimal lokesarvam |v&tya ti^!hati


The Supreme Being has His hands, feet, eyes, head, mouth, and ears eve≠rywhere because He is all-pervading and omnipresent. (13.13)

s=v=*eÚn7y=g=u[==B==s=]s=v=*eÚn7y=iv=v=Új=*t=m=< +

as=kt=] s=v=*B=&c=< c=Ev=in=g=*u[=] g=u[=B==ekt=& c= ++‚Ś++

sarvendriya gu[|bh|sa=sarvendriya vivarjitam

asakta= sarvabh&c caiívanirgu[a= gu[abhokt& ca


He is the perceiver of all sense objects without the physical sense organs; unattached, and yet the sustainer of all; devoid of the three modes of material Nature, and yet the enjoyer of the modes of material Nature by becoming the living entity. (13.14)

††††††††††† Self walks without legs, hears without ears, performs many actions without hands, smells without a nose, sees without eyes, speaks without a mouth, and enjoys all tastes without a tongue. All His actions are so marvelous that one finds His greatness utterly beyond description (TR 1.117.03-04). The Supreme Being may be de≠scribed only by parables and paradoxes and in no other way. (See also ShU 3.19). Self expands Himself as the living entity to enjoy three modes of material Nature.

††††††††††† God does not possess a body like an ordinary being. All His senses are transcendental, or out of this world. His potencies are multifarious. Any one of His senses can perform the action of any other sense. All His deeds are automatically performed as a natural consequence.


b=ihr< ant=xc= B=Ut==n==m=<ac=r] c=rm=< Av= c= +

s=UZm=tv==t=< t=d< aiv=Ney=]dUrsq=] c==Únt=ke: c= t=t=< ++‚Á++

bahir anta%ca bh~t|n|macara= caram eva ca

s~k^matv|t tad avij@eya=d~rastha= c|íntike ca tat

He is inside as well as outside all beings, animate and inanimate. He is incomprehensible because of His subtlety. And because of His omnipresence, He is very near -- residing in our inner psyche -- as well as far away in the Supreme Abode. (13.15)


aiv=B=kt=] c= B=Ut=e{=uiv=B=kt=m=< wv= c= Úsq=t=m=<+

B=Ut=B=t=*& c= t=j=< Ney=]g=>Ús={[=u p=>B=iv={[=u c= ++‚Í++

avibhakta= ca bh~te^uvibhaktam iva ca sthitam

bh~ta bhart& ca taj j@eya=grasi^[u prabhavi^[u ca


He is undivided, yet appears to exist as if divided in living beings. He is the ob≠ject of knowledge and appears as the Creator (Brahm|), Sustainer (Vishnu), and Destroyer (Mahesha) of all be≠ings. (See also 11.13 and 18.20 ) (13.16)

††††††††††† One planet earth appears divided into so many countries; one country appears divided into several states; one state appears divided into counties, and so on; similarly, one Reality ap≠pears as many. These are apparent divisions because they have the same order of reality. The term God is used for the Generator, Operator, and Destroyer aspects of Self.


jy==eit={==m=< aip= t=j=< jy==eit=s=<t=m=s=/ p=rm=< Wcy=t=e +

N=n=] Ney=] N=n=g=my=]Ňid s=v=*sy= iv=i{@t=m=< ++‚Ž++

jyoti^|m api taj jyotistamasa+ param ucyate

j@|na= j@eya= j@|nagamya=h&di sarvasya vi^!hitam


The Supreme Being is the source of all lights. He is said to be beyond darkness of ignorance. He is Self-knowledge, the object of Self-knowledge, and seated in the inner psyche as consciousness (or Ishvara in verse 18.61) of all beings, He is to be realized by Self-knowledge. (13.17)

††††††††††† I am the light of knowledge of the world. Whoever follows me will have the light of life and will never walk in the dark≠ness of ignorance (John 8.12). One who knows the Almighty as much more radiant than the sun and beyond the darkness of material real≠ity, transcends death. There is no other way (YV 31.18, SV 3.08). The Supreme is beyond the reach of senses and mind. It cannot be described or defined by words. Different means of attaining the Supreme continue below:


wit= Z=eF=] t=q== N=n=]Ney=] c==ekt=] s=m==s=t=/ +

m=4kt= At=d< iv=N=y=m=4=v==y==ep=p=6t=e ++‚Ť++

iti k^etra= tath| j@|na=j@eya= coíkta= sam|sata+

madbhakta etad vij@|yamadbh|v|yoípapadyate


Thus, I have briefly described creation, as well as Self-knowledge and the object of Self-knowl≠edge. Understanding this, My devotee at≠tains My Supreme Abode. (13.18)



p=>k&:it=] p=uo{=] c=Ev=iv=3Y< an==dI WB==v=< aip= +

iv=k:=r=]xc= g=u[==]xc=Ev=iv=i3 p=>k&:it=s=]B=v==n=< ++‚Ô++

prak&ti= puru^a= caivaviddhy an|d$ ubh|v api

vik|r|=%ca gu[|=% caivaviddhi prak&tisa=bhav|n

k:=y=*k:r[=k:t=*&tv=ehet=u/ p=>k&:it=r< Wcy=t=e +

p=uo{=/ s=uK=du/K==n==]B==ekt=&tv=e het=ur< Wcy=t=e ++šÓ++

k|rya kara[a kart&tvehetu+ prak&tir ucyate

puru^a+ sukhadu+kh|n|=bhokt&tve hetur ucyate


Know that both the material Nature and the Spiritual Being are beginningless. All manifestations and three dispositions of mind and matter, called modes or Gunas, are born of material Nature. Material Nature is said to be the cause of production of the physical body and organs of perception and action. Spirit (or Consciousness) in the individual soul is said to be the cause of experiencing pleasure and pain. (13.19-20)


p=uo{=/ p=>k&:it=sq==e ihB=uV<kt=e p=>k&:it=j==n=< g=u[==n=< +

k:=r[=] g=u[=s=V<g==eeCsy=s=ds=6=ein=j=nm=s=u ++š‚++

puru^a+ prak&tistho hibhu]kte prak&tij|n gu[|n

k|ra[a= gu[a sa]goísyasad asad yoni janmasu


Spiritual Being (by becoming jeeva) enjoys three modes of material Nature by associating with the material Nature. Attachment to the three modes of material Nature (due to ignorance caused by previous Karma) is the cause of birth of the living entity in good and evil wombs. (13.21)

††††††††††† Spirit is unaffected by material Nature just as the sunís reflection in water is unaffected by the properties of water. Spirit, because of His nature, associates with the six sensory faculties and ego of material Nature and becomes attached, forgets His real nature, performs good and evil deeds, loses independence, and transmigrates as a living entity (individual soul, Jiva) (BP 3.27.01-03). The living entity does not know the divine illusory energy (Maya), as well as the supreme controller and its own real nature. The individual soul is a reflection of the sun of Spirit in the water pot of human body.


Wp=7{!=n=um=nt== c=B=t==* B==ekt== m=hexv=r/ +

p=rm==tm=eit= c==py=< Wkt==edeheCÚsm=n=< p=uo{=/ p=r/ ++šš++

upadra^!|ínumant| cabhart| bhokt| mahe%vara+

param|tmeti c|py uktodeheísmin puru^a+ para+


The Spirit in the body is the witness, the guide, the supporter, the enjoyer, the controller of all events, and also the Supreme Self. (13.22)

††††††††††† Two aspects of Eternal Being -- the divine Controller and the controlled (living entity, individual soul) -- make their nest and reside on the same tree (the inner psyche of the body) as a part of the cosmic drama. Virtue and vice are its glorious flowers; pains and pleasures of sense gratification are its sweet and sour fruits. The living entities are like beautiful birds of various hues. No two birds are the same. Creation is just beautiful. And the Creator must be inconceivably beautiful. The living entity, due to ignorance, becomes captivated by the fruits of the tree and gets attached to material Nature, eats these fruits and becomes subject to bondage and liberation, whereas the divine controller sits on the tree, watches, and guides the living entity. The divine Controller, being unattached to material Nature, remains free as a witness and a guide (BP 11.11.06, See also RV 1.164.20, AV 9.09.20, MuU 3.01.01, ShU 4.06). The divine Controller remains unaffected and unattached to the modes of material Nature just as a lotus leaf remains unaffected by water.

††††††††††† Spirit is sentient, and material Nature is insentient. Material Nature, with the help of Spirit, produces five bioimpulses (Life forces, Prana) and the three modes. Spirit, residing as the divine Controller in the physical body that is a house with nine gates and made of twenty-four elements of material Nature, enjoys sense objects by associating with the modes of material Nature. Spirit forgets its real nature under the influence of divine illusory energy (Maya), feels pain and pleasure, does good and evil deeds, incurs the bondage of works done by free will due to ignorance, and seeks salvation. When the living entity renounces sense objects and rises above the modes of material Nature, it attains salvation.

††††††††††† The mind, endowed with infinite power, creates a body to reside in and fulfill its latent desires. The living entity becomes willingly entangled -- and suffers like a silkworm entangled in its own cocoon -- and it cannot get out. The living entity becomes bound by its own Karma and transmigrates. All actions, good or bad, produce bondage if performed with ego. Good actions are the golden shackles, and bad ones are the iron shackles. Both are fetters. The golden shackle is not a bracelet.

††††††††††† The living entity is like a farmer who has been given a plot of land that is the body. The farmer should take the weeds of lust, an≠ger, and greed out of the land, cultivate it with the plow of intense desire for the love of God, and fertilize it with the firm faith in the power and omnipresence of God. Depending on the intensity of the desire and the degree of faith, the seedling of devotion will come out in due course of time. This seedling must be consistently and continually ir≠rigated with the water of meditation on the chosen form of oneís personal God. The forgetfulness of living entityís real nature disappears with the blooming of the flowers of Self-knowledge and detachment. The flowers bear the fruits of Self-realization and vision of God, leading to the free≠dom from transmigration of Jeeva, the individual soul, by the grace of Ishvara, the supreme controller.

y= Av=] v=eiT= p=uo{=]p=>k&:it=] c= g=u[=E/ s=h +

s=v=*q== v=t=*m==n==eCip=n= s= B=Uy==eCiB=j==y=t=e ++šŗ++

ya eva= vetti puru^a=prak&ti= ca gu[ai+ saha

sarvath| vartam|noípina sa bh~yoíbhij|yate


They who truly understand Spirit and material Nature with its three modes are not born again, regardless of their way of life. (13.23)


Qy==n=en==tm=in= p=xy=Únt=ke:ic=d< a=tm==n=m==tm=n== +

any=e s==]Ky=en= y==eg=en=k:m=*y==eg=en= c==p=re ++šŚ++

dhy|nen|ítmani pa%yantikecid |tm|nam |tman|

anye s|=khyena yogenakarmayogena c|ípare

Some perceive the Supersoul in their inner psyche through mind and intellect that have been purified either by meditation or by metaphysical knowledge or by selfless service. (13.24)



any=e tv=< Av=m=< aj==n=nt=/Xutv==ny=eBy= Wp==s=t=e +

t=eCip= c==it=t=rnty=< Av=m=&ty=u] Xuit=p=r=y=[==/ ++šÁ++

anye tv evam aj|nanta+%rutv|ínyebhya up|sate

teípi c|ítitaranty evam&tyu= %rutipar|ya[|+

Others, however, do not know the yogas of meditation, knowledge, and selfless service; but they perform deity worship with firm faith and loving devotion, just after hearing of God from others. They also transcend death by virtue of their firm faith in what they have heard. (See also 9.23 ) (13.25)

††††††††††† Blessed are they that have not understood, yet have believed (John 20.29). If you believe, you will receive whatever you ask for (Matthew 21.22). It is not necessary to completely under≠stand God to obtain His grace, to love Him, and to attain Him. Any spiritual practice done without faith is an exercise in futility. Our intellect stands in the way as an obstruction to faith.


y==v=t=< s=]j==y=t=e ik:}ic=t=<s=Tv=] sq==v=rj=V<g=m=m=< +

Z=eF=Z=eF=Ns=]y==eg==t=<t=d< iv=i3 B=rt={=*B= ++šÍ++

y|vat sa=j|yate ki=citsattva= sth|vara ja]gamam

k^etrak^etraj@a sa=yog|ttad viddhi bharatar^abha

Whatever is born -- animate or inanimate -- know them to be born from the union of Spirit and matter, O Arjuna. (See also 7.06 ) (13.26)


s=m=] s=v=*ee{=u B=Ut=e{=uit={@nt=] p=rm=exv=rm=< +

iv=n=xy=tsv=< aiv=n=xy=nt=]y=/ p=xy=it= s= p=xy=it= ++šŽ++

sama= sarve^u bh~te^uti^!hanta= parame%varam

vina%yatsv avina%yanta=ya+ pa%yati sa pa%yati


One who sees the one and the same imperishable Supreme Lord dwelling as Spirit (or Ishvara) equally within all perishable beings, truly sees. (13.27)



s=m=] p=xy=n=< ih s=v=*F=s=m=v=Úsq=t=m=< w*xv=rm=< +

n= ihn=sty=< a=tm=n==tm==n=]t=t==e y==it= p=r=] g=it=m=< ++šŤ++

sama= pa%yan hi sarvatrasamavasthitam $%varam

na hinasty |tman|ítm|na=tato y|ti par|= gatim

When one beholds One and the same Ishvara existing equally in every being, one does not harm anybody because one considers everything as oneís own self, and thereupon attains the Supreme Abode. (13.28)


p=>k&:ty=Ev= c= k:m==*i[=ik>:y=m==[==in= s=v=*x=/ +

y=/ p=xy=it= t=q==tm==n=m=<ak:t==*r] s= p=xy=it= ++šÔ++

prak&tyaiíva ca karm|[ikriyam|[|ni sarva%a+

ya+ pa%yati tath|ítm|namakart|ra= sa pa%yati

One who perceives that all works are done by the powers of material Nature, truly understands and does not consider oneself as the doer. (See also 3.27, 5.09 and 14.19 ) (13.29)


y=d= B=Ut=p=&q=gB==v=m=<Ak:sq=m=< an=up=xy=it= +

t=t= Av= c= iv=st==r]b=>>… s=]p=6t=e t=d= ++ŗÓ++

yad| bh~tap&thagbh|vamekastham anupa%yati

tata eva ca vist|ra=brahma sa=padyate tad|

When one sees the diverse variety of beings as rooted in One and spreading out from That alone, one attains the Supreme Being. (13.30)



an==idtv==n=< in=g=*u[=tv==t=<p=rm==tm==y=m=< avy=y=/ +

x=rIrsq==eCip= k:=Ent=ey=n= k:r=eit= n= iD=py=t=e ++ŗ‚++

an|ditv|n nirgu[atv|tparam|tm|íyam avyaya+

%ar$rasthoípi kaunteyana karoti na lipyate

Because of being beginningless and unaffectable by the three modes of material Nature, the eternal Supersoul -- even though dwelling in the body as a living entity -- neither does anything nor becomes tainted by Karma, O Arjuna. (13.31)

††††††††††† The eternal Supersoul is called attributeless because He does not have the three attributes of material Nature. The word Ďattributelessí has been commonly misunderstood as formless. Attributeless refers only to the absence of material form and attributes known to the human mind. The Lord has an incomparable personality and transcendental qualities.

y=q== s=v=*g=t=] s==EZmy==d<a=k:=x=] n==ep=iD=py=t=e +

s=v=*F==v=Úsq=t==e dehet=q==tm== n==ep=iD=py=t=e ++ŗš++

yath| sarvagata= sauk^my|d|k|%a= noípalipyate

sarvatr|ívasthito dehetath|ítm| noípalipyate

Just as the all-pervading space is not tainted because of its subtlety, simi≠larly, the Spirit abiding in all bodies is not tainted. (13.32)

††††††††††† Spirit is present everywhere. It is present inside the body, outside the body, as well as all over the body. Actually, Spirit is inside and outside of everything that exists in creation.

y=q== p=>k:=x=y=ty=< Ak:/k&:tsn=] D==ek:m=< wm=] riv=/ +

Z=eF=] Z=eF=I t=q== k&:tsn=]p=>k:=x=y=it= B==rt= ++ŗŗ++

yath| prak|%ayaty eka+k&tsna= lokam ima= ravi+

k^etra= k^etr$ tath| k&tsna=prak|%ayati bh|rata

Just as one sun illuminates the entire world, similarly, Spirit gives life to the entire creation, O Arjuna. (13.33)

††††††††††† According to Shankara, one sees the creation but not the Creator behind the creation due to ignorance, just as a person in the darkness of night sees the snake and not the rope that sustains the false notion of a snake. If any object other than Spirit appears to exist, it is unreal like a mirage, a dream, or the existence of a snake in the rope. The absolute monism that negates all manifestation as a dream world is not the whole truth. According to the Vedas, God is both transcendent and immanent in one. The illustration of the world as a dream is a metaphor meant only to illustrate certain points and should not be stretched too far or taken literally. Vedanta does not dismiss the perception of duality, but dismisses the reality of duality only. If the world is a dream, it is a very beautiful dream, indeed, of the cosmic dreamer who must also be extraordinarily beautiful.

Z=eF=Z=eF=Ny==er< Av=m=<ant=r]N=n=c=Z=u{== +

B=Ut=p=>k&:it=m==eZ=] c=y=e iv=dur< y==Únt= t=e p=rm=< ++ŗŚ++

k^etra k^etraj@ayor evamantara= j@|na cak^u^|

bh~taprak&ti mok^a= caye vidur y|nti te param

They attain the Supreme, who know ó with the eye of Self-knowledge ó the difference be≠tween creation (or the body) and the Creator (or the Spirit) as well as the techniques of liberation (See verses 13.24-13.25) of the living entity from the trap of divine illusory energy, Maya. (13.34)

††††††††††† Spirit emits its power (Maya) as the sun emits light, fire emits heat, and the moon gives cooling rays (DB 7.32.05). Maya is the inexplicable divine power of Spirit that does not exist apart from Spirit, the possessor of power. Maya has the power of creation. Maya also deludes the living entity by making it identify with a body, enjoy three modes of material Nature, and forget its real nature as Spirit, the basis of the entire visible and invisible universe. We must always remember that we are not this body or the cage, but the bird or the soul inside the cage. Creation is just a partial revelation of the power of Spirit and is called unreal like a dream world because it is subject to change and destruction. The clay is real, but the pot (made of clay) is unreal because the clay exists before the pot is created, while the pot exists, and after the pot is destroyed. The creation (or the pot) may be appropriately considered a dependent reality and not a mere illusion or a mirage.

††††††††††† Creation is a natural effortless projection of the powers of Spirit and is therefore purposeless (MuU 1.01.07). The creative activ≠ity of the Lord is a mere pastime of the divine power (Maya) without any purpose or motive (BS 2.01.33). It is nothing but an apparent natural modifica≠tion of His infinite limitless energy (E) into matter (m) and vice versa (E=mc2 of Einstein) done as a mere pastime. Creation, an effect, is related to the Creator, the cause, as a piece of cloth is related to cotton. In the case of the cloth, however, the weaver is not sitting in every thread of the cloth, but in creation the efficient and material causes are one and the same, a divine mystery indeed! Everything in the universe is con≠nected with everything else. Creation is not a mechanical or engineer≠ing construction. It is the supreme, spiritual phenomena revealing di≠vine splendor. Creation is made by the Lord, of the Lord, and for the Lord. The Creator and creation is different as well as the same.

aq= c=t=ud*x==eCQy==y=/






p=r] B=Uy=/ p=>v=Zy==im=N=n==n==] N=n=m=< WT=m=m=< +

y=j=< N=tv== m=un=y=/ s=v=e*p=r=] Ús=i3m=< wt==e g=t==/ ++‚++

%r$ bhagav|n uv|ca

para= bh~ya+ pravak^y|mij@|n|n|= j@|nam uttamam

yaj j@|tv| munaya+ sarvepar|= siddhim ito gat|+


Lord Krishna said: I shall further explain to you the supreme knowledge, the best of all knowledge; knowing this, all the sages have attained salvation. (14.01)


wd] N=n=m=< Wp==iXty=m=m= s==Q=my=*m=< a=g=t==/ +

s=g=e*Cip= n==ep=j==y=nt=ep=>D=y=e n= vy=q=Únt= c= ++š++

ida= j@|nam up|%rityamama s|dharmyam |gat|+

sargeípi noípaj|yantepralaye na vyathanti ca


Those who have taken refuge in this transcendental knowledge attain unity with Me and are neither born at the time of creation nor afflicted at the time of dissolution. (14.02)



m=m= y==ein=r< m=hd< b=>… t=Úsm=n=< g=B=*] dQ==my=< ahm=< +

s=]B=v=/ s=v=*B=Ut==n==]t=t==e B=v=it= B==rt= ++ŗ++

mama yonir mahad brahmatasmin garbha= dadh|my aham

sa=bhava+ sarva bh~t|n|=tato bhavati bh|rata

My material Nature is the womb of creation wherein I place the seed of Consciousness from which all beings are born, O Arjuna. (See also 9.10 ) (14.03)

††††††††††† Material Nature, a product of divine kinetic energy (Maya), is the origin of the entire universe. Material Nature creates living beings when the seed of Spirit is sown in it for germination.


s=v=*y==ein={=u k:=Ent=ey=m=Ut=*y=/ s=]B=v=Únt= y==/ +

t==s==] b=>… m=hd< y==ein=r<ah] b=Ij=p=>d/ ip=t== ++Ś++

sarva yoni^u kaunteyam~rtaya+ sa=bhavanti y|+

t|s|= brahma mahad yoniraham b$japrada+ pit|

Whatever forms are produced in all different wombs, O Arjuna, the material Nature is their body-giving cosmic mother; and the Spirit or Consciousness is the life-giving father. (14.04)


s=Tv=] rj=s=< t=m= wit=g=u[==/ p=>k&:it=s=]B=v==/ +

in=b=Qn=Únt= m=h=b==h=edehe deihn=m=< avy=y=m=< ++Á++

sattva= rajas tama itigu[|+ prak&ti sa=bhav|+

nibadhnanti mah|b|hodehe dehinam avyayam


Goodness, passion (or activity), and ignorance (or inertia) ó these three modes (or ropes) of material Nature fetter the eternal individual soul to the body, O Arjuna. (14.05)


t=F= s=Tv=]in=m=*D=tv==t=<p=>k:=x=k:m=< an==m=y=m=< +

s=uK=s=V<g=en= b=Qn==it=N=n=s=V<g=en= c==n=G= ++Í++

tatra sattva= nirmalatv|tprak|%akam an|mayam

sukha sa]gena badhn|tij@|na sa]gena c|ínagha


Of these, the mode of goodness is illuminating and good because it is pure. The mode of goodness fetters the living entity by attachment to happiness and knowledge, O sinless Arjuna. (14.06)


rj==e r=g==tm=k:} iv=i3t=&{[==s=V<g=s=m=u4v=m=< +

t=n=< in=b=Qn==it= k:=Ent=ey=k:m=*s=V<g=en= deihn=m=< ++Ž++

rajo r|g|tmaka= viddhit&^[|sa]ga samudbhavam

tan nibadhn|ti kaunteyakarma sa]gena dehinam


Arjuna, know that the mode of passion is characterized by intense crav≠ing for sense gratification and is the source of material desire and attachment. The mode of passion binds the living entity by at≠tachment to the fruits of work. (14.07)


t=m=s=< tv=< aN=n=j=] iv=i3m==ehn=] s=v=*deihn==m=< +

p=>m==d=D=sy=in=7=iB=s=<t=n=< in=b=Qn==it= B==rt= ++Ť++

tamas tv aj@|naja= viddhimohana= sarvadehin|m

pram|d|lasya nidr|bhistan nibadhn|ti bh|rata


Know, O Arjuna, that the mode of ignorance -- the deluder of the living entity -- is born of inertia. The mode of ignorance binds the living entity by carelessness, laziness, and excessive sleep. (14.08)


s=Tv=] s=uK=e s=J=<j=y=it=rj=/ k:m=*i[= B==rt= +

N=n=m=< a=v=&ty= t=u t=m=/p=>m==de s=J=<j=y=ty=< Wt= ++Ô++

sattva= sukhe sa@jayatiraja+ karma[i bh|rata

j@|nam |b&tya tu tama+pram|de sa@jayaty uta


O Arjuna, the mode of goodness attaches one to happiness of learning and knowing the Spirit; the mode of passion attaches to action; and the mode of ignorance attaches to negligence by covering Self-knowledge. (14.09)

††††††††††† The mode of goodness keeps one away from sinful acts and leads one to Self-knowledge and happiness, but not to salvation. The mode of passion creates strong Karmic bonds and takes the individual further away from liberation. Such persons know right and wrong actions based on religious principles, but are unable to follow them because of strong impulses of lust. The mode of passion obscures real knowledge of Self and causes one to experience both the pain and pleasure of this worldly life. Such persons are very much attached to wealth, power, prestige, sensual pleasure, and are very selfish and greedy. In the mode of ignorance, one is unable to recognize the real goal of life, is unable to distinguish between right and wrong action, and remains attached to sinful and forbidden activities. Such a person is lazy, violent, lacks intellect, and has no interest in spiritual knowledge.



rj=s=< t=m=x=< c==iB=B=Uy=s=Tv=] B=v=it= B==rt= +

rj=/ s=Tv=] t=m=xc=EEv=t=m=/ s=Tv=] rj=s=< t=q== ++‚Ó++

rajas tama% c|íbhibh~yasattva= bhavati bh|rata

raja+ sattva= tama%caivatama+ sattva= rajas tath|


Goodness prevails by suppressing passion and ignorance; passion prevails by suppressing goodness and ignorance; and ignorance prevails by suppressing goodness and passion, O Arjuna. (14.10)


s=v=*8=re{=u deheCÚsm=n=<p=>k:=x= Wp=j==y=t=e +

N=n=] y=d= t=d= iv=6=d<iv=v=&3] s=Tv=m=< wty=< Wt= ++‚‚++

sarvadv|re^u deheísminprak|%a upaj|yate

j@|na= yad| tad| vidy|dviv&ddha= sattvam ity uta


When the light of Self-knowledge illuminates all the senses in the body, then it should be known that goodness is predominant. (14.11)

††††††††††† The sense organs (nose, tongue, eye, skin, ear, mind, and intellect) are called the gateway to Self-knowledge in the body. The mind and intellect get into the mode of goodness and become receptive to Self-knowledge when senses are purified by selfless service, discipline, and spiritual practice. It is also said in verse 14.17 that the rise of Self-knowledge takes place when oneís mind gets firmly established in the mode of goodness. As objects are seen very clearly in the light, similarly, one perceives and thinks in the right perspective, and the senses shun whatever is improper. There is no attraction in the mind for sensual pleasures when the senses are illumined by the dawning of the light of Self-knowledge.


D==eB=/ p=>v=&iT=r< a=rmB=/k:m=*[==m=< ax=m=/ sp=&h= +

rj=sy=< At==in= j==y=nt=eiv=v=&3e B=rt={=*B= ++‚š++

lobha+ prav&ttir |rambha+karma[|m a%ama+ sp&h|

rajasy et|ni j|yanteviv&ddhe bharatar^abha


O Arjuna, when passion is predominant, greed, activity, undertaking of selfish work, restlessness, and excitement arise. (14.12)


ap=>k:=x==eCp=>v=&iT=xc=p=>m==d=e m==eh Av= c= +

t=m=sy=< At==in= j==y=nt=eiv=v=&3e ku:on=ndn= ++‚ŗ++

aprak|%oíprav&tti%capram|do moha eva ca

tamasy et|ni j|yanteviv&ddhe kurunandana


O Arjuna, when inertia is predominant, ignorance, inactivity, carelessness, and delusion arise. (14.13)

††††††††††† A particular mode of Nature becomes dominant in the present life due to one's past Karma. The three modes fuel the vehicles of transmigration that carry one's baggage of Karma, as discussed in the following verses.


y=d= s=Tv=e p=>v=&3e t=up=>D=y=] y==it= dehB=&t=< +

t=d=eT=m=iv=d=] D==ek:=n=<am=D==n=< p=>it=p=6t=e ++‚Ś++

yad| sattve prav&ddhe tupralaya= y|ti dehabh&t

tadoíttamavid|= lok|namal|n pratipadyate


One who dies when goodness dominates goes to heaven -- the pure world of knowers of the Supreme. (14.14)


rj=Ús= p=>D=y=] g=tv==k:m=*s=V<ig={=u j==y=t=e +

t=q== p=>D=In=s=< t=m=Ús=m=U$y==ein={=u j==y=t=e ++‚Á++

rajasi pralaya= gatv|karmasa]gi^u j|yate

tath| pral$nas tamasi m~#hayoni^u j|yate


One, who dies when passion dominates, is reborn as person attached to action on earth. One who dies in ignorance is reborn as lower creatures. (14.15)


k:m=*[=/ s=uk&:t=sy==hu/s==iTv=k]: in=m=*D=] f:D=m=< +

rj=s=s=< t=u f:D=] du/K=m=<aN=n=] t=m=s=/ f:D=m=< ++‚Í++

karma[a+ suk&tasy|íhu+s|ttvika= nirmala= phalam

rajasas tu phala= du+khamaj@|na= tamasa+ phalam


The fruit of good action is said to be beneficial and pure; the fruit of passionate action is pain; and the fruit of ignorant action is laziness. (14.16)


s=Tv==t=< s=J=<j==y=t=e N=n=]rj=s==e D==eB= Av= c= +

p=>m==dm==eh=E t=m=s==eB=v=t==eCN=n=m=< Av= c= ++‚Ž++

sattv|t sa@j|yate j@|na=rajaso lobha eva ca

pram|damohau tamasobhavatoíj@|nam eva ca


Self-knowledge arises from the mode of goodness; greed arises from the mode of passion; and negligence, delusion, and slowness of mind arise from the mode of ignorance. (14.17)


~Qv=*] g=c%Únt= s=Tv=sq==m=Qy=e it={@Únt= r=j=s==/ +

j=G=ny=g=u[=v=&iT=sq==aQ==e g=c%Únt= t==m=s==/ ++‚Ť++††

~rdhva= gacchanti sattvasth|madhye ti^!hanti r|jas|+

jaghanya gu[a v&ttisth|adho gacchanti t|mas|+


They who are established in goodness go to higher world or heaven; passionate persons are reborn in this mortal world; and the insipid ones, abiding in the mode of ignorance, take birth as lower creatures or go to lower planets of hell (depending on the degree of their ignorance). (14.18)

Four paths of departure after leaving this world are described above. The fifth path, the path of no return, is described in the following verse:



n==ny=] g=u[=eBy=/ k:t==*r]y=d= 7{!=n=up=xy=it= +

g=u[=eBy=xc= p=r] v=eiT=m=4=v=] s==eCiQ=g=c%it= ++‚Ô++

n|ínya= gu[ebhya+ kart|ra=yad| dra^!|ínupa%yati

gu[ebhya%ca para= vettimadbh|va= soídhigacchati

When visionaries perceive no doer other than the three modes of material Nature (Gunas) and know the Supreme, which is above and beyond these modes, then they attain Nirvana or salvation. (See also 3.27 , 5.09 and 13.29 ) (14.19)

††††††††††† Karmic laws bind one who does not believe that the Lord controls everything and who considers oneself the doer, enjoyer, and owner (BP 6.12.12). The power of doing all actions, good or bad, proceeds from God, but we are ultimately re≠sponsible for our actions because we also have the power to reason. God has given us the power to do work; however, we are free to use the power in the right or wrong way and become liberated or bound.

††††††††††† The good Lord gives one only the faculties to act; He is not liable for oneís actions. It is up to the individual to decide how to act. The decision is also controlled by the modes of material Nature and is governed by one's past Karma. Those who understand this properly know how to act and do not blame God for their misfortunes or feel jealous of othersí fortune.

††††††††††† Due to ignorance created by illusory energy (Maya), one considers oneself the doer and consequently becomes bound by Karma and un≠dergoes transmigra≠tion (BP 11.11.10). Whenever one asserts or even thinks of oneself as doing things, one assumes the role of a doer, becomes accountable for the action (Karma), and gets caught in the intricate Karmic net of transmigration.

g=u[==n=< At==n=< at=Ity= F=In=<dehI dehs=m=u4v==n=< +

j=nm=m=&ty=uj=r=du/K=Er<iv=m=ukt==eCm=&t=m=< axn=ut=e ++šÓ++

gu[|n et|n at$tya tr$ndeh$ deha samudbhav|n

janma m&tyu jar| du+khairvimuktoím&tam a%nute

When one rises above, or transcends the three modes of material Nature that originate in the body, one attains immortality or salvation and is freed from the pains of birth, old age, and death. (14.20)



aj=*un= Wv==c=

kE:r< iD=V<g=Es=< F=In=< g=u[==n=< At==n=<at=It==e B=v=it= p=>B==e +

ik:m==c==r/ k:q=] c=Et==]s=<F=In=< g=u[==n=< ait=v=t=*t=e ++š‚++

arjuna uv|ca

kair li]gais tr$n gu[|n et|nat$to bhavati prabho

kim|c|ra+ katha= caiít|=str$n gu[|n ativartate

Arjuna said: What are the marks of those who have transcended the three modes of material Nature, and what is their conduct? How does one tran≠scend these three modes of material Nature, O Lord Krishna? (14.21)



p=>k:=x=] c= p=>v=&iT=] c=m==ehm=< Av= c= p==[#v= +

n= 8ei{! s=]p=>v=&T==in=n= in=v=&T==in= k:=V<Z=it= ++šš++

%r$ bhagav|n uv|ca

prak|%a= ca prav&tti= camoham eva ca p|[#ava

na dve^!i sa=prav&tt|nina niv&tt|ni k|]k^ati

Wd=s=In=v=d< a=s=In==eg=u[=Er< y==e n= iv=c==Dy=t=e +

g=u[== v=t=*nt= wty=< Av=y==eCv=it={@it= n=eV<g=t=e ++šŗ++

ud|s$navad |s$nogu[air yo na vic|lyate

gu[| vartanta ity evayoívati^!hati neí]gate

Lord Krishna said: One has transcended the modes of material Nature who neither hates the presence of en≠lightenment, activity, and delusion nor desires them when they are absent; who remains like a witness without being affected by the modes of material Nature; who stays firmly attached to the Lord without wavering -- thinking that only the modes of material Nature are operating. (14.22-23)


s=m=du/K=s=uK=/ sv=sq=/s=m=D==e{!=xm=k:=Jc=n=/ +

t=uDy=ip=>y==ip=>y==e Q=Irs=<t=uDy=in=nd=tm=s=]st=uit=/ ++šŚ++

sama du+kha sukha+ svastha+sama lo^!|%ma k|@cana+

tulyapriy|priyo dh$rastulyanind|tmasa=stuti+

m==n==p=m==n=y==es=< t=uDy=s=<t=uDy==e im=F==irp=Z=y==e/ +

s=v==*rmB=p=irty==g=Ig=u[==t=It=/ s= Wcy=t=e ++šÁ++

m|n|pam|nayos tulyastulyo mitr|ripak^ayo+

sarv|rambhaparity|g$gu[|t$ta+ sa ucyate

And one who depends on the Lord and is indifferent to pain and pleas≠ure; to whom a clod, a stone, and gold are alike and to whom the dear and the unfriendly are alike; who is of firm mind; who is calm in censure and in praise and indifferent to honor and disgrace; who is impartial to friend and foe; and who has relinquished all desire-prompted undertakings -- is said to have transcended the modes of material nature. (14.24-25)

††††††††††† Guru Nanak said: One who obeys the will of God with pleasure is free and wise. Gold and stone, pain and pleasure are alike only for such a person.



m==] c= y==eCvy=iB=c==re[=B=Żkt=y==eg=en= s=ev=t=e +

s= g=u[==n=< s=m=t=Ity=Et==n=<b=>…B=Uy==y= k:Dp=t=e ++šÍ++

m|= ca yoívyabhic|re[abhaktiyogena sevate

sa gu[|n samat$tyaiít|nbrahmabh~y|ya kalpate


One who serves Me with love and unswerving devotion transcends the three modes of material Nature and becomes fit for Nirvana. (See also 7.14 and 15.19 ) (14.26)

††††††††††† Unswerving devotion is defined as the loving devotion in which one does not depend on any other person, but only God for everything.

††††††††††† The mode of goodness is the topmost rung of the ladder leading to the Truth, but it is not the Truth as such. The three modes of material Nature have to be transcended, step by step. First, one has to overcome the modes of ignorance and passion and become established in the mode of goodness by developing certain values and following certain disciplines. Then one be≠comes ready to surmount the dualities of good and bad, pain and pleasure, and to rise to the higher transcendental plane by going beyond the highest mode -- the mode of goodness.

††††††††††† Spiritual practices and vegetarian food raise the mind from the modes of ignorance and passion to the transcendental plane of bliss where pairs of opposites disap≠pear. The mode of goodness is the natural result of profound thought generated by firm understanding of metaphys≠ics. Anybody can easily cross the ocean of illusion (Maya), consisting of three modes of material Nature, by the boat of firm faith, devotion, and exclusive love for God. There is no other way to transcend the three modes of material Nature and attain salvation. It is also said that anyone situated in any one of the three modes of material nature can come up to the transcendental plane by the grace of a genuine and empowered guru.


b=>…[==e ih p=>it={@=hm=<am=&t=sy==vy=y=sy= c= +

x==xv=t=sy= c= Q=m=*sy=s=uK=sy=Ek:=Únt=k:sy= c= ++šŽ++

brahma[o hi prati^!h|íhamam&tasy|ívyayasya ca

%|%vatasya ca dharmasyasukhasyaiík|ntikasya ca


Because I am the source of the immortal Spirit (Brahma), of ever≠lasting cosmic order (Dharma), and of the absolute bliss. (14.27)

††††††††††† The Supreme Being is the source or the basis of Spirit. Spirit is one of the expansions of the Supreme Being. It is Spirit (of the Supreme Being) that performs the entire cosmic drama and sustains everything. Therefore, Spirit is also called the Supreme Being or the Lord.

††††††††††† It is very significant that Lord Krishna never used such words as ďworship the Supreme God,Ē or ďthe Absolute is the basis of everything.Ē In this verse and elsewhere in the Gita, Lord Krishna declares that He is the Supreme Spirit. Krishna means different things to different people. Some commentators consider Krishna other than God; others call Him a "Hindu God." To others Krishna is a politician, a teacher, a divine lover, and a diplomat. To devotees, Krishna is the incarnation of the Absolute and the object of love. Readers would do well just to understand and use Krishna's teachings in their daily lives without getting confused about who was Krishna.

aq= p=Jc=dx==eCQy==y=/







~Qv=*m=UD=m=< aQ=/x==K=m=<axv=tq=] p=>=hur< avy=y=m=< +

%nd=]Ús= y=sy= p=[==*in=y=s=< t=] v=ed s= v=ediv=t=<++‚++

%r$ bhagav|n uv|ca

~rdhvam~lam adha+%|khama%vattha= pr|hur avyayam

chand|=si yasya par[|niyas ta= veda sa vedavit


Lord Krishna said: The sages talk about an imperishable, ever-changing tree (or the creation) having its Source above (in the Supreme Being) and countless cosmos as its branches below. The Vedic hymns are the leaves. One who truly understands this tree is a knower of the Vedas. (See also KaU 2.3.01) (15.01)

The creation is like a tree that is infinite, ever changing and eternal. This tree has its origin or root in the Supreme Being, the Eternal Being is the main stem. The tree is supported by the leaves of Vedic knowledge. One who truly knows this marvelous tree, its origin, its nature and working, is wise in a true sense.


aQ=xc==eQv=*] p=>s=&t==s=< t=sy= x==K==


aQ=xc= m=UUD==ny=< an=us=]t=t==in=

k:m==*n=ub=nQ=Iin= m=n=u{y=D==eke: ++š++

adha%coírdhva= pras&t|s tasya %|kh|

gu[aprav&ddh| vi^ayaprav|l|+

adha%ca m~l|ny anusa=tat|ni

karm|nubandh$ni manu^yaloke

The branches of ďthe tree of human lifeĒ spread below and above (or all over the cosmos). This tree is nourished by the energy of material Nature and the sense objects are its sprouts. Its sustaining roots (of ego and desires) stretch deep in human world causing Karmic bondage. (15.02)

††††††††††† The human body, a microcosmic universe, has also been com≠pared to a tree of human life and death (or transmigration) on earth in verses 15.02-03 and the Upanishads. Karma is its seed; five basic elements are its main branches; and the ten organs of perception and action are its sub-branches. Right and wrong actions are its flowers and pain and pleasures are the fruits. Sensesí going towards sense objects produces worldly desires. Fulfillment of desires gives sense pleasures and creates attachment. Ignorance-born ego, worldly desires, and attachment are the roots of Karmic bondage causing cycles of transmigration.


n= Op=m=< asy=eh t=q==ep=D=By=t=e

n==nt==e n= c==idr< n= c= s=]p=>>it={@= +

axv=tq=m=< An=] s=uiv=O$m=UD=m=<

as=V<g=x=sF=e[= d&$en= Ú%Tv== ++ŗ++

na r~pam asyeíha tathoípalabhyate

n|ínto na c|ídir na ca sa=prati^!h|

a%vattham ena= suvir~#ham~lam

asa]ga%astre[a d&#hena chittv|

t=t=/ p=d] t=t=< p=irm==ig=*t=vy=]

y=Żsm=n=< g=t== n= in=v=t=*Únt= B=Uy=/ +

t=m=< Av= c==6] p=uo{=] p=>p=6e

y=t=/ p=>v=&iT=/ p=>s=&t== p=ur=[=I ++Ś++

tata+ pada= tat parim|rgitavya=

yasmin gat| na nivartanti bh~ya+

tam eva c|ídya= puru^a= prapadye

yata+ prav&tti pras&t| pur|[i

The beginning, the end, the basis, or the real form of this tree of human life is not perceptible on earth. Having cut its deep sustaining roots by the strong ax of (Self-knowledge and) detachment, the Supreme goal should be sought, reaching which one does not come back to the mortal world again. One should be always thinking: I take refuge in that very primal person from which this primal manifestation comes forth. (15.03-04)

††††††††††† Human life is also without beginning and end. It has no permanent existence or real form. One must sharpen the ax of metaphysical knowledge and detachment over the stone of spiritual practice, cut the feeling of separateness between the living entity and the Lord, cheerfully participate in the drama of life made up of passing shadows of joys and sorrows, and live in this world free from ego and worldly desires. When the attachments are severed, an attitude of sacred dispassion takes place, which is the prerequisite for reaching the Supreme goal.


in=m==*n=m==eh= Új=t=s=V<g=d=e{==

aQy==tm=in=ty== iv=in=v=&T=k:=m==/ +

8n8Er< iv=m=ukt==/ s=uK=du/K=s=]NEr<

g=c%nty=< am=U$=/ p=dm=< avy=y=] t=t=< ++Á++

nirm|namoh| jitasa]gado^|

adhy|tmanity| viniv&ttak|m|+

dvandvair vimukt|+ sukhadu+khasa=j@air

gacchanty am~#h|+ padam avyaya= tat


The Supreme goal is reached by the wise who are free from pride and delusion, who have conquered the evil of attachment, who constantly dwell in the Supreme Being with all lust completely stilled, and who are free from dualities of pleasure and pain. (15.05)


n= t=d< B==s=y=t=e s=Uy==e*n= x=x==V<k:=e n= p==v=k:/ +

y=d< g=tv== n= in=v=t=*nt=et=d< Q==m= p=rm=] m=m= ++Í++

na tad bh|sayate s~ryona %a%|]ko na p|vaka+

yad gatv| na nivartantetad dh|ma parama= mama

The sun does not illumine My Supreme Abode, nor does the moon, nor the fire. Having reached there, people attain permanent liberation (Mukti) and do not come back to this temporal world. (See also 13.17 and 15.12 and KaU 5.15, ShU 6.14, MuU 2.02.10) (15.06)

††††††††††† The Supreme Being is self-luminous, not illumined by any other source. He illumines the sun and the moon as a luminous lamp illumines other objects (DB 7.32.14). The Supreme Being existed before the sun, moon, and fire came into existence during creation, and it will exist even after everything gets dissolved into unmanifest Nature during complete dissolution.


m=m=Ev==]x==e j=Iv=D==eke:j=Iv=B=Ut=/ s=n==t=n=/ +

m=n=/{={@=n=IÚn7y==Ú[=p=>k&:it=sq==in= k:{=*it= ++Ž++

mamaiív|í=%o j$valokej$vabh~ta+ san|tana+

mana+ ^a^!h|n$índriy|[iprak&tisth|ni kar^ati


The eternal individual soul (Jiva, Jivatma) in the body of living beings is, indeed, My integral part. It associates with the six sense organs -- including the mind -- and activates them. (15.07)

†††††††††† Spirit is called Eternal Being or ĎBrahmaí in Sanskrit. Spirit is the true nature of the Supreme Being (ParaBrahma), and therefore is also called the integral part of the Supreme Being. The same Spirit is called individual soul, living entity, Jiva, soul, and Jiv|tm| in the bodies of living beings. The difference between the Supreme Spirit (ParaBrahma), Spirit (Brahma), Soul (Atm|) and the individual soul (Jiv|tm|) is due to extent only and there is no real difference. It is similar to room space being different from unlimited space.

x=rIr] y=d< av==pn==eit=y=c=< c==py=< Wtk>:=m=t=Ixv=r/ +

g=&hItv=Et==in= s=]y==it=v==y=ur< g=nQ==n=< wv==x=y==t=< ++Ť++

%ar$ra= yad av|pnotiyac c|py utkr|mat$í%vara+

g&h$tvaiít|ni sa=y|tiv|yur gandh|n iv|í%ay|t


Just as the air takes aroma away from the flower; similarly, the individual soul takes causal and subtle bodies from the physical body it casts off during death to the new physical body it acquires in reincarnation. (See also 2.13 ) (15.08)

††††††††††† The individual soul takes the subtle body -- six sensory faculties of perception, intellect, ego, and five vital forces -- from one physical body to another after death, as the wind takes dust from one place to another. The wind is neither af≠fected nor unaffected by association with dust; similarly, the individual soul is nei≠ther affected nor unaffected by association with the body (MB 12.211.13-14). Physical bodies are limited in space and time, but invisible subtle bodies are unlimited and all pervading. The subtle body carries the individual's good and bad Karma to the next life till all Karma is exhausted. When all trace of desires is eradicated after the dawn of Self-knowledge, the physical body seems not to exist any more and the conception of subtle body is firmed up in the mind. The astral or subtle body is an exact duplicate of the physical body. The beings in the astral world are more advanced in art, technology, and culture. They take up physical bodies to improve and enhance the physical world. Hariharananda Giri says: One may not perceive, conceive, and realize God if one does not seek the in≠visible subtle body.

††††††††††† During a wakeful state, the physical body, mind, intel≠lect, and ego are active. In a dream state, the individual soul temporarily creates a dream world and wanders in it with a dream body without leaving the physical body. In deep sleep, the individual soul completely rests in the Eternal Being (Spirit) without being bothered by mind and intellect. Supreme Being, the Universal Consciousness, watches us as a witness during all the three states -- wakeful, dream, and deep sleep. The living entity leaves one physical body and takes another body after death. The living entity becomes bound or lost, then tries to be liberated by discovering its real nature. Reincarnation allows the living entity to change its vehicle, the physical body, during the long and difficult spiritual journey to the Supreme Being. The individual soul acquires different physical bodies till all Karma is ex≠hausted; after that, the goal of attaining the Supreme Being is reached.

††††††††††† It is said that Spiritual Being wears the veil of illusion, becomes an individual soul, and takes human and other forms just to perform the cosmic drama in which the writer, producer, director, all the players, as well as the audience are the same. Lord performs, plays, and enjoys His own creation. Our problems will disappear if we keep in mind that we are just playing a role and never take things very personally. In order to see the cosmic player, we must detach our mind from the play. Science deals with the knowledge of the cosmic play; spirituality deals with the knowledge of the cosmic Player as partially understood by the individual player.


X=eF=] c=Z=u/ sp=x=*n=] c=rs=n=] G=>=[=m=< Av= c= +

aiQ={@=y= m=n=xc==y=]iv={=y==n=< Wp=s=ev=t=e ++Ô++

%rotra= cak^u+ spar%ana= carasana= ghr|[am eva ca

adhi^!h|ya mana%c|íya=vi^ay|n upasevate

Wtk>:=m=nt=] Úsq=t=] v==ip=B=uJ=<j==n=] v== g=u[==Únv=t=m=< +

iv=m=U$= n==n=up=xy=Únt=p=xy=Únt= N=n=c=Z=u{=/ ++‚Ó++

utkr|manta= sthita= v|ípibhu@j|na= v| gu[|nvitam

vim~#h| n|ínupa%yantipa%yanti j@|na cak^u^a+

The living entity enjoys sense objects using six sensory faculties of hearing, touch, sight, taste, smell, and mind. The ignorant cannot perceive the living entity departing from the body or staying in the body and enjoying sense pleasures by associating with the material body. But those who have the eye of Self-knowledge can see it. (15.09-10)

††††††††††† Senses lose their taste for material enjoyment when they develop a higher taste for the nectar of spiritual bliss. The attainment of spiritual bliss is the real fulfillment of one's desire for sense gratification. A purified soul will refrain from doing wrong things that arise from V|san|, the residual, subtle desires for sensual pleasures. V|san|s or the causal body are subtle impressions left onsubconscious mind by past actions and desires that has the power to rekindle.

y=t=nt==e y==eig=n=xc=EEn=]p=xy=nty=< a=tm=ny=< av=Úsq=t=m=< +

y=t=nt==eCpy=< ak&:t==tm==n==en=En=] p=xy=nty=< ac=et=s=/ ++‚‚++

yatanto yogina%caiína=pa%yanty |tmany avasthitam

yatantoípy ak&t|ítm|nonaiína= pa%yanty acetasa+

The yogis, striving for perfection, behold the living entity abiding in their inner psyche as consciousness, but the ignorant whose inner psyche is not pure, even though striving, cannot perceive Him. (15.11)


y=d< a=idty=g=t=] t=ej==ej=g=d< B==s=y=t=eCÚK=D=m=< +

y=c=< c=n7m=Ús= y=c=< c==gn==Et=t=< t=ej==e iv=i3 m==m=k:m=< ++‚š++

yad |dityagata= tejojagad bh|sayateíkhilam

yac candramasi yac c|ígnautat tejo viddhi m|makam


Know the light energy to be Mine that comes from the sun and illumines the whole world and is in the moon and in fire. (See also 13.17 and 15.06 ) (15.12).

††††††††††† The light of the sun is a reflection of His radiance (RV 10.07.03). The knowers of the Supreme Being visualize everywhere ó in themselves, in every human being, and in the whole universe ó that supreme cluster of light which is the source of the visible world and which shines like the all-pervading daylight (ChU 3.17.07). The world and its ob≠jects are only pictures made of shadows and light, cast on a cosmic movie screen (Yogananda). The Koran says: Allah is the light of the heavens and the earth (Surah 24.35).

††††††††††† The holy eternal light has the shape of a huge shining cluster of bright light energy. It is the light of the Supreme Being that is in the eternal light and in all the luminaries of the galaxies, such as the sun, the moon, and the stars. It is His light that is in wood, lamps, candles, and is the energy in all living beings. His light is behind all lights and the source of all energy in the universe. Without the power of the Supreme Being, fire is unable to burn a blade of grass. This light of the Supreme Being can≠not be realized and seen unless one has completely stilled and strengthened the mind, purified the intellect, and developed the power of will and visu≠alization. One must also be strong enough to bear the mental shock generated while experiencing the light of all lights in trance.

††††††††††† Just as the complete spectrum of sunlight is not vis≠ible to the human eye without a prism, similarly, we cannot see the light of the Supreme Being without the grace of God and scriptural study. The yogis who have tuned-in their consciousness with the supreme con≠sciousness can see the eternal light in trance. The entire universe is sustained by the energy of the Supreme Being and reflects His glory.


g==m=< a=iv=xy= c= B=Ut==in=Q==ry==my=< ahm=< a=ej=s== +

p=u{[==im= c==E{=Q=I/ s=v==*/s==em==e B=Utv== rs==tm=k:/ ++‚ŗ++

g|m |vi%ya ca bh~t|nidh|ray|my aham ojas|

pu^[|mi cauí^adh$+ sarv|+somo bh~tv| ras|tmaka+

Entering the earth, I support all beings with My energy. Becoming the sap-giving moon, I nourish all the plants. (15.13)


ah] v=Exv==n=r=e B=Utv==p=>=Ú[=n==] dehm=< a=ÚXt=/ +

p=>=[==p==n=s=m==y=ukt=/p=c==my=< ann=]]] c=t=uiv=*Q=m=< ++‚Ś++

aha= vai%v|naro bh~tv|pr|[in|= deham |%rita+

pr|[|p|nasam|yukta+pac|my anna= caturvidham

Becoming the digestive fire, I remain in the body of all living beings. Uniting with vital breaths or bioimpulses, I digest all types of food. (15.14)


s=v=*sy= c==h] Ňid s=]in=iv={!=e

m=T=/ sm=&it=r< N=n=m=< ap==ehn=] c= +

v=edExc= s=r<v=Er< ahm=< Av= v=e6=e

v=ed=nt=k&:d< v=eeediv=d< Av= c==hm=< ++‚Á++

sarvasya c|íha= h&di sa=nivi^!o

matta+ sm&tir j@|nam apohana= ca

vedai%ca sarvair aham eva vedyo

ved|ntak&d vedavid eva c|íham


And I am seated in the inner psyche of all beings. Memory, Self-knowledge, and removal of doubts and wrong notions about God come from Me. I am, in truth, that which is to be known by the study of all the Vedas. I am, indeed, the author as well as the student of the Vedas. (See also 6.39 ) (15.15)

††††††††††† The Supreme Being is the source of all scriptures (BS 1.01.03). The Lord resides in the inner psyche (or the causal heart) as the consciousness of all beings -- not in the physical heart of the body as commonly misunderstood.



8=v=< wm==E p=uo{==E D==eke:Z=rxc==Z=r Av= c= +

Z=r/ s=v==*Ú[= B=Ut==in=kU:!sq==eCZ=r Wcy=t=e ++‚Í++


dv|v imau puru^au lokek^ara%c|ík^ara eva ca

k^ara+ sarv|[i bh~t|nik~tasthoík^ara ucyate

There are two entities in the cosmos: The changeable or temporal Divine Beings and the unchangeable Eternal Being (Spirit). All created beings are subject to change, but the Spirit does not change. (15.16)

††††††††††† Two aspects of divine manifestation ó Divine Beings and the Eternal Being (Spirit) ó are described here. The entire creation -- including Lord Brahm| (the creative force), all celestial controllers, fourteen planetary spheres, down to a blade of grass -- is the expansion of Divine Beings. Spirit is the Consciousness, the cause of all causes, from which Divine Beings, material Nature, and countless cosmos take birth, by which they are sustained, and into which they become dissolved again and again. Divine Beings and Spirit are called matter and spirit in verses 7.04-05, Asat and Sat in verses 9.19, creation and the Creator, respectively, in verses 13.01-02, and Womb and seed-giving Father in verses 14.03-04. The Supreme Being is beyond both Divine Beings and Spirit, and is called the Absolute Reality in the scriptures and in the following verses:


WT=m=/ p=uo{=s=< tv=< any=/p=rm==tm=ety=< Wd=Ňt=/ +

y==e D==ek:F=y=m=< a=iv=xy=ib=B=r<ty=< avy=y= w*xv=r/ ++‚Ž++

uttama+ puru^as tv anya+param|tmeíty ud|h&ta+

yo lokatrayam |vi%yabibharty avyaya $%vara+

The Supreme Being is beyond both the temporal Divine Beings and the Eternal Being. He is also called the eternal Lord (Ishvara), who pervades the three worlds and supports them. (15.17)

y=sm==t=< Z=rm=< at=It==eChm=<aZ=r=d< aip= c==eT=m=/ +

at==eCÚsm= D==eke: v=ede c=p=>iq=t=/ p=uo{==eT=m=/ ++‚Ť++

yasm|t k^aram at$toíhamak^ar|d api coíttama+

atoísmi loke vede caprathita+ puru^ottama+


Because I, the Supreme Being, am beyond both the Temporal (Divine) Beings and the Eternal Being, therefore I am known in this world and in the scriptures as the Supreme Being (Absolute Reality, Truth, Supersoul) (15.18)

††††††††††† Basically, there are two different aspects (or levels of existence) ó Temporal Beings (also called Divine Souls, Divine Beings, temporal Divine Beings, Deva, celestial forces, guardian angels), and the Eternal Being (Spirit, Atma, Brahma) ó of One and the same Absolute Reality known as the Supreme Being. The invisible, unchanging, and immutable entity is called Eternal Being. The temporal Divine Beings are the expansions of the Eternal Being in the material world. The entire creation is ever-chang≠ing and mutable and is also called temporal. Both Temporal and Eternal Being are expansions of the Supreme Being. The Supreme Being -- the basis of both Temporal and Eternal -- is the highest or the Absolute, who is referred to by various names. The personal aspect of the Absolute is called by names, such as Krishna, Mother, Father, and Allah. According to our scriptures, no one, except ParaBrahma Param|tm|, has their own power or consciousness. Everyone, including the Eternal Being (Akshar Brahma), receives power from the Absolute, Lord Krishna.


Note: The following explanation is only for advanced readers who have studied Gita for several years and are familiar with some Sanskrit terms. Readers should also visit our websites:

for a diagram showing this hierarchy of cosmic control that will make the following explanations more clear.

††††††† In Vedic cosmology, the cosmic space (Ak|sha) is divided into five major zones: 1. Chid|k|sha, 2. Sad|k|sha,3. Param|k|sha,4. Brahm|nd|k|sha, and 5. Ghat|k|sha.

(1) The Supreme Being resides in ParamaDh|ma (Supreme Abode, Gita 15.06), located in Chid|k|sha, the uppermost space. ShriKrishna is known here as Param|tm|, Supreme Being, Supersoul, ParaBrahma, Purushottama, Saccid|nanda, Absolute, Father, the Supreme Personality of Godhead and by various other names..

(2) Akshar Brahma (Eternal Being or Atm|) is the expansion of†† the SAT (or existence) nature of†† Supreme†† Being in Sad|k|sha, as explained in Gita 10.42 and 14.27. Akshara Brahma, mentioned in Gita 8.03 and 15.16, has three major expansions (P|da or natures). They are: (2a) Sat, (2b) Chitta or Sabal Brahma, and (2c) Ananda or Keval Brahma. Sat nature is also called Atm| or Parameshvara. Chitta nature has various other names, such as Chaitanya Braham, Consciousness, ParamaShiva, cosmic intellect, and Par|tm|. Ananda, the blissful energy of Keval Brahma, is also called YogaM|y| (Gita 4.06, 7.25).

(2b) Chitta and (2c) Ananda natures combine to give rise to the fourth P|da, the Avyakta Brahma or (3) Avyakta Akshara Brahma in Param|k|sha. This is known by various names such as the inexplicable Brahma, Avyakta, Adi Purusha, Adi Prakriti, Pradh|n, Sarva K|rana K|rnam (the cause of all causes). Avyakta Brahma, a small fraction of the Absolute, expands into infinite cosmos, as mentioned in Gita 8.18 and 10.41. Param|k|sh is also the abode of major powers of YogaM|y|, such as: power to veil the real nature of things (Avaran Shakti), power to place obstructions (Vikshep Shakti), powers to multiply and become many (Vigrah Shakti), powers of cosmic intellect, knowledge, and action, and power of converting energy into matter and vice versa.

Lord Krishna is known as Golokin|tha in Param|k|sha. Golokin|tha (or Avyakta Brahma) has twomajorexpansions: (3a) PranavaBrahma(or BrahmaShiva) and (3b) M|y| Brahma. PranavaBrahma expands into (3a.1) Omk|ra (or N|dashiva). Omk|ra expands into (3a.1a) AUM (or Shiva) (Gita 10.25). PranavaBrahma also gives rise to (3a.2) G|yatri (Gita 10.35) which is the abode of the Vedas (Gita 7.08).

(3b) M|y|Brahma is a reflection of (2c) YogaM|y| in Param|k|sha.It undergoes further successive transformations as: Mah|M|y|, K|laM|y| and (3b.1) M|y| (Gita 7.14).

The creative power of M|y| creates Brahm|nd|k|sha by a small fraction (Residual Energy) of her power. A Golden Egg or HiranyaGarbha (4) is also created by M|y| Devi in Brahm|nd|k|sha. AdiN|r|yana (or Adi Purusha, Shambhu,Mah|Deva) andMah|Devi (or Mother Nature/Amb|) remain in an inactive (YogaNidr|) state for over 311 trillion years (verse 9.07) in the Golden Egg until the cosmic sound vibration (or a big bang) of AUM activates the Golden Egg giving rise to (4a) Purusha (also known as Kshara Purusha, N|r|yana, Mah|Vishnu, Gita 7.05, 15.16) and (4b) Prakriti (also known as Nature, Gita 7.04). Mah|Vishnu creates infinite Cosmic Eggs (Brahm|ndas) by His breathing power. Nature has three Gunas or modes (see Chapter 14). The combination of these three Gunas of Nature is called (4b.1) the Cosmic Mind (Mahatatattva, Tannam|tr| or Mahat).

In Ghat|k|sha (or Vishnu Loka), N|r|yana/Mah|Vishnu of Brahm|nd|k|sha appears as (5) Lord Vishnu where he is also called Kshirodak Vishnu, and he further expands his role as (5b) Brahm| and (5c) Shankara. Brahm| creates seven heavens, seven lower planets (P|t|ls), Jambu islands, earth, and other hellish planets. During partial dissolution (Gita 8.17), the entire creation of Brahm| rests in the abdomen of Kshirodak Vishnu. N|r|yana also expands as Niranjana Deva and Ishvara. Niranjana Deva activates the cosmic mind (4b.1) and creates (5d) five basic elements (earth, water, fire, air, subtle space, also see Gita 7.04) that are further transformed into a body mass (Pinda) made up of twenty four elements (See Gita 13.06 for more details), out of which physical bodies of living beings, J$va, on the earth are created when the Supreme Lord Krishna puts His seed of life force (see verses 7.10, 10.39, and 14.04) into the body mass (Pinda) and resides in the inner psyche of all beings as Ishvara (see Gita verses 15.07 and 18.61). J$va transmigrates into 8.4 million species of life on the earth as long as it remains in bodily concept due to the veil of ignorance created by M|y|. J$va attains salvation when, by virtue of oneís good Karma, one obtains the grace of God, Gita, or a SadGuru, and truly realizes that he or she is not this physical body or a doer; but Atm|, a divine instrument and an integral part and parcel of the Supreme Being.

Everything in Brahm|nd|k|sha and Ghat|k|sha is called Kshara or temporal. Everything in Sad|k|sha andParam|k|sha, is called Akshara or eternal. The Supreme Being is beyond both temporal and eternal as stated in verse 15.18.

y==e m==m=< Av=m=< as=]m=U$=ej==n==it= p=uo{==eT=m=m=< +

s= s=v=*iv=d< B=j=it= m==]s=v=*B==v=en= B==rt= ++‚Ô++

yo m|m evam asa=m~#hoj|n|ti puru^ottamam

sa sarvavid bhajati m|=sarvabh|vena bh|rata

The wise, who truly understand Me as the Supreme Being, know everything and worship Me wholeheartedly, O Arjuna. (See also 7.14, 14.26 and 18.66) (15.19)

wit= g=uńt=m=] x==sF=m=<wdm=< Wkt=] m=y==Cn=G= +

At=d< b=ud<Qv== b=ui3m==n=< sy==t=<k&:t=k&:ty=xc= B==rt= ++šÓ++

iti guhyatama= %|stramidam ukta= may|ínagha

etad buddhv| buddhim|n sy|tk&tak&tya%ca bh|rata

Thus, I have explained this most secret transcendental science of the Absolute. Having understood this, one becomes enlightened, oneís all duties are accomplished, (and the goal of human life is achieved) O Arjuna. (15.20)

aq= {==e#x==eCQy==y=/








aB=y=] s=Tv=s=]x=ui3r<N=n=y==eg=vy=v=Úsq=it=/ +

d=n=] dm=xc= y=Nxc=sv==Qy==y=s=< t=p= a=j=*v=m=< ++‚++

%r$ bhagav|n uv|ca

abhaya= sattvasa=%uddhirj@|nayoga vyavasthiti+

d|na= dama%ca yaj@a%casv|dhy|yas tapa |rjavam

aih]s== s=ty=m=< ak>:=eQ=s=<ty==g=/ x==Únt=r< ap=Ex=un=m=< +

dy== B=Ut=e{v=< aD==eD=uptv=]m==d*v=] hMIr< ac==p=D=m=< ++š++

ahi=s| satyam akrodhasty|ga+ %|ntir apai%unam

day| bh~te^v aloluptva=m|rdava= hr$r ac|palam

t=ej=/ Z=m== Q=&it=/ x==Ec=m=<a7=eh=e n==it=m==in=t== +

B=v=Únt= s=]p=d] dEv=Im=<aiB=j==t=sy= B==rt= ++ŗ++

teja+ k^am| dh&ti+ %aucamadroho n|ítim|nit|

bhavanti sa=pada= daiv$mabhij|tasya bh|rata

Lord Krishna said: Fearlessness, purity of the inner psyche, perseverance in the yoga of Self-knowledge, charity, sense-restraint, sacrifice, study of the scriptures, austerity, honesty; nonviolence, truthfulness, absence of anger, renunciation, equanimity, abstinence from malicious talk, compassion for all creatures, freedom from greed, gentleness, modesty, absence of fickleness, splendor, forgiveness, fortitude, cleanliness, absence of malice, and absence of pride -- these are some of the qualities of those endowed with divine virtues, O Arjuna. (16.01-03)

††††††††††† One must not condemn anybody and commend one≠self (MB 3.207.50). We should treat others in the same manner as we would like ourselves to be treated (MB 12.167.09). A person of de≠monic nature needs to be dealt with and controlled differently than a person of divine nature (MB 12.109.30). No one is perfect. People do things because they donít know any better, so we should not censure them. We all pay the price for those who act out of ignorance. Speaking ill of others is the most heinous sin. Do not see othersí faults; improve your own shortcomings until you yourself become enlightened.

††††††††††† One should not talk about, listen to, or even think about the faults and shortcomings of others. When we think about the defects of others, our own minds become polluted. Nothing is gained by find≠ing fault with others; therefore, find your own faults and correct them. To love the unlovable, to be kind to the unkind, and to be gracious to the ungracious is really divine. It is said that we will have to account for how we treat others.

††††††††††† Values may also create problems if one forgets that people have different values; my values will be different from yours. A conflict of values between individuals ruins relationships. In practice, sometimes two values of the same person also conflict. For example, if telling a lie saves a valuable life, one should not tell the truth. One should not be blindly attached to values because a value is not absolute. We should neither sneer at any ideal nor judge others by our own standards because basic unity in variety is the plan of the creator.

††††††††††† All kinds of people make up this world. You want to change others so that you can be free, but it never works that way. If you accept others totally and unconditionally, only then you are free. People are what they are because they have their own backgrounds, and they cannot be otherwise (Swami Dayananda). You can love your spouse, unconditionally, and not like the way he or she acts. Your enemy might become your friend if you allow him or her to be who he or she is. If you want to make an enemy, try to change someone. People will change only when it becomes more difficult to suffer than to change. No one is in a posi≠tion to disqualify anotherís way of life, thinking, or ideas. Evolution on the ladder of perfection is a slow and difficult process. It is not an easy task to get rid of latent Karmic impressions (Samsk|ra) of the past, but one must try. Changes come by oneís own effort and when the season of the grace of God comes, not a day before. Also, the manifes≠tation of primordial energy, consciousness, is different in different beings. Therefore, seek reconciliation with everything in the universe, and everything will become your friend. Ramakrishna said: When divinity dawns, the human weaknesses vanish of their own accord just as the petals drop off when the flower develops into the fruit.

††††††††††† Mortals are helplessly tied like cattle by the rope of latent and residual desires born of their Karmic footprints. This rope can be cut only if we use the God-given knife of intellect that animals do not have. A tiger is controlled by the instinct to kill and is helpless in this regard. Human beings are endowed with intellect and power to reason by which they can slowly and steadily cut the rope. We fail to use our power of rea≠soning and intellect due to ignorance. Oneís enemy is none other than the other side of oneself. Sometimes intellect is taken away by the trick of divine illusory energy (Maya) before the dawn of fate-born adversity. One must use intellect, the precious divine gift to human beings, to analyze the situ≠ation. There is no other way to get out of the vicious circle of Maya.

††††††††††† No one can hurt one who does not do violence to others by thought, word, or deed (VP 1.19.05). Even violent ani≠mals do not harm those who practice nonviolence by thought, word, and deed (MB 12.175.27). One who does not do violence to any crea≠ture, gets what one wishes and becomes successful in all spiritual disciplines without too much effort (MS 5.47).

††††††††††† The higher form of life uses the lower form of life as food for sustenance (MB 12.15.20). It is impossible to practice nonviolence -- or any other value -- in an absolute sense. Even farming operations involve violence to in≠sects and earthworms. Practicing nonviolence towards all creatures is meant for our own evolution on the ladder of perfection. A minimal amount of necessary violence in the day-to-day practical life is required. Determination of minimum violence is, of course, very subjective. Violence should never be used in service of a personal grudge. It may be used to defend the weak or to uphold Dharma (order and justice).


dmB==e dp==e*CiB=m==n=xc=k>:=eQ=/ p==o{y=m=< Av= c= +

aN=n=] c==iB=j==t=sy=p==q=* s=]p=dm=< a=s=urIm=< ++Ś++

dambho darpoíbhim|na%cakrodha+ p|ru^yam eva ca

aj@|na= c|íbhij|tasyap|rtha sa=padam |sur$m


O Arjuna, the marks of those who are born with demonic qualities are: hypocrisy, arrogance, pride, anger, harshness, and ignorance. (16.04)

††††††††††† It is the universal practice to return the favor -- in one way or another -- to those who have been helpful to you (VR 5.01.113). An ungrateful person is the worst person. One must aban≠don such a person (MB 12.168.26). There is no atonement for ungrate≠fulness in this world (MB 12.172.25). It is said that even car≠nivores do not eat the flesh of an ungrateful person (MB 5.36.42). One must feel and express genuine gratitude if one accepts something from another person. Real happiness is in being grateful to God for what we have, and control the desire for what we want.


dEv=I s=]p=d< iv=m==eZ==y=in=b=nQ==y==s=urI m=t== +

m== x=uc=/ s=]p=d] dEv=Im=<aiB=j==t==eCÚs= p==[#v= ++Á++

daiv$ sa=pad vimok^|yanibandh|y|ísur$ mat|

m| %uca+ sa=pada= daiv$mabhij|toísi p|[#ava

Divine qualities lead to salvation, the demonic qualities are said to be for bondage. Do not grieve, O Arjuna -- you are born with divine quali≠ties. (16.05)

††††††††††† Habits of sinful activity are very difficult to get rid of; therefore, one should always avoid sinful acts and practice good deeds (MB 3.209.41). Fundamental morality is the backbone of spiri≠tual life. Self-knowledge without moral virtues is incomplete and is hypocrisy.


8=E B=Ut=s=r<g==E D==eke:CÚsm=n=<dEv= a=s=ur Av= c= +

dEv==e iv=st=rx=/ p=>=ekt=a=s=ur] p==q=* m=e x=&&[=u ++Í++

dvau bh~tasargau lokeísmindaiva |sura eva ca

daivo vistara%a+ prokta|sura= p|rtha me %&[u


There are only two types (or castes) of human beings in this world: The divine, or the wise; and the demonic, or the ignorant. The divine has been described at length; now hear from Me about the demonic, O Arjuna. (16.06)

††††††††††† Self-knowledge manifests as divine qualities, and ignorance manifests as demonic qualities. Those who are in tune with the cosmic plan have divine qualities; those who are out of tune with the divine plan possess demonic qualities. Created beings in this world have both divine and demonic qualities in them. Those who acted piously in their past lives are born with more divine qualities, and those who were sinful in previous lives are born with predominance of demonic qualities.


p=>v=&iT=] c= in=v=&iT=] c=j=n== n= iv=dur< a=s=ur=/ +

n= x==Ec=] n==ip= c==c==r=en= s=ty=] t=e{=u iv=6t=e ++Ž++

prav&ttim ca niv&tti= cajan| na vidur |sur|+

na %auca= n|ípi c|íc|rona satya= te^u vidyate

Persons of demonic nature do not know what to do and what not to do. They have neither purity nor good conduct nor truthfulness. (16.07)


as=ty=m=< ap=>it={@] t=ej=g=d< a=hur< an=Ixv=rm=< +

ap=rsp=rs=]B=Ut=]ik:m=< any=t=< k:=m=hEt=uk:m=< ++Ť++

asatyam aprati^!ha= tejagad |hur an$%varam

aparasparasa=bh~ta=kim anyat k|mahaitukam


They say: The world is unreal, without a substratum, without a God, and without an order. Sexual union of man and woman alone and nothing else causes the world. (16.08)


At==] d&i{!m=< av={!By=n={!=tm==n==eCDp=b=u3y=/ +

p=>B=v=nty=< Wg=>k:m==*[=/Z=y==y= j=g=t==eeCiht==/ ++Ô++

et|= d&^!im ava^!abhyana^!|ítm|noílpabuddhaya+

prabhavanty ugrakarm|[a+k^ay|ya jagatoíhit|+


Adhering to these (and other) twisted, diabolic views, these degraded souls ó with small intellect and cruel deeds -- are born as enemies for the destruction of the world. (16.09)


k:=m=m=< a=iXty= du{p=Ur]dmB=m==n=m=d=Únv=t==/ +

m==eh=d< g=&hItv==Cs=d<g=>=h=n=<p=>v=t=*nt=eCx=uic=v=>t==/ ++‚Ó++

k|mam |%ritya du^p~ra=dambham|namad|nvit|+

moh|d g&h$tv|ísadgr|h|npravartanteí%ucivrat|+


Filled with insatiable desires, hypocrisy, pride, and arrogance; holding wrong views due to delusion, they act with impure motives. (16.10)



ic=nt==m=< ap=irm=ey==] c=p=>D=y==nt==m=< Wp==iXt==/ +

k:=m==ep=B==eg=p=rm==At==v=d< wit= in=ixc=t==/ ++‚‚++

cint|m aparimey|= capralay|nt|m up|%rit|+

k|mopabhogaparam|et|vad iti ni%cit|+

a=x==p==x=x=t=Er< b=3=/k:=m=k>:=eQ=p=r=y=[==/ +

w*hnt=e k:=m=B==eg==q=*m=<any==y=en==q=*s=Jc=y==n=< ++‚š++

|%|p|%a%atair baddh|+k|makrodhapar|ya[|+

$hante k|mabhog|rthamany|yen|írthasa@cay|n

Obsessed with endless anxiety lasting until death, considering sense gratification their highest aim, and convinced that sense pleasure is everything, bound by hundreds of ties of desire and enslaved by lust and anger, they strive to obtain wealth by unlawful means to fulfill sensual pleasures. They think: (16.11-12)


wdm=< a6 m=y== D=bQ=m=<wm=] p=>=psy=e m=n==erq=m=< +

wdm=< ast=Idm=< aip= m=eB=iv={y=it= p=un=r< Q=n=m=< ++‚ŗ++

idam adya may| labdhamima= pr|psye manoratham

idam ast$ídam api mebhavi^yati punar dhanam


This has been gained by me today; I shall fulfill this desire; I have this much wealth and will have more wealth in the future; (16.13)


as==E m=y== ht=/ x=F=ur<hin={y=e c==p=r=n=< aip= +

w*xv=r=eChm=< ah] B==eg=IÚs=3=eCh] b=D=v==n=< s=uK=I ++‚Ś++

asau may| hata+ %atrurhani^ye c|ípar|n api

$%varoíham aha= bhog$siddhoíha= balav|n sukh$


That enemy has been slain by me, and I shall slay others also. I am the Lord. I am the enjoyer. I am successful, powerful, and happy; (16.14)


a=$Y=eCiB=j=n=v==n=< aÚsm=k:=eCny==eCÚst= s=d&x==e m=y== +

y=Zy=e d=sy==im= m==eid{y=wty=< aN=n=iv=m==eiht==/ ++‚Á++

|#hyoíbhijanav|n asmikoínyoísti sad&%o may|

yak^ye d|sy|mi modi^yaity aj@|navimohit|+

an=ek:ic=T=iv=B=>=nt==m==ehj==D=s=m==v=&t==/ +

p=>s=kt==/ k:=m=B==eg=e{=up=t=Únt= n=rke:Cx=uc==E ++‚Í++


prasakt|+ k|mabhoge^upatanti narakeí%ucau


I am rich and born in a noble family. Who is equal to me? I shall per≠form sacrifice, I shall give charity, and I shall rejoice. Thus they are deluded by ignorance, bewildered by many fancies, entangled in the net of delusion, addicted to the enjoyment of sensual pleasures, they fall into a foul hell. (16.15-16)


a=tm=s=]B==iv=t==/ st=bQ==Q=n=m==n=m=d=Únv=t==/ +

y=j=nt=e n==m=y=NEs=< t=edmB=en==iv=iQ=p=Uv=*k:m=< ++‚Ž++

|tmasa=bh|vit|+ stabdh|dhanam|namad|nvit|+

yajante n|mayaj@ais tedambhen|ívidhip~rvakam


Self-conceited, stubborn, filled with pride and intoxication of wealth, they perform sacrifices only in name for show, not according to scriptural injunction. (16.17)


ah]k:=r] b=D=] dp=*]k:=m=] k>:=eQ=] c= s=]iXt==/ +

m==m=< a=tm=p=rdehe{=up=>i8{=nt==eCBy=s=Uy=k:=/ ++‚Ť++

aha=k|ra= bala= darpa=k|ma= krodha= ca sa=%rit|+

m|m |tmaparadehe^upradvi^antoíbhyas~yak|+


These malicious people cling to egoism, power, arrogance, lust, and anger; and they deny My presence in their own body and in others' bodies. (16.18)



t==n=< ah] i8{=t=/ k>U:r=n=<s=]s==re{=u n=r=Q=m==n=< +

iZ=p==my=< aj=s=>m=< ax=uB==n=<a=s=urI{v=< Av= y==ein={=u ++‚Ô++

t|n aha= dvi^ata+ kr~r|nsa=s|re^u nar|dham|n

k^ip|my ajasram a%ubh|n|sur$^v eva yoni^u


I hurl these haters, these cruel, sinful, and mean people, into the cycles of death and birth in the womb of demons (or degraded parents) again and again, according to their Karma. (16.19)


a=s=urI] y==ein=m=< a=p=nn==m=U$= j=nm=in= j=nm=in= +

m==m=< ap=>=py=Ev= k:=Ent=ey=t=t==e y==nty=< aQ=m==] g=it=m=< ++šÓ++

|sur$= yonim |pann|m~#h| janmani janmani

m|m apr|pyaiíva kaunteyatato y|nty adham|= gatim


O Arjuna, entering the wombs of demons, birth after birth, the deluded ones sink to the lowest level without ever attaining Me (until their minds turn Godward by My causeless mercy). (16.20)

††††††††††† A never-ending war between good and evil forces is going on in each personís life. One takes birth to learn to purge the demonic qualities that block the gateway to God-realization. God appears only after the devil within us is completely subjugated. Spirit does not have any of the three qualities of material Nature. These qualities belong to body and mind only. Scriptures say: The divine, illusory energy (Maya) creates a multitude of pairs of oppo≠sites, such as good and evil, loss and gain, pleasure and pain, hope and despair, compassion and apathy, generosity and greed, perseverance and laziness, courage and cowardice, love and hatred, merits and demerits, and divine and demonic qualities. They have no real existence whatsoever. Therefore, it is wise not to note any merit or demerit in people (BP 11.19.45, TR 7.41.00).



iF=iv=Q=] n=rk:sy=ed]8=r] n==x=n=m=< a=tm=n=/ +

k:=m=/ k>:=eQ=s=< t=q== D==eB=s=<t=sm==d< At=t=< F=y=] ty=j=et=< ++š‚++

trividha= narakasyeída=dv|ra= n|%anam |tmana+

k|ma+ krodhas tath| lobhastasm|d etat traya= tyajet


Lust, anger, and greed are the three gates of hell leading to the down≠fall (or bondage) of the individual. Therefore, one must (learn to) give up these three. (16.21)

††††††††††† The Upanishad says: A golden gate (of lust, anger, greed, illusion, delusion, and attachment) blocks the passage to God (IsU 15). This gate can be opened by concerted, individual effort only. Lust, anger, and greed were created to control the entry of hu≠man beings to heaven and to lead them to the gates of hell. Lust, anger, and greed evaporate from the mind only after discovering that there is no ĎIí and Ďmyí. Uncontrolled greed for material possessions of modern civilization may destroy the possessor by destroying the natu≠ral environment, the very support of life and civilization.

††††††††††† Selfish desire or lust is the root of all evil. Mundane desires are also the origin of all demonic qualities. These demonic or negative qualities, such as an≠ger, greed, attachment, pride, jealousy, hatred, and fraud, are born out of de≠sire and are also called sin. Desire, when fulfilled, brings more desires, thereby breeding greed. Unfulfilled desires cause anger. Anger is a temporary in≠sanity. People do sinful acts when they are angry. They who act in haste under the spell of anger, repent afterwards. Igno≠rance of metaphysics is responsible for lust; therefore, lust can be removed only by acquiring Self-knowledge. Lust also obscures Self-knowledge as a cloud covers the sun. One must learn to control desires with contentment, and anger with unconditional forgiveness. They who have overcome desires have really conquered the world and live a peaceful, healthy, and happy life.

At=Er< iv=m=ukt=/ k:=Ent=ey=t=m==e8=rEs=< iF=iB=r< n=r/ +

a=c=rty=< a=tm=n=/ Xey=s=<t=t==e y==it= p=r=] g=it=m=< ++šš++

etair vimukta+ kaunteyatamodv|rais tribhir nara+

|caraty |tmana+ %reyastato y|ti par|= gatim


One who is liberated from these three gates of hell, O Arjuna, does what is best and consequently reaches Me. (16.22)

††††††††††† Lust, anger, and greed are the commanders of the army of illusion (Maya) that must be defeated before salvation is possible. The best way to become free from demonic qualities is to follow any one of the paths discussed in the Gita, as well as other scriptural injunctions.



y=/ x==sF=iv=iQ=m=< Wts=&jy=v=t=*t=e k:=m=k:=rt=/ +

n= s= Ús=i3m=< av==pn==eit= n= s=uK=] n= p=r=] g=it=m=< ++šŗ++

ya+ %|stravidhim uts&jyavartate k|mak|rata+

na sa siddhim av|pnotina sukha= na par|= gatim


One who acts under the influence of desires, disobeying scriptural injunctions, neither attains perfection nor happiness, nor the Supreme Abode. (16.23)

††††††††††† The world becomes full of sweetness and beauty for those who live their life according to the law of the scriptures (RV 1.90.06). A scripture is the blueprint for society. It deals with every aspect of life and lays down the ground rules for proper devel≠opment of all men, women, and children. For example, Manu said: Women must be honored and adorned. Where women are honored, there celestial controllers dwell pleased. Women must always be loved and protected from the temptation of evil-minded men. A womanís father protects her in childhood; her husband protects her in youth; and her sons protect her in old age (MS 3.56). Fortitude, righteousness (Dharma), friends, and spouse -- these four are tested only during adversity. To be de≠voted -- in thought, word, and deed -- to each other should be the only religion, the only vow, and the only duty of a husband and wife (TR 3.04.05). The Bible says: Men ought to love their wives as their own bodies, and the wife should respect her husband. Respect, and submit yourselves one to another in the fear of God (Ephesians 5.21-33). However, men and women have differing roles to play in the cosmic drama; therefore, their needs and temperament are different.

††††††††††† One must not find fault or criticize any scripture because the scripture is the foundation stone of righteousness (Dharma) and social order. One can get name, fame, peace, and salvation by just following the scriptures (MS 2.09). The study of scriptures keeps the mind ab≠sorbed in high thoughts and is a spiritual discipline by itself. One is deliv≠ered by the practice of the truth of the scriptures and not by mere lip service. Guru Nanak said: One who preaches to others but does not practice the same, shall take birth again and again.

††††††††††† Let God, Gita, and Guru show us the way to en≠lightenment. People cannot be saved from the spell of divine, illusory power (Maya) just by using their own wisdom. They must follow a scripture with faith, espe≠cially in this age when it is difficult to find a true guru. Adherence to the high teachings of the scriptures will ward off all evil and bring about good. If a bridge is built, anyone can easily cross the river, no matter how wide a river is. Similarly, the scripture is the bridge to cross over the river of Maya. Therefore, one should always follow the guidance of a teacher who is well versed in the scriptures, as stated by the Lord in the following verse:

t=sm==c=< %=sF=] p=>m==[=] t=ek:=y==*k:=y=*vy=v=Úsq=t==E +

N=tv== x==sF=iv=Q==n==ekt=]k:m=* k:t=u*m=< wh=h*Ús= ++šŚ++

tasm|c ch|stra= pram|[a= tek|ry|k|ryavyavasthitau

j@|tv| %|stravidh|nokta=karma kartum ih|írhasi

Therefore, let the scripture be your guide in determining what should be done and what should not be done. You should perform your duty following the scriptural injunction. (16.24)

††††††††††† The Ten Commandments of Hinduism according to sage Patanjali (PYS 2.30-2.32), are: (1) Nonviolence, (2) Truthfulness, (3) Non-steal≠ing, (4) Celibacy or sense control, (5) Non-greed, (6) Purity of thought, word, and deed, (7) Contentment, (8) Austerity or renuncia≠tion, (9) Study of scriptures, and (10) Surrendering to God with faith≠ful loving devotion.

††††††††††† Compare these with the ten basic teachings of the Bible: (1) Thou shall not kill; (2) Do not lie; (3) Do not steal; (4) Do not commit adultery; (5) Do not covet; (6) Do not divorce your wife; (7) Do for others what you want them to do for you; (8) If anyone slaps you on the right cheek, turn the other cheek; (9) Love your neighbor as yourself; and (10) Love the Lord with all thy heart.

††††††††††† The Eightfold Noble Path of Buddhism is: Right view, right thought, right speech, right deeds, right livelihood, right effort, right resolve, and right meditation. Abstinence from all evil, performance of good acts, and purification of the mind is the doctrine of Buddha.

††††††††††† The five cardinal principles of Islam are: (1) Faith in God, His message, and His messengers; (2) Meditation and prayer on the glory, greatness, and the message of God for spiritual growth; (3) Helping others by giving charity; (4) Austerity for self-purification by fasting in the month of Ramadan; and (5) Pilgrimage to the holy places.

††††††††††† All great masters have given us Truth revealed by the Supreme. Krishna taught us to feel spiritual oneness by seeing divinity in each and everyone. Buddha taught us to purify ourselves and have compassion for all creatures. Christ asked us to love all beings as we love ourselves. Muhammad taught us to submit to the will of God and act like His instruments.

††††††††††† In some religions, however, only the members of oneís own sect are considered favorites of God, and others are consid≠ered infidels. The Vedas teach not only mere religious tolerance but the acceptance of all other religions and prophets as analogous to oneís own. The Vedas say: Let noble thoughts come to us from everywhere (RV 1.89.01). The dignity and welfare of humanity lie in the unity of races and religion (Swami Harihar). True knowledge of relig≠ion breaks down all barriers, including the barriers between faiths (Gandhi). Any religion that creates walls of conflict and hatred among people in the name of God is not a religion, but selfish politics in disguise. We have no right to criticize any religion, sect, or cult in any way. Differences in human interpretation of scriptures -- the transcendent voice -- are due to taking the literal meaning, prejudice, ignorance, taking lines out of context, as well as distortion, misinterpretation, and interpolation with personal selfish motives.

aq= s=pt=dx==eCQy==y=/





aj=*un= Wv==c=

y=e x==sF=iv=iQ=m=< Wts=&jy=y=j=nt=e X3y==Únv=t==/ +

t=e{==] in={@= t=u k:= k&:{[=s=Tv=m=< a=h=e rj=s=< t=m=/ ++‚++

arjuna uv|ca

ye %|stravidhim uts&jyayajante %raddhay|ínvit|+

te^|= ni^!h| tu k| k&^[asattvam |ho rajas tama+


Arjuna said: What is the mode of devotion of those who perform spiri≠tual practices with faith but without following the scriptural injunc≠tions, O Krishna? Is it in the mode of goodness, passion, or ignorance? (17.01)



iF=iv=Q== B=v=it= X3=deihn==] s== sv=B==v=j== +

s==iTv=k:I r=j=s=I c=Ev=t==m=s=I c=eit= t==] x=&&[=u ++š++

%r$ bhagav|n uv|ca

trividh| bhavati %raddh|dehin|= s| svabh|vaj|

s|ttvik$ r|jas$ caiívat|mas$ ceíti t|= %&[u

Lord Krishna said: The natural faith of embodied beings is of three kinds: Goodness, passion, and ignorance. Now hear about these from Me. (17.02)


s=Tv==n=uOp== s=v=*sy=X3= B=v=it= B==rt= +

X3=m=y==eCy=] p=uo{==ey==e y=c%M3/ s= Av= s=/ ++ŗ++



sattv|nur~p| sarvasya%raddh| bhavati bh|rata

%raddh|mayoíya= puru^oyo yacchraddha+ sa eva sa+


O Arjuna, the faith of each is in accordance with oneís own natural disposition (that is governed by latent Karmic impressions (Samsk|ra)). One is known by oneís faith. One can become whatever one wants to be (if she or he constantly contemplates (or visualizes) the object of burning desire with deep faith in God). (17.03)

††††††††††† One can attain success in any endeavor if one per≠severes with firm determination (MB 12.153.116). The doer of good acts becomes good, and the doer of evil becomes evil. One becomes virtuous by virtuous deeds and vicious by vicious acts (BrU 4.04.05). We all have the power to change. One becomes what one constantly and intensely thinks of, irrespective of reasons, such as reverence, fear, jealousy, love, or even hatred (BP 11.09.22). You always get what you look for ó consciously or unconsciously. The thought produces action; action soon becomes habits and habit leads to success in any endeavor when it becomes passion. Become passionate about what you want to achieve, and you will achieve it. Burning desire brings out the dormant forces.

††††††††††† We are the products of our own thoughts and desires that have accumulated over numerous lifetimes. Thoughts create our destiny. We become what we think. There is a tremendous power in our thoughts to draw on the negative or positive energies around us. Where there is a will, there is a way. We should harbor noble thoughts because thoughts precede deeds. Thoughts control our physical, mental, finan≠cial, as well as spiritual well-being. Never allow any negative thought or doubt to enter. We have such a great power at our disposal, yet the irony is that we fail to use it. If you do not have what you want, you are not committed to it one hundred percent. You are the cause of everything that happens to you. You should not expect lifeís very best if you are not giving your very best. Success is achieved by a series of well planned steps taken slowly and persistently. Stephen Covey says: "The best way to predict your future is to create it.Ē Every great achievement was once considered impossible. Never underestimate the potential and power of the human mind and spirit. Many books have been written and motivational programs developed for the practical application of the power of faith in this single mantra of the Gita. The relaxed, meditative, subconscious mind has great powers to do anything you want ó healing, wealth, Nirv|na, etc.

††††††††††† A simple method to order your subconscious mind to fulfill a noble desire is to visualize your goal during Alpha (half awake) state of mind just before sleeping, every night for 15 minutes and have a deep faith that you will get what you want ó within the limits of oneís abilities, fate and destiny. Whatever a person of purified mind desires, is obtained (MuU 3.01.10).

†††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

y=j=nt=e s==iTv=k:= dev==n=<y=Z=rZ==]Ús= r=j=s==/ +

p=>et==n=< B=Ut=g=[==]x=< c==ny=ey=j=nt=e t==m=s== j=n==/ ++Ś++

yajante s|ttvik| dev|nyak^arak^|=si r|jas|+

pret|n bh~taga[|=% c|ínyeyajante t|mas| jan|+

Persons in the mode of goodness worship celestial controllers; those in the mode of passion worship supernatural rulers and demons; and those in the mode of ignorance worship ghosts and spirits. (17.04)

ax==sF=iv=iht=] G==er]t=py=nt=e y=e t=p==e j=n==/ +

dmB==h]k:=rs=]y=ukt==/k:=m=r=g=b=D==Únv=t==/ ++Á++

a%|stravihita= ghora=tapyante ye tapo jan|+

dambh|ha=k|ra sa=yukt|+k|ma r|ga bal|nvit|+

k:{=*y=nt=/ x=rIrsq=]B=Ut=g=>=m=m=< ac=et=s=/ +

m==] c=Ev==nt=/x=rIrsq=]t==n=< iv=3Y< a=s=urin=xc=y==n=< ++Í++

kar^ayanta+ %ar$rastha=bh~tagr|mam acetasa+

m|= caiív|ínta+%ar$rastha=t|n viddhy |surani%cay|n

Ignorant persons of demonic nature are those who practice severe austerities without following the prescrip≠tion of the scriptures, who are full of hypocrisy and egotism, who are impelled by the force of desire and attachment, and who senselessly torture the elements in their body and also Me who dwells within the body. (17.05-06)


a=h=rs=< tv=< aip= s=v=*sy=iF=iv=Q==e B=v=it= ip=>y=/ +

y=Ns=< t=p=s=< t=q== d=n=]t=e{==] B=edm=< wm=] x=&&[=u ++Ž++

|h|ras tv api sarvasyatrividho bhavati priya+

yaj@as tapas tath| d|na=te^|= bhedam ima= %&[u


The food preferred by all of us is also of three types. So are the sacrifice, austerity, and charity. Now hear the distinction between them. (17.07)


a=y=u/s=Tv=b=D==r=egy=-s=uK=p=>Iit=iv=v=Q=*n==/ +

rsy==/ Úsn=gQ==/ Úsq=r= Ň6=a=h=r=/ s==iTv=k:ip=>y==/ ++Ť++

|yu+ sattva bal|rogya-sukha pr$ti vivardhan|+

rasy|+ snigdh|+ sthir| h&dy||h|r|+ s|ttvikapriy|+


The foods that promote longevity, virtue, strength, health, happiness, and joy are juicy, smooth, substantial, and nutritious. Persons in the mode of goodness like such foods. (17.08)

††††††††††† One should eat good food for protecting and sus≠taining life as a patient takes medicine for protection from disease (MB 12.212.14). Whatever a person eats, his or her personal deity eats the same (VR 2.104.15, See also Gita 8.24). (Because) I am Thou, and Thou art I (BS 3.3.37). The food we eat becomes divided into three con≠stituents. The grossest part turns into feces; the medium component be≠comes flesh, blood, marrow, and bone. Semen, the subtlest part, rises upward and nourishes the brain and subtle organs of the body by unit≠ing with the vital force (ChU 6.05.01-6.06.02). Food is called the root of the body-tree. A healthy body and mind are the prerequisites for success in spiritual life. The mind will be healthy if the body is healthy. Persons in the mode of goodness like vegetarian foods. One can also become a noble person by taking vegetarian food because one be≠comes what one eats.


k:!<v=mD=D=v=[==ty=u{[=-t=IZ[=OZ=iv=d=ihn=/ +

a=h=r= r=j=s=sy=e{!=du/K=x==ek:=m=y=p=>d=/ ++Ô++

katvamla lava[|tyu^[a-t$k^[a r~k^a vid|hina+

|h|r| r|jasasyeí^!|du+kha %ok|maya prad|+

People in the mode of passion like foods that are very bitter, sour, salty, hot, pungent, dry, and burning, and cause pain, grief, and disease. (17.09)


y==t=y==m=] g=t=rs=]p=Uit= p=y=*ui{=t=] c= y=t=<

WÚc%{!m=< aip= c==m=eQy=]B==ej=n=] t==m=s=ip=>y=m=< ++‚Ó++

y|tay|ma= gatarasa=p~ti paryu^ita= ca yat

ucchi^!am api c|ímedhya=bhojana= t|masapriyam


People in the mode of ignorance like foods that are stale, tasteless, putrid, rotten, refuses, and impure (such as meat and alcohol). (17.10)

††††††††††† Purity of mind comes from purity of food. Truth is revealed to a pure mind. One becomes free from all bondage after knowing the Truth (ChU 7.26.02). Gambling, intoxication, illicit sex≠ual relationships, and meat-eating are a natural, negative tendency of human beings, but abstaining from these four activities is really divine. One must avoid these four pillars of sin (BP 1.17.38). Abstaining from meat-eating is equivalent to performing one hundred holy sacrifices (MS 5.53-56).


af:D==k:=V<iZ=iB=r< y=N=eiv=ÚQ=d&{!=e y= wjy=t=e +

y={!vy=m=< Av=eit= m=n=/s=m==Q==y= s= s==iTv=k:/ ++‚‚++




aphal|k|]k^ibhir yaj@ovidhid&^!o ya ijyate

ya^!avyam eveíti mana+sam|dh|ya sa s|ttvika+

Sacrifice, enjoined by the scriptures and performed without the desire for the fruit, with a firm belief and conviction that it is a duty, is in the mode of goodness. (17.11)


aiB=s=nQ==y= t=u f:D=]dmB==q=*m=< aip= c=Ev= y=t=< +

wjy=t=e B=rt=Xe{@t=] y=N] iv=i3 r=j=s=m=< ++‚š++

abhisandh|ya tu phala=dambh|rtham api caiíva yat

ijyate bharata%re^!hata= yaj@a= viddhi r|jasam


Sacrifice that is performed only for show and aiming for fruit, is in the mode of passion, O Arjuna. (17.12)


iv=iQ=hIn=m=< as=&{!=nn=]]m=nF=hIn=m=< adiZ=[=m=< +

X3=iv=riht=] y=N]t==m=s=] p=irc=Z=t=e ++‚ŗ++

vidhih$nam as&^!|nna=mantrah$nam adak^i[am

%raddh|virahita= yaj@a=t|masa= paricak^ate


Sacrifice that is performed without following the scripture, in which no food is distributed, which is devoid of mantra, faith, and gift, is said to be in the mode of ignorance. (17.13)

††††††††††† A spiritual discipline or sacrifice is incomplete without a mantra, and a mantra is incomplete without a spiritual discipline (DB 7.35.60).


dev=i8j=g=uop=>=N-p=Uj=n=] x==Ec=m=< a=j=*v=m=< +

b=>…c=y=*m=< aih]s== c=x==rIr] t=p= Wcy=t=e ++‚Ś++

deva dvija guru pr|j@a-p~jana= %aucam |rjavam

brahmacaryam ahi=s| ca%|r$ra= tapa ucyate

The worship of celestial controllers, offering reverence to good people, the guru, and the wise; purity, honesty, celibacy, and nonviolence -- these are said to be the austerity of deed. (17.14)


an=u8eg=k:r] v==ky=]s=ty=] ip=>y=iht=] c= y=t=< +

sv==Qy==y==By=s=n=] c=Ev=v==V<m=y=] t=p= Wcy=t=e ++‚Á++

anudvegakara= v|kya=satya= priyahita= ca yat

sv|dhy|y|íbhyasana= caiívav|]maya= tapa ucyate


Speech that is non-offensive, truthful, pleasant, beneficial, and is used for the regular reading aloud of scriptures is called the austerity of word. (17.15)

††††††††††† The path of truth is the path of spiritual progress. The Upanishad says: Only the truthful wins, not the untruthful. Truth is the divine path by which the sages, who are free from desires, ascend to the Supreme Abode (MuU 3.01.06). To be truthful is desirable. To speak what is beneficial is better than speaking truth. That which brings the greatest benefit to a person is the real truth (MB 12.329.13). The real truth is that which produces the maximum benefit to people. That which harms a person in any way is untrue and wrong ó although it may appear to be true at the first sight (MB 3.209.04). One may lie to protect the truth, but must not speak the truth for the protection of a lie.

††††††††††† A wise person should speak the truth if it is benefi≠cial and keep quiet if it is harmful. One must speak the beneficial truth whether it is pleasant or unpleasant. Non-beneficial pleasant speech, such as flattery, should be avoided (VP 3.12.44). A pleasant speech is beneficial to all. One who speaks pleasantly wins the heart of all and is liked by everybody (MB 12.84.04). The wound inflicted by harsh words is very difficult to heal. The wise should never inflict such wounds on others (MB 5.34.80). Sweetness of speech and calmness of mind are the marks of a true yogi (Swami Atmananda Giri). One may lie ó if it becomes absolutely necessary ó to protect life, property, and righteousness (Dharma); during courtship; and for getting married (MB 12.109.19). Husband and wife should try to improve and help develop each other with tender loving care as a cow purifies her calf by licking. Their words to each other should be sweet, as if dipped in honey (AV 3.30.01-02).

††††††††††† Truth is the root of all noble virtues. One should present the bitter pill of truth with a sugar coating of pleasantness. Be truthful in a pleasant manner, but do not deviate from truth for the sake of pleasantness. Use candor with courtesy and avoid flattery. Speech should always be beneficial, truthful, and sweet. According to the Bible: It is not what goes into a personís mouth that makes one un≠clean; rather, what comes out of it (Matthew 15.11). Speech is the verbal reflection of one's personality, thinking, and mind; therefore, we should prefer silence to almost anything negative. Abstinence from harmful speech is very important.


m=n=/p=>s==d/ s==Emy=tv=]m==En=m=< a=tm=iv=in=g=>h/ +

B==v=s=]x=ui3r< wty=< At=t=<t=p==e m==n=s=m=< Wcy=t=e ++‚Í++

mana+pras|da+ saumyatva=maunam |tmavinigraha+

bh|vasa=%uddhir ity etattapo m|nasam ucyate

The austerity of thought includes serenity of mind, gentleness, equanimity, self-control, and the purity of thought. (17.16)


X3y== p=ry== t=pt=]t=p=s=< t=t=< iF=iv=Q=] n=rE/ +

af:D==k:=V<iZ=iB=r< y=ukt=E/s==iTv=k:} p=irc=Z=t=e ++‚Ž++

%raddhay| paray| tapta=tapas tat trividha= narai+

aphal|k|]k^ibhir yuktai+s|ttvika= paricak^ate

The above mentioned threefold austerity (of thought, word, and deed) practiced by yogis with supreme faith, without a desire for the fruit, is said to be in the mode of goodness. (17.17)

††††††††††† Nonviolence, truthfulness, forgiveness, kindness, and con≠trol of mind and senses are considered austerity by the wise (MB 12.79.18). There cannot be purity of word and deed without pu≠rity of thought.


s=tk:=rm==n=p=Uj==q=*]t=p==e dmB=en= c=Ev= y=t=< +

ik>:y=t=e t=d< wh p=>=ekt=]r=j=s=] c=D=m=< aQ=>uv=m=< ++‚Ť++

satk|ra m|na p~j|rtha=tapo dambhena caiíva yat

kriyate tad iha prokta=r|jasa= calam adhruvam


Austerity that is performed for gaining respect, honor, reverence, and for the sake of show, yielding an uncertain and temporary result, is said to be in the mode of passion. (17.18)


m=U$g=>=he[==tm=n==e y=t=<p=I#y== ik>:y=t=e t=p=/ +

p=rsy==ets==dn==q=*] v==t=t=< t==m=s=m=<< Wd=Ňt=m=< ++‚Ô++

m~#hagr|he[|ítmano yatp$#ay| kriyate tapa+

parasyoíts|dan|rtha= v|tat t|masam ud|h&tam


Austerity performed with foolish stubbornness or with self-tor≠ture or for harming others, is said to be in the mode of ignorance. (17.19)


d=t=vy=m=< wit= y=d< d=n=]dIy=t=eCn=up=k:=ir[=e +

dex=e k:=D=e c= p==F=e c=t=d< d=n=] s==iTv=k]: sm=&t=m=< ++šÓ++

d|tavyam iti yad d|na=d$yateínupak|ri[e

de%e k|le ca p|tre catad d|na= s|ttvika= sm&tam


Charity given as a matter of duty, when and where help is needed, to a deserving person or organization who does nothing in return; is considered to be in the mode of goodness. (17.20)

††††††††††† Charity in the mode of goodness is the best purifying, beneficial, and righteous act. It equally benefits both the giver and the receiver (MB 13.120.16). If you give a charity or gift, watch yourself closely for ulterior motives; don't look for anything in return. One never does anything for others, but for oneís own benefit. Even charitable works done for others are really done for oneís own good (MB 12.292.01). It is the giver, not the receiver, who is blessed. Yogiraj Mumtaz Ali says: When you serve a less fortunate person in any way ó material or spiritual ó you are not doing him or her a fa≠vor. In fact, one who receives your help does you a favor by accepting what you give, thereby helping you to evolve and move closer to the divine, blissful being, who in reality is within all.

††††††††††† Charity taken unnecessarily -- compelled by greed for name or fame -- does great harm to the recipient. Improper charity harms both the giver and the taker (MS 4.186). Give anything you can ó love, knowledge, help, service, prayer, food, but look for no return. Love -- the cheapest charity -- holds the key to enter His Kingdom. Charity is not only the best, but also the only use of wealth. However, all genuine requests for charity should be handled with delicate care and diplomacy because charity denied may create a negative feeling that is harmful.

††††††††††† Charity has no value if the money is earned by wrongful means (MB 5.39.66). To obtain wealth for meritorious or charitable deeds using wrong means is like soiling oneís dress and then washing it. Not to soil the dress in the first place is better than washing the dress after soiling (MB 3.02.49). You cannot accomplish a worthy end with unworthy means. Ends and means are absolutely inseparable (Stephen Covey). It is not possible to help everybody by giving material goods and money. To pray for the physi≠cal and spiritual welfare of others in trouble or need ó including ones not on your favorite list ó is called mental charity.


y=t=< t=u p=>ty=up=k:=r=q=*]f:D=m=< Wid<dxy= v== p=un=/+

dIy=t=e c= p=irŻkD={!]t=d< d=n=] r=j=s=] sm=&t=m=< ++š‚++

yat tu pratyupak|r|rtha=phalam uddi%ya v| puna+

d$yate ca parikli^!a=tad d|na= r|jasa= sm&tam


Charity that is given unwillingly or to get something in return or looking for some fruit, is said to be in the mode of passion. (17.21)

††††††††††† Jesus said: When you give something to a needy per≠son, do not make a big show of it, but when you help a needy person, do it in such a way that even your closest friend will not know about it (Matthew 6.02-03). Charity given anonymously is the best charity. To give charity to an unworthy person or cause and not to give to a worthy person, are both wrong and worse than giving no charity. Charity that is obtained without asking for it, is the best; charity that is obtained upon asking is the second best; and charity given unwillingly should be avoided.


adex=k:=D=e y=d< d=n=m=<ap==F=eBy=xc= dIy=t=e +

as=tk&:t=m=< av=N=t=]t=t=< t==m=s=m=< Wd=Ňt=m=< ++šš++††

ade%ak|le yad d|namap|trebhya% ca d$yate

asatk&tam avaj@|ta=tat t|masam ud|h&tam


Charity that is given at a wrong place and time to unworthy persons or without paying respect to the receiver or with ridicule, is said to be in the mode of ignorance. (17.22)

††††††††††† Be considerate and compassionate to those less fortunate than you. Charity should be given without humiliating the receiver. Charity given by humiliating the receiver destroys the giver (VR 1.13.33). One should always remember that God is both the giver and the receiver.

††††††††††† It should be noted from verse 18.40 that there will be three types of ego, attachment and all other human imperfections also.




Ų t=t=< s=d< wit= in=de**x==eb=>…[=s=< iF=iv=Q=/ sm=&t=/ +

b=>=…[==s=< t=en= v=ed=xc=y=N=xc= iv=iht==/ p=ur= ++šŗ++

au= tat sad iti nirde%obrahma[as trividha+ sm&ta+

br|hma[|s tena ved|%cayaj@|%ca vihit|+ pur|

ďAUM (or OM) TAT SATĒ is the threefold name of Brahma. The Br|hmans, the Vedas, and the sacrifices were created by Brahma in the ancient times. (17.23)

t=sm==d< a=em=< wty=< Wd=Ňty=y=Nd=n=t=p=/ik>:y==/ +

p=>v=t=*nt=e iv=Q==n==ekt==/s=t=t=] b=>…v==idn==m=< ++šŚ++

tasm|d om ity ud|h&tyayaj@a d|na tapa+ kriy|+

pravartante vidh|nokt|+satata= brahmav|din|m


Therefore, acts of sacrifice, charity, and austerity prescribed in the scriptures are always commenced by uttering any one of the many names of God (such as AUM, Amen, or Allah)by the knowers of the Supreme. (17.24)

t=d< wty=< an=iB=s=]Q==y=f:D=] y=Nt=p=/ik>:y==/ +

d=n=ik>:y==xc= iv=iv=Q==/ik>:y=nt=e m==eZ=k:=V<iZ=ÚB=/ ++šÁ++

tad ity anabhisa=dh|yaphala= yaj@a tapa+ kriy|+

d|na kriy|% ca vividh|+kriyante mok^ak|]k^ibhi+


The seekers of salvation perform various types of sacrifice, charity, and austerity by uttering: He is all or ĎTATí without seeking a reward. (17.25)


s=4=v=e s==Q=uB==v=e c=s=d< wty=< At=t=<p=>y=ujy=t=e +

p=>x=st=e k:m=*i[= t=q==s=c%bd/ p==q=* y=ujy=t=e ++šÍ++

sadbh|ve s|dhubh|ve casad ity etat prayujyate

pra%aste karma[i tath|sacchabda+ p|rtha yujyate

The word 'SAT or Truth' is used in the sense of Reality and goodness. The word ĎSATí is also used for an auspicious act, O Arjuna. (17.26)


y=Ne t=p=Ús= d=n=e c=Úsq=it=/ s=d< wit= c==ecy=t=e +

k:m=* c=Ev= t=dq=I*y=]s=d< wty=< Av==iB=Q=Iy=t=e ++šŽ++

yaj@e tapasi d|ne casthiti+ sad iti coícyate

karma caiíva tadarth$ya=sad ity ev|íbhidh$yate


Faith in sacrifice, charity, and austerity is also called Truth. Selfless service for the sake of the Supreme is verilytermed as ĎSATí. (17.27)


aX3y== hut=] dT=]t=p=s=< t=pt=] k&:t=] c= y=t=< +

as=d< wty=< Wcy=t=e p==q=*n= c= t=t=< p=>ety= n==e wh ++šŤ++

a%raddhay| huta= datta=tapas tapta= k&ta= ca yat

asad ity ucyate p|rthana ca tat pretya no iha


Whatever is done without faith -- whether it is sacrifice, charity, auster≠ity, or any other act -- is useless. It has no value here or hereafter, O Arjuna. (17.28)

aq= a{!=dx==eCQy==y=/






aj=u*n= Wv==c=

s=]ny==s=sy= m=h=b==h=et=Tv=m=< wc%=im= v=eidt=um=<< +

ty==g=sy= c= Ň{=Ike:x=p=&q=k<: ke:ix=in={=Udn= ++‚++

arjuna uv|ca

sa=ny|sasya mah|b|hotattvam icch|mi veditum

ty|gasya ca h&^$ke%ap&thak ke%ini^~dana

Arjuna said: I wish to know the nature of renunciation (Samnyāsa) and sacrifice (Ty|ga), and the difference between the two, O Lord Krishna. (18.01)




k:=my==n==] k:m=*[==] ny==s=]s=]ny==s=] k:v=y==e iv=du/ +

s=v=*k:m=*f:D=ty==g=]p=>=hus=< ty==g=] iv=c=Z=[==/ ++š++

%r$ bhagav|n uv|ca

k|my|n|= karma[|= ny|sa=sa=ny|sa= kavayo vidu+

sarva karma phala ty|ga=pr|hus ty|ga= vicak^a[|+

Lord Krishna said: The sages define renunciation (Sa=ny|sa) as abstaining from all desire-prompted work. The wise define sacrifice or relinquishment (Ty|ga) as abandoning all attachment to the fruits of work. (See also 5.01, 5.05 and 6.01 ) (18.02)

††††††††††† We have used the word 'renunciation' for Samnyāsa, and 'sacrifice' for Ty|ga in this rendering. A renunciant (Samny|si) does not own anything. A true renunciant works for others and lives for -- not on -- others. Samny|sa means complete renunciation of doership, ownership, and personal selfish motive behind an action, whereas Ty|ga means renunciation of attachment to the fruits of all work, or working just for God. A person who does sacrificial service (Seva) to God is called Ty|gi or a KarmaYogi. Thus a Ty|gi who thinks that he or she is doing all works just to please God will always remember Him. Therefore, it is mentioned in verse 12.12 that Ty|ga is the best spiritual practice. The words ĎSamny|saí and ĎTy|gaí are used interchangeably in the Gita because there is very little difference between the two (See verses 5.04, 5.05, 6.01, and 6.02). According to the Gita, Samny|sa does not mean living in the forest or any other secluded place outside society. Samny|sa is a state of mind that is completely detached from the outcome or the fruits of work.

††††††††††† Lord Krishna has mentioned renunciation of attachment to the fruits of work as well as renouncing the fruits of work at various places in the Gita. It is not possible to renounce work (Gita 3.05). Renouncing the fruits of work is like telling a farmer to give up his crop. Thus Gita teaches us not to have any personal or selfish relationship to the fruits in the form of attachment. Everybody desires peace of mind, but this is only possible for one who works for God without being attached to results and dedicates the results of all work to the Source.

ty==jy=] d=e{=v=d< wty=< Ake:k:m=* p=>=hur< m=n=Ii{=[=/ +

y=Nd=n=t=p=/k:m=*n= ty==jy=m=< wit= c==p=re ++ŗ++

ty|jya= do^avad ity ekekarma pr|hur man$^i[a+

yaj@a d|na tapa+ karmana ty|jyam iti c|ípare

Some philosophers say that all work is full of faults and should be given up, while others say that acts of sacrifice, charity, and austerity should not be abandoned. (18.03)

in=xc=y=] x=&[=u m=e t=F=ty==g=e B=rt=s=T=m= +

ty==g==e ih p=uo{=vy==G=>iF=iv=Q=/ s=]p=>k:Iit=*t=/ ++Ś++


ni%caya= %&[u me tatraty|ge bharata sattama

ty|go hi puru^a vy|ghratrividha+ sa=prak$rtita+

O Arjuna, listen to My conclusion about sacrifice. Sacrifice is said to be of three types. (18.04)


y=Nd=n=t=p=/k:m=*n= ty==jy=] k:=y=*m=< Av=t=t=< +

y=N=e d=n=] t=p=xc=Ev=p==v=n==in= m=n=Ii{=[==m=< ++Á++

yaj@a d|na tapa+ karmana ty|jya= k|ryam eva tat

yaj@o d|na= tapa% caiívap|van|ni man$^i[|m


Acts of service, charity, and austerity should not be abandoned, but should be performed because service, charity, and austerity purify our mind. (18.05)


At==ny=< aip= t=u k:m==*i[=s=V<g=] ty=ktv== f:D==in= c= +

k:t=*vy==n=Iit= m=e p==q=*in=ixc=t=] m=t=m=< WT=m=m=< ++Í++

et|ny api tu karm|[isa]ga= tyaktv| phal|ni ca

kartavy|n$íti me p|rthani%cita= matam uttamam


Even these obligatory works should be performed without attachment to the fruits. This is My definite supreme advice, O Arjuna. (18.06)


in=y=t=sy= t=u s=]ny==s=/ k:m=*[==e n==ep=p=6t=e +

m==eh=t=< t=sy= p=irty==g=s=<t==m=s=/ p=irk:Iit=*t=/ ++Ž++

niyatasya tu sa=ny|sa+karma[o noípapadyate

moh|t tasya parity|gast|masa+ parik$rtita+


Giving up one's duty is not proper. The aban≠donment of any obligatory work is due to delusion, and is declared to be in the mode of ignorance. (18.07)


d/uK=m=< wty=ev= y=t=< k:m=*k:=y=kD=ex=B=y==t=< ty=j=et=< +

s= k&:tv== r=j=s=] ty==g=]n=Ev= ty==g=f:D=] D=B=et=< ++Ť++

du+kham ity eva yat karmak|yakle%a bhay|t tyajet

sa k&tv| r|jasa= ty|ga=naiíva ty|gaphala= labhet


One who abandons duty merely because it is difficult or because of fear of bodily affliction, does not gain any benefit of sacrifice by performing such a sacrifice, and is in the mode of passion. (18.08)

k:=y=*m=< wty=ev= y=t=< k:m=*in=y=t=] ik>:y=t=eCj=u*n= +

s=V<g=] ty=ktv== f:D=] c=Ev=s= ty==g=/ s==iTv=k:=e m=t=/ ++Ô++

k|ryam ity eva yat karmaniyata= kriyateírjuna

sa]ga= tyaktv| phala= caiívasa ty|ga+ s|ttviko mata+


Obligatory work performed as duty, renouncing attachment to the fruit, is alone to be regarded as sacrifice in the mode of goodness, O Arjuna. (18.09)

††††††††††† Renunciation of attachment to sensual pleasures is the real sacrifice (Ty|ga). The perfection of Ty|ga comes only after a person becomes free from the clutches of attachments and aversions (MB 12.162.17). Selfish attachment to the fruit must be first given up before giving up all attachments. There is no eye better than the eye of Self-knowledge, no austerity better than truth, no pain greater than attachment, and no pleasure greater than Ty|ga (MB 12.175.35). One cannot become happy with≠out Ty|ga; one cannot become fearless without Ty|ga; and one cannot attain God without Ty|ga (MB 12.176.22). Even the bliss of trance should not be enjoyed just for the sake of enjoyment. The Gita recommends renunciation while living in the world -- not renunciation of the world as commonly misinterpreted.

††††††††††† Christ said: If you want perfection, give away everything you have, and then follow Me (Matthew 19.21). No one can serve two masters. You cannot serve both God and mammon -- the material de≠sires (Matthew 6.24, Luke 16.13). Christ did not hesitate to sacrifice his own life for the noble teachings. Lord Rama gave up His kingdom and even His wife for the establishment of righteousness (Dharma). Give up attachment and attain perfection by renunciation is the message of the Vedas and the Upanishads. Selfless service or ĎTy|gaí is the essence of the Gita as given in this last chapter. A person who is Ty|gi cannot com≠mit sin and is released from the cycles of transmigration. One can cross the ocean of transmigration and reach the shores of salvation in this very life by the boat of Ty|ga.

††††††††††† The Nine Types of Renunciation leading to salvation, based on the teachings of the Gita, are: (1) Renunciation of ac≠tions forbidden by the scriptures (16.23-24), (2) Renunciation of lust, anger, greed, fear, likes and dislikes, and jealousy (3.34, 16.21); (3) Spurning of procrasti≠nation in the search of Truth (12.09), (4) Giving up feeling pride in oneís knowledge, detachment, devotion, wealth, and charitable deeds (15.05, 16.01-04); (5) Rejection of selfish motives and attachment to the fruits of all works (2.51, 3.09, 4.20, 6.10), (6) Renunciation of the feeling of doership in all undertakings (12.13, 18.53), (7) Giving up thoughts of using the Lord to fulfill selfish, material desires (2.43, 7.16); (8) Spurning attachments to material objects, such as a house, wealth, position, and power (12.19, 13.09); and (9) Sacrifice of wealth, prestige, and even life for a noble cause and protection of righteousness (Dharma) (2.32, 4.28).

n= 8e{!Y<< aku:x=D=] k:m=*ku:x=D=e n==n=u{=jj=t=e +

ty==g=I s=Tv=s=m==iv={!=em=eQ==v=I Ú%nn=s=]x=y=/ ++‚Ó++

na dve^!y aku%ala= karmaku%ale n|ínu^ajjate

ty|g$ sattvasam|vi^!omedh|v$ chinnasa=%aya+

One who neither hates a disagreeable work, nor is attached to an agreeable work, is considered a renunciant (Ty|gi), imbued with the mode of goodness, intelligent, and free from all doubts about the Supreme Being. (18.10)


n= ih dehB=&&t== x=ky=]ty=kt=u] k:m==*[y=< ax=e{=t=/ +

y=s=< t=u k:m=*f:D=ty==g=Is= ty==g=Ity=< aiB=Q=Iy=t=e ++‚‚++

na hi dehabh&t| %akya=tyaktu= karm|[y a%e^ata+

yas tu karmaphala ty|g$sa ty|g$íty abhidh$yate

Human beings cannot completely abstain from work. Therefore, one who renounces (attachment to) the fruits of all work is considered a renunciant. (18.11)


ain={!m=< w{!] im=X] c=iF=iv=Q=] k:m=*[=/ f:D=m=< +

B=v=ty=< aty==ig=n==] p=>ety=n= t=u s=]ny==Ús=n==] kv=ic=t=< ++‚š++

ani^!am i^!a= mi%ra= catrividha= karma[a+ phalam

bhavaty aty|gin|= pretyana tu sa=ny|sin|= kvacit


The threefold fruit of works ó desirable, undesirable, and mixed -- ac≠crues after death to one who is not a renunciant (Ty|gi), but never to a Ty|gi. (18.12)


p=Jc=Et==in= m=h=b==h=ek:=r[==in= in=b==eQ= m=e +

s==]Ky=e k&:t==nt=e p=>=ekt==in=Ús=3y=e s=v=*k:m=*[==m=< ++‚ŗ++

pa@caiít|ni mah|b|hok|ra[|ni nibodha me

s|=khye k&t|nte prokt|nisiddhaye sarvakarma[|m

aiQ={@=n=] t=q== k:t==*k:r[=] c= p=&q=Úgv=Q=m=< +

iv=iv=Q==xc= p=&q=k<:c=e{!=dEv=] c=Ev==F= p=Jc=m=m=< ++‚Ś++

adhi^!h|na= tath| kart|kara[a= ca p&thagvidham

vividh|% ca p&thakce^!|daiva= caiív|ítra pa@camam


Learn from Me, O Arjuna, the five causes, as described in the Samkhya doctrine, for the accomplishment of all actions. They are: the physical body (the seat of Karma), the modes of material Nature (the doer), the eleven organs of perception and action (the instruments), various life forces, and the fifth is the presiding deities of the eleven organs. (18.13-14)


x=rIrv==V<m=n==eiB=r< y=t=<k:m=* p=>=rB=t=e n=r/ +

ny==yy=] v== iv=p=rIt=] v==p=Jc=Et=e t=sy= het=v=/ ++‚Á++

%ar$rav|]manobhir yatkarma pr|rabhate nara+

ny|yya= v| vipar$ta= v|pa@caiíte tasya hetava+


These are the five causes of whatever action, whether right or wrong, one performs by thought, word, and deed. (18.15)


t=F=Ev=] s=it= k:t==*rm=<a=tm==n=] ke:v=D=] t=u y=/ +

p=xy=ty=< ak&:t=b=ui3tv==n=<n= s= p=xy=it= dum=*it=/ ++‚Í++

tatraiíva= sati kart|ram|tm|na= kevala= tu ya+

pa%yaty ak&ta buddhitv|nna sa pa%yati durmati+


Therefore, the one who considers oneís body or the Spirit (Atma, soul) as the sole doer, does not understand, due to imperfect knowledge. (18.16)


y=sy= n==h]k&:t==e B==v==eb=ui3r< y=sy= n= iD=py=t=e +

htv==ip= s= wm=\]=D=< D==ek:=n=<n= hint= n= in=b=Qy=t=e ++‚Ž++

yasya n|íha=k&to bh|vobuddhir yasya na lipyate

hatv|ípi sa im|=l lok|nna hanti na nibadhyate


One who is completely free from the notion of doership and whose intellect is not polluted by the desire to reap the fruit -- even after slaying these people -- neither slays nor is bound by the act of killing. (18.17)

††††††††††† Those who are free from the notion of doership, free from likes and dislikes of their work, and detached from the fruits of work become free from Karmic reactions even for the act of killing.

N=n=] Ney=] p=irN=t==iF=iv=Q== k:m=*c==edn== +

k:r[=] k:m=* k:t=e*it=iF=iv=Q=/ k:m=*s=]g=>h/ ++‚Ť++

j@|na= j@eya= parij@|t|trividh| karmacodan|

kara[a= karma karteítitrividha+ karmasa=graha+

Knowledge or the subject, the object (of knowledge), and the action of seeking the knowledge are the three≠fold driving force to an action. The eleven organs, the action, and the actor or the modes of material Nature are the three mechanisms of action. (18.18)


N=n=] k:m=* c= k:t==* c=iF=Q=Ev= g=u[=B=edt=/ +

p=>=ecy=t=e g=u[=s=]Ky==n=ey=q==v=c=< %&[=u t==ny=< aip= ++‚Ô++

j@|na= karma ca kart| catridhaiíva gu[abhedata+

procyate gu[asa=khy|neyath|vac ch&[u t|ny api

Knowledge, action, and actor are said to be of three types, according to Sankhya doctrine. Hear duly about these also. (18.19)


s=v=*B=Ut=e{=u y=en=Ek:}B==v=m=< avy=y=m=< w*Z=t=e +

aiv=B=kt=] iv=B=kt=e{=ut=j=< N=n=] iv=i3 s==iTv=k:m=< ++šÓ++

sarvab~te^u yenaiíka=bh|vam avyayam $k^ate

avibhakta= vibhakte^utaj j@|na= vidhhi s|ttvikam


The knowledge by which one sees one and the sameimmutable, undivided divinity in all creatures -- such knowledge is in the mode of goodness. (See also 11.13 and 13.16 ) (18.20)


p=&q=ktv=en= t=u y=j=< N=n=]n==n==B==v==n=< p=&q=Úgv=Q==n=< +

v=eiT= s=v=*e{=u B=Ut=e{=ut=j=< N=n=] iv=i3 r=j=s=m=< ++š‚++

p&thaktvena tu yaj j@|na=n|n|bh|v|n p&thagvidh|n

vetti sarve^u bh~te^utaj j@|na= viddhi r|jasam

The knowledge by which one sees each individual as different and separate from one another -- such knowl≠edge is in the mode of passion. (18.21)


y=t=< t=u k&:tsn=v=d< Ak:Úsm=n=<k:=y=e* s=kt=m=< ahEt=uk:m=< +

at=Tv==q=*v=d< aDp=] c=t=t=< t==m=s=m=< Wd=Ňt=m=<++šš++

yat tu k&tsnavad ekasmink|rye saktam ahaitukam

atattv|rthavad alpa= catat t|masam ud|h&tam


The irrational, baseless, and worthless knowledge by which one clings to one single effect, such as the body, as if it is everything -- such knowledge is in the mode of darkness of ignorance. (18.22)


in=y=t=] s=V<g=riht=m=<ar=g=8e{=t=/ k&:t=m=< +

af:D=p=>eps=un== k:m=*y=t=< t=t=< s==ÚTv=k:m=< Wcy=t=e ++šŗ++

niyata= sa]garahitamar|gadve^ata+ k&tam

aphalaprepsun| karmayat tat s|ttvikam ucyate


Obligatory duty performed without likes and dislikes and without selfish motives and attachment to the fruit, is in the mode of goodness. (18.23)


y=t=< t=u k:=m=eps=uun== k:m=*s==h]k:=re[= v== p=un=/ +

ik>:y=t=e b=huD==y==s=]t=d< r=j=s=m=< Wd=Ňt=m=< ++šŚ++

yat tu k|mepsun| karmas|ha=k|re[a v| puna+

kriyate bahul|y|sa=tad r|jasam ud|h&tam


Action performed with ego, with selfish motives, and with too much effort, is in the mode of passion. (18.24)


an=ub=nQ=] Z=y=] ih]s==m=<an=v=eeZy= c= p==Eo{=m=< +

m==eh=d< a=rBy=t=e k:m=*y=t=< t=t=< t==m=s=m=< Wcy=t=e ++šÁ++

anubandha= k^aya= hi=s|manavek^ya ca pauru^am

moh|d |rabhyate karmayat tat t|masam ucyate


Action that is undertaken because of delusion, disregarding conse≠quences, loss, injury to others, as well as oneís own ability, is in the mode of ignorance. (18.25)


m=ukt=s=V<g==eCn=h]v==dIQ=&ty=uts==hs=m=Únv=t=/ +

Ús=3YÚs=3Y=er< in=iv=*k:=r/k:t==* s==ÚTv=k: Wcy=t=e ++šÍ++

muktasa]goínaha=v|d$dh&tyuts|ha samanvita+

siddhyasiddhyor nirvik|ra+kart| s|ttvika ucyate

The person who is free from attachment, is non-egotistic, endowed with willpower and enthusiasm, and unperturbed in success or failure is called good. (18.26)


r=g=I k:m=*f:D=p=>eps=ur<D=ubQ==e ih]s==tm=k:=eCx=uic=/ +

h{=*x==ek:=Únv=t=/ k:t==*r=j=s=/ p=irk:Iit=*t=/ ++šŽ++

r|g$ karmaphalaprepsurlubdho hi=s|tmakoí%uci+

har^a%ok|nvita+ kart|r|jasa+ parik$rtita+


The person who is impassioned, who desires the fruits of work, who is greedy, violent, impure, and affected by joy and sorrow, is called passionate. (18.27)


ay=ukt=/ p=>=k&:t=/ st=bQ=/x=@=e n=E{k&:it=k:=eCD=s=/ +

iv={==dI dIG=*s=UF=I c=k:t==* t==m=s= Wcy=t=e ++šŤ++

ayukta+ pr|k&ta+ stabdha+%a!ho nai^k&tikoílasa+

vi^|d$ d$rghas~tr$ cakart| t|masa ucyate


The person who is undisciplined, vulgar, stubborn, wicked, malicious, lazy, depressed, and procrastinating is called ignorant. (18.28)



b=u3er< B=ed] Q=&t=ex=< c=Ev=g=u[=t=s=< iF=iv=Q=] x=&[=u +

p=>=ecy=m==n=m=< ax=e{=e[=p=&q=ktv=en= Q=n=]j=y= ++šÔ++

buddher bheda= dh&te% caiívagu[atas trividha= %&[u

procyam|nam a%e^e[ap&thaktvena dhana=jaya

Now hear Me explain, fully and separately, the threefold division of intellect and resolve, based on modes of material Nature, O Arjuna. (18.29)


p=>v=&iT=] c= in=v=&iT=] c=k:=y==*k:=y=*e B=y==B=y=e +

b=nQ=]] m==eZ=] c= y== v=eiT=b=ui3/ s== p==q=* s==iTv=k:I ++ŗÓ++

prav&tti= ca niv&tti= cak|ry|k|rye bhay|bhaye

bandha= mok^a= ca y| vettibuddhi+ s| p|rtha s|ttvik$


O Arjuna, that intellect is in the mode of goodness which understands the path of work and the path of renunciation, right and wrong action, fear and fearlessness, bondage and liberation. (18.30)


y=y== Q=m=*m=< aQ=m=*] c=k:=y=*] c==k:=y=*m=< Av= c= +

ay=q==v=t=< p=>j==n==it=b=ui3/ s== p==q=* r=j=s=I ++ŗ‚++

yay| dharmam adharma= cak|rya= c|ík|ryam eva ca

ayath|vat praj|n|tibuddhi+ s| p|rtha r|jas$


That intel≠lect is in the mode of passion which cannot distinguish be≠tween righteousness (Dharma) and unrighteousness (Adharma), and right and wrong action, O Arjuna. (18.31)


aQ=m=*] Q=m=*m=< wit= y==m=ny=t=e t=m=s==v=&t== +

s=v==*q==*n=< iv=p=rIt==]xc=b=ui3/ s== p==q=* t==m=s=I++ŗš++

adharma= dharmam iti y|manyate tamas|ív&t|

sarv|rth|n vipar$t|=% cabuddhi+ s| p|rtha t|mas$

That intellect is in the mode of ignorance which accepts unrighteousness (Adharma) as righteousness (Dharma) and thinks everything to be that which it is not, O Arjuna. (18.32)



Q=&ty== y=y== Q==ry=t=em=n=/p=>=[=eÚn7y=ik>:y==/ +

y==eg=en==vy=iB=c==ir[y==Q=&it=/ s== p==q=* s==ÚTv=k:I ++ŗŗ++

dh&ty| yay| dh|rayatemana+ pr|[endriya kriy|+

yogen|ívyabhic|ri[y|dh&ti+ s| p|rtha s|ttvik$

That resolve or willpower is in the mode of goodness by which one manipulates the functions of the mind, Pr|na (Life forces, bioimpulses) and senses for God-realization only, O Arjuna. (18.33)


y=y== t=u Q=m=*k:=m==q==*n=<Q=&ty== Q==ry=t=eCj=*un= +

p=>s=V<g=en= f:D==k:=V<Z=IQ=&it=/ s== p==q=* r=j=s=I ++ŗŚ++

yay| tu dharma k|m|rth|ndh&ty| dh|rayateírjuna

prasa]gena phal|k|]k^$dh&ti+ s| p|rtha r|jas$


That resolve --by which a person hankering for the fruits of work sticks to duty, wealth, and pleasure with great attachment-- is in the mode of passion. (18.34)

††††††††††† Doing one's duty, earning wealth, material enjoyment, and attaining salvation are the four noble goals of human life for the householder in the Vedic tradition. Lord Rama said: One who is engaged only in sense gratification, abandoning duty and earning wealth, soon gets into trouble (VR 2.53.13). One who uses duty, earning wealth, and enjoying sensual pleasure in a balanced manner without any one of the three being harmed by the other two attains salvation (MB 9.60.22). A per≠son completely involved in acquiring and preserving material wealth and possessions has no time for Self-realization (MB 12.07.41). One can obtain all four noble goals by devotion to the Lord (VP 1.18.24). One should first follow Dharma by doing oneís duty righteously. Then one should earn money and make economic progress, fulfill all noble material and spiritual desires with the money earned, and progress towards salvation, the only noble goal of human birth.

††††††††††† As human beings are always afraid of death, a rich person is always afraid of the tax collector, thieves, relatives, and natural disasters (MB 3.02.39). There is great pain in accumulating, protecting, and losing wealth. The desire for wealth accumula≠tion is never satisfied; therefore, the wise consider contentment as the supreme pleasure (MB 3.02.46). People are never satisfied with wealth and material possessions (KaU 1.27). One should always remember that we are just the trustees of all wealth and possessions.


y=y== sv=pn=] B=y=] x==ek:}iv={==d] m=dm=< Av= c= +

n= iv=m=uJc=it= dum=e*Q==Q=&it=/ s== p==q=* t==m=s=I ++ŗÁ++

yay| svapna= bhaya= %oka=vi^|da= madam eva ca

na vimu@cati durmedh|dh&ti+ s| p|rtha t|mas$


That resolve is in the mode of ignorance by which a dull person does not give up sleep, fear, grief, despair, and carelessness, O Arjuna. (18.35)


s=uK=] tv=< wd=n=I] iF=iv=Q=]x=&[=u m=e B=rt={=*B= +

aBy==s==d< rm=t=e y=F=du/K==nt=] c= in=g=c%it= ++ŗÍ++


sukha= tv id|n$= trividha=^&[u me bharatar^abha

abhy|s|d ramate yatradu+kh|nta= ca nigacchati


And now hear from Me, O Arjuna, about the threefold pleasure. The pleasure that one enjoys from spiritual practice results in cessation of all sor≠rows. (18.36)

y=t=<t=d< ag=>e iv={=m=< wv=p=ir[==m=eCm=&t==ep=m=m=< +

t=t=< s=uK=] s==ÚTv=k:} p=>=ekt=m=<a=tm=b=ui3p=>s==dj=m=< ++ŗŽ++

yat tad agre vi^am ivapari[|meím&topamam

tat sukha= s|ttvika= proktam|tmabuddhi pras|dajam


The pleasure that appears as poison in the beginning, but is like nectar in the end, comes by the grace of Self-knowledge and is in the mode of goodness. (18.37)

††††††††††† One who enjoys the ocean of the nectar of devo≠tion has no use for the sensual pleasures that are like water of a pond (BP 6.12.22). The river of material joy dries up quickly after the rainy season if there is no perennial source of spiritual water. Material objects are like straws to a Self-realized person.


iv={=y=eÚn7y=s=]y==eg==d<y=t=< t=d< ag=>eCm=&t==ep=m=m=< +

p=ir[==m=e iv={=m=< wv=t=t=< s=uK=] r=j=s=] sm=&t=m=< ++ŗŤ++

vi^ayendriyasa=yog|dyat tad agreím&topamam

pari[|me vi^am ivatat sukha= r|jasa= sm&tam


Sensual pleasures that appear as nectar in the beginning, but become poi≠son in the end, are in the mode of passion. (See also 5.22 ) (18.38)

††††††††††† Two paths -- the beneficial spiritual path and the pleasant path of sensual pleasure -- are open to us. The wise choose the former while the ignorant chooses the latter (KaU 2.02). Sensual pleasures wear out the vigor of the senses and bring diseases in the end (KaU 1.26). Sensual pleasure is not the object of precious human birth. Even heavenly enjoyment is temporary and ends in sorrow. Those who are attached to sensual de≠lights are like fools who choose poison in exchange for the nectar of devo≠tion (TR 7.43.01). The ignorant ones, due to delusion, do not think that they are taking poison while drinking it. They only know after the result, and then it is too late (VR 7.15.19). It is the natural tendency of the senses to go easily toward exter≠nal sensual pleasures as water flows downstream. Regrets follow the fulfillment of all sensual and material desires.

††††††††††† Worldly pleasure is like a mirage in the desert. Thirsty persons reckon it as water until they come to drink it and find nothing. Worldly happiness is temporary and flickering, whereas happiness derived from spiritual life is permanent and continuous. Ramakrishna said: One does not feel intensely rest≠less for God until all worldly desires are satisfied. Manu is of the opinion that it may be easier to control the senses after enjoying sense pleasure and discovering its uselessness and harmfulness (MS 2.96). Desirelessness comes easily after most of our desires are fulfilled. A person may be healthy and wealthy but still unhappy without a taste of spiritual pleasure. A spiritually mature person does not miss worldly pleasures.


y=d< ag=>e c==n=ub=nQ=e c=s=uK=] m==ehn=m=< a=tm=n=/ +

in=7=D=sy=p=>m==d=etq=]t=t=< t==m=s=m=< Wd=Ňt=m=< ++ŗÔ++

yad agre c|ínubandhe casukha= mohanam |tmana+

nidr|lasya pram|dottha=tat t|masam ud|h&tam


Pleasure that befools a person in the beginning and in the end as a result of sleep, laziness, and carelessness, is in the mode of ignorance. (18.39)


n= t=d< aist= p=&iq=vy==] v==idiv= dev=e{=u v== p=un=/ +

s=Tv=]] p=>k&:it=j=Er< m=ukt=]y=d< AiB=/ sy==t=< iF=iB=r< g=u[=E/ ++ŚÓ++

na tad asti p&thivy|= v|divi deve^u v| puna+

sattva= prak&tijair mukta=yad ebhi+ sy|t tribhir gu[ai+

There is no being, either on the earth or among the celestial controllers in the heaven, who can remain free from these three modes of material Nature. (18.40)



b=>=…[=Z=iF=y=iv=x==]x=U7=[==]] c= p=r]t=p= +

k:m==*i[= p=>iv=B=kt==in=sv=B==v=p=>B=v=Er< g=u[=E/ ++Ś‚++

br|hma[a k^atriya vi%|=%~dr|[|= ca para=tapa

karm|[i pravibhakt|nisvabh|va prabhavair gu[ai+


The division of human labor into four categories is also based on the qualities inherent in peoplesí nature or their make up. (See also 4.13 ) (18.41)

††††††††††† In the ancient Vedic system, activities of human beings were categorized into four social orders, based on the three modes of material Nature. These four orders are often mistaken for the caste system of modern times in India and elsewhere that is based on birth only. These four, universal, social orders of human society, as described by Lord Krishna, relate to personsí nature, quality, and work, not their birth. Those who were dominated by the mode of goodness and were peaceful and self-controlled were called Br|hmanas. Those who were controlled by passion and preferred to engage in administration and protective services were labeled Kshatriyas. Those under the mixed modes of passion and ignorance, engaged in farming and trades, were called Vaishyas. Those mostly in the lowest mode of ignorance were called Shudras, and their nature was to serve the other three social orders.

††††††††††† The Vedas compare human society with a person whose four main limbs (head, hands, stomach and legs) represent the four broad types of work and workers in society. The Vedas also state that their words are for all mankind, for all people (YV 26.02). There are only two types (or castes) of people -- the decent and the indecent (Gita 16.06).


x=m==e dm=s=< t=p=/ x==Ec=]Z==Únt=r< a=j=*v=m=< Av= c= +

N=n=] iv=N=n=m=< a=Úst=ky=]b=>…k:m=* sv=B==v=j=m=< ++Śš++


%amo damas tapa+ %auca=k^|ntir |rjavam eva ca

j@|na= vij@|nam |stikya=brahmakarma svabh|vajam

Intellectuals who have serenity, self-control, austerity, purity, patience, hon≠esty, transcendental knowledge, transcendental experience, and belief in God are labeled as intellectuals (Br|hmanas). (18.42)

††††††††††† An intellectual is one who has the above-mentioned qualities (MB 3.180.21). Anybody may be called 'intellectual' if he or she possesses the divine gift of Self-knowledge (RV 10.125.05, AV 4.30.03). Intellectualism is an acquirement -- a quality or state of mind -- rather than a caste or creed. The illuminated ones who know the Absolute Truth and are in touch with the Supreme Being are the real Br|hmanas and are next to God. All are born equal, but can become superior or inferior by deeds only.

††††††††††† Whenever a sector of any society gives predomi≠nance to caste, creed, race, religion, color, gender, or place of birth over the ability of an individual, the seeds of that societyís downfall and inefficiency are planted and begin to grow. The devil of discrimina≠tion knows no national boundaries. It is unfortunately practiced by ig≠norant persons all over the world in one form or another. It is a hu≠man temptation and a manifestation of a superiority complex. The wise should try to overcome all types and shades of bias. All are the chil≠dren of God, equal in His eyes, and should be treated as such. A per≠son, for the progress of society, must be judged by his or her abil≠ity -- not by any other standard.

x==Ey=*] t=ej==e Q=&it=r< d=Zy=]y=u3ee c==py=< ap=D==y=n=m=< +

d=n=m=< w*xv=rB==v=xc=Z==F=] k:m=* sv=B==v=j=m=< ++Śŗ++

%aurya= tejo dh&tir d|k^ya=yuddhe c|ípy apal|yanam

d|nam $%varabh|va% cak^|tra= karma svabh|vajam

Those having the qualities of heroism, vigor, firmness, dexterity, steadfastness in battle, charity, and administrative skills are called leaders or protectors (Kshatriyas). (18.43)

††††††††††† The ideal protector possesses uncom≠promising, unrelenting opposition to evil-doers in society. The duty (Dharma) of a protector is to fight all unrighteousness (Adharma) and injustice in society.


k&:i{=g==ErZy=v==i[=jy=]v=Exy=k:m=* sv=B==v=j=m=< +

p=irc=y==*tm=k]: k:m=*x=U7sy==ip= sv=B==v=j=m=< ++ŚŚ++

k&^i gaurak^ya v|[ijya=vai%yakarma svabh|vajam

paricary|tmaka= karma%~drasy|ípi svabh|vajam

Those who are good at cultivation, cattle rearing,and business (including trade, finance, and industry) are known as business men (Vaishyas). Those who are very good in service and labor are classed as workers (Shudras). (18.44)

††††††††††† A Shudra is a person who is ignorant of spiritual knowledge and identifies with the material body due to ignorance. According to Lord Krishna, these four designations or types are not determined by birth. A Shudra-type person may be born in any family. The results of one's previous activities or Karma return as one's nature and habits. People are either born with certain qualities or develop them through training and effort. One cannot be categorized improperly by virtue of birth or position only.



sv=e sv=e k:m=*[y=< aiB=rt=/s=]Ús=i3] D=B=t=e n=r/ +

sv=k:m=*in=rt=/ Ús=i3]y=q== iv=ndit= t=c=< %&[=u ++ŚÁ++

sve sve karma[ya abhirata+sa=siddhi= labhate nara+

svakarmanirata+ siddhi=yath| vindati tac ch&[u


One can attain the highest perfection by devotion to oneís natural work. Listen to Me how one attains perfection while engaged in oneís natural work. (18.45)


y=t=/ p=>v=&iT=r< B=Ut==n==]y=en= s=v=*m=< wd] t=t=m=< +

sv=k:m=*[== t=m=< aBy=cy=*Ús=i3] iv=ndit= m==n=v=/ ++ŚÍ++

yata+ prav&ttir bh~t|n|=yena sarvam ida= tatam

svakarma[| tam abhyarcyasiddhi= vindati m|nava+


One attains perfection by worshipping the Supreme Being -- from whom all beings originate and by whom all this universe is pervaded -- through performance of oneís natural duty dedicated to God. (See also 9.27 and 12.10 ) (18.46)


Xey==n=< sv=Q=m==e* iv=g=u[=/p=rQ=m==*t=< sv=n=ui{@t==t=< +

sv=B==v=in=y=t=] k:m=*ku:v=*n=< n==pn==eit= ik:iDb={=m=< ++ŚŽ++

%rey|n svadharmo vigu[a+paradharm|t svanu^!hit|t

svabh|vaniyata= karmakurvan n|ípnoti kilbi^am


Oneís inferior natural work is better than superior unnatural work, even though (it can be) well done. One who does the work ordained by oneís in≠herent nature without selfish motive and attachment incurs no sin (or Karmic reac≠tion). (See also 3.35, 5.10, 18.07, 18.09, 18.17 and 18.23 ) (18.47)

††††††††††† Obligatory or natural work that is not forbidden by the scriptures, and is done without attachment to the fruits and without the notion of doership, is sinless.

s=hj=] k:m=* k:=Ent=ey=s=d=e{=m=< aip= n= ty=j=et=< +

s=v==*rmB== ih d=e{=e[=Q=Um=en==Úgn=r< wv==v=&t==/ ++ŚŤ++

sahaja= karma kaunteyasado^am api na tyajet

sarv|rambh| hi do^e[adh~men|ígnir iv|ív&t|+

Oneís natural work, even though defective, should not be abandoned because all undertakings are enveloped by defects as fire is covered by smoke, O Arjuna. (18.48)

††††††††††† Nothing in this world has only good or only bad qualities. There is no perfect undertaking. All ventures have both good and bad aspects (MB 12.15.50). It is not what you do -- but how you do it -- that is important. Work becomes worship when done with an attitude of adoration of the Lord.


as=kt=b=ui3/ s=v=*F=Új=t==tm== iv=g=t=sp=&h/ +

n=E{k:my=*Ús=i3] p=rm==]s=]ny==s=en==iQ=g=c%it= ++ŚÔ++

asaktabuddhi+ sarvatrajit|tm| vigatasp&ha+

nai^karmyasiddhi= param|=sa=ny|sen|ídhigacchati

The person whose mind is always free from attachment, who has sub≠dued the mind and senses, and who is free from desires, attains the su≠preme perfection of freedom from the bondage of Karma by re≠nouncing attachment to the fruits of work. (18.49)


Ús=i3] p=>=pt==e y=q== b=>…t=q==pn==eit= in=b==eQ= m=e +

s=m==s=en=Ev= k:=Ent=ey=in={@= N=n=sy= y== p=r= ++ÁÓ++

siddhi= pr|pto yath| brahmatath|ípnoti nibodha me

sam|senaiíva kaunteyani^!h| j@|nasya y| par|


Learn from Me briefly, O Arjuna, how one who has attained such per≠fection, or the freedom from the bondage of Karma, attains Supreme Being, the goal of transcendental knowledge. (18.50)


b=u3Y= iv=x=u3y== y=ukt==eQ=&ty==tm==n=] in=y=my= c= +

x=bd=dIn=< iv={=y==]s=< ty=ktv==r=g=8e{==E vy=udsy= c= ++Á‚++

buddhy| vi%uddhay| yuktodh&ty|ítm|na= niyamya ca

%abd|d$n vi^ay|=s tyaktv|r|gadve^au vyudasya ca

iv=iv=kt=s=ev=I D=Gv==x=Iy=t=v==kk:=y=m==n=s=/ +

Qy==n=y==eg=p=r=e in=ty=]v=Er=gy=] s=m=up==iXt=/ ++Áš++

viviktasev$ laghv|%$yatav|kk|yam|nasa+

dhy|nayogaparo nitya=vair|gya= samup|%rita+

ah]k:=r] b=D=] dp=*]k:=m=] k>:=eQ=] p=irg=>hm=< +

iv=m=ucy= in=m=*m=/ x==nt==eb=>…B=Uy==y= k:Dp=t=e ++Áŗ++

aha=k|ra= bala= darpa=k|ma= krodha= parigraham

vimucya nirmama+ %|ntobrahmabh~y|ya kalpate


Endowed with purified intellect; subduing the mind with firm resolve; turning away from sound and other objects of the senses; giving up likes and dislikes; living in solitude; eating lightly; controlling the mind, speech, and organs of action; ever absorbed in yoga of meditation; taking refuge in de≠tachment; and relinquishing egotism, violence, pride, lust, anger, and proprietorship -- one becomes peaceful, free from the notion of ĎI, me, and myí, and fit for attaining oneness with the Supreme Being. (18.51-53)

††††††††††† When the torch of meditation fuses Selfless service, Self-knowledge, and devotional love during the thoughtless state of trance, the rays of enlightenment radiate, divine communion is perfected, the fog of ignorance disappears, and all material and sensual desires evaporate from the mind.


b=>…B=Ut=/ p=>s=nn==tm==n= x==ec=it= n= k:=V<Z=it= +

s=m=/ s=v=e*{=u B=Ut=e{=um=4Żkt=] D=B=t=e p=r=m=< ++ÁŚ++

brahmabh~ta+ prasann|tm|na %ocati na k|]k^ati

sama+ sarve^u bh~te^umadbhakti= labhate par|m


Absorbed in the Supreme Being, the serene one neither grieves nor desires. Be≠coming impartial to all beings, one obtains the highest devotional love for God. (18.54)


B=kty== m==m=< aiB=j==n==it=y==v==n=< y=x=< c==Úsm= t=Tv=t=/ +

t=t==e m==m=< t=Tv=t==e N=tv==iv=x=t=e t=dn=nt=rm=< ++ÁÁ++

bhakty| m|m abhij|n|tiy|v|n ya% c|ísmi tattvata+

tato m|m tattvato j@|tv|vi%ate tadanantaram

By devotion one truly understands what and who I am in essence. Having known Me in essence, one immediately merges with Me. (18.55)

††††††††††† There is no doubt God can be known only through faith and unswerving devotion (BP 11.14.21). There are numerous spiritual practices -- not just one -- prescribed in the scriptures to get that faith and unswerving devotion. Knowledge and devotion are one and the same like a tree and its seed. The entire process of spirituality gets started by the spark of grace that comes only as faith, and not by any other method. The Law of Grace is beyond human comprehension.

††††††††††† Delusion of Maya prevents people from knowing and seeing God. As one cannot see the ever-existing salt in ocean water with the eye, but can taste it by the tongue, similarly, the Self can be realized only by faith and devotion, not by logic and reasoning. God may be realized not only by meditation and Self-knowledge, but also through ecstatic personal love and intense devotion to oneís personal deity.

††††††††††† Only they know You to whom You make Yourself known; the moment one knows You, one becomes one with You (TR 2.126.02). The knower of the Spirit becomes like Spirit (BrU 1.04.10, MuU 3.02.09). The Kingdom of God is within you (Luke 17.21). No one can enter the Kingdom of God unless one is born again (by realiz≠ing that one is not this body, but Spirit behind the body) (John 3.03). Whoever does not receive the Kingdom of God like a child, will never go there (Mark 10.15). The Father and I are one (John 10.30). To truly understand God is to love Him andbecome one with Him. Liberation or Mukti is a state of mind when one does not need anything and does not want to know anything.

s=v=*k:m==*[y=< aip= s=d=ku:v==*[==e m=d<vy=p==Xy=/ +

m=tp=>s==d=d< av==pn==eit=x==xv=t=] p=dm=< avy=y=m=< ++ÁÍ++

sarvakarm|[y api sad|kurv|[o madvyap|%raya+

matpras|d|d av|pnoti%|%vata= padam avyayam

An enlightened devotee attains the eternal immutable abode by My grace -- even while doing all duties -- just by taking refuge in Me (by dedicat≠ing all action to Me with loving devotion). (18.56)

c=et=s== s=v=*k:m==*i[=m=iy= s=]ny=sy= m=tp=r/ +

b=ui3y==eg=m=< Wp==iXty=m=icc=T=/ s=t=t=] B=v= ++ÁŽ++

cetas| sarvakarm|[imayi sa=nyasya matpara+

buddhiyogam up|%rityamaccitta+ satata= bhava


Mentally offer all actions with love to Me and set Me as the highest goal. Always reflect on Me by keeping the mind ever absorbed in My thoughts. (See also 2.49 and 10.10 ) (18.57)

††††††††††† Everything we use or eat should be first offered to the Lord, the giver of all things, before we put it to our own use. This includes -- but is not limited to -- food, a new dress, a new car, a new house, a new baby and all our work. Offering everything to the Lord is the highest form of worship that one has to learn and practice every day.

††††††††††† The word ďBuddhiYogaĒ has been mentioned in six Sanskrit verses: 2.39, 2.49-51, 10.10, and 18.57. The meaning of any word depends on the context. The prime meaning of this word is the firm understanding -- by reflection, contemplation and maturity of intellect (Buddhi) -- that all activities going on all over the universe are actually the work of the powers of the Lord. This includes our efforts, non-effort, Sādhanā, ego, as well as the annihilation of ego. Lord does not need our help to improve the society! Philanthropic work could also bind us with attachment if we are not alert. All one needs to do is to remember Him and do oneís allotted duty honestly and selflessly. (See verses 3.27, 8.07). BuddhiYoga holds the key to the last gate of nirvana. Our only prayer to Lord should be for reunion with Him, and not for the welfare of the world, society or even for our own welfare.

m=icc=T=/ s=v=*dug==*i[=m=tp=>s==d=t=< t=ir{y=Ús= +

aq= c=et=< tv=m=< ah]k:=r=n=<n= X=e{y=Ús= iv=n=V<Zy=Ús= ++ÁŤ++

maccitta+ sarvadurg|[imatpras|d|t tari^yasi

atha cet tvam aha=k|r|nna %ro^yasi vina]k^yasi

You shall overcome all diffi≠culties by My grace when your mind becomes fixed on Me. But if you do not listen to Me due to ego, you shall not attain Moksha or Nirvana. (18.58)


y=d< ah]k:=rm=< a=iXty=n= y==etsy= wit= m=ny=s=e +

im=qy=E{= vy=v=s==y=s=< t=ep=>k&:it=s=< tv==] in=y==eZy=it= ++ÁÔ++

yad aha=k|ram |%rityana yotsya iti manyase

mithyaií^a vyavas|yas teprak&tis tv|= niyok^yati


If due to ego you think: I shall not fight, your resolve is vain because your own nature will compel you to fight. (18.59)

sv=B==v=j=en= k:=Ent=ey=in=b=3/ sv=en= k:m=*[== +

k:t=*u] n=ec%Ús= y=n=< m==eh=t=<k:ir{y=sy=< av=x==eCip= t=t=< ++ÍÓ++

svabh|vajena kaunteyanibaddha+ svena karma[|

kartu= neícchasi yan moh|tkari^yasy ava%oípi tat

O Arjuna, you are bound by your own nature-born Karmic impressions. Therefore, you shall do -- even against your will -- what you do not wish to do out of delusion. (18.60)

††††††††††† The mind often knows right and wrong, but it runs after evil -- reluctantly -- by the force of Karmic footprints (Samsk|ra). The wise should always keep this in mind before finding fault with others.



††††††††††† To satisfy the free will of the ignorant, overwhelmed by the three modes of material Nature, the good Lord creates an environment conducive for engaging in unwanted actions. Our free will is like the very limited freedom of a dog on a leash. As a facilitator, God reciprocates with everyone according to their desires and allows them to fulfill desires generated by free will. Lord uses His illusory kinetic energy called Maya to engage the living entities in good and bad acts according to their desires and their previously accumulated good and bad Karma.


w*xv=r/ s=v=*B=Ut==n==]Ňd<deex=eCj=u*n= it={@it= +

B=>=m=y=n=< s=v=*B=Ut==in=y=nF==O$=in= m==y=y== ++Í‚++

$%vara+ sarvabh~t|n|=h&dde%eírjuna ti^!hati

bhr|mayan sarvabh~t|niyantr|r~#h|ni m|yay|

The Supreme Lord abides in the causal heart of all beings, O Arjuna, causing all beings to act (or work out their Karma) by His power of Māyā as if they are (puppets of Karma) mounted on a machine. (18.61)

††††††††††† The Supreme Controller (Ishvara) is the reflection of the Supreme Spirit in the body. The Supreme Lord organizes, controls, supervises, and directs everything in the universe. Jiva is like a puppet of Karma mounted on a body which is the vehicle of transmigration. The word revolve (or evolve) refers to working out oneís Karma. Thus we become the puppet of our own Karma created by our free will.

††††††††††† The Lord has made Karmic laws as the controller of all living beings. Therefore, one must learn to gladly endure all that fate imposes by taking refuge in Him and following the commandments (TR 2.218.02). Vedas declare that the Lord, using Karma, makes us dance as a juggler would make his mon≠key dance (TR 4.6.12). Without the laws of Karma, the scriptural in≠junctions, prohibitions, as well as self-effort, would have no value at all. Karma is the eternal justice and the eternal law. As a result of the working of eternal justice, there can be no escape from the con≠sequences of our deeds. We become the product of our own past think≠ing and action. Therefore, we must think and act wisely at the present moment, using the scriptures as a guide.

††††††††††† The doctrine of Karma and reincarnation is also found in the following two verses of the Koran: Allah is He who cre≠ated you and then sustained you, then causes you to die, then gives life to you again (Surah 30.40). He may reward those who believe and do good works. No one is able to escape His law of consequences (Surah 30.45). People cannot escape from the consequences of their deeds, for as we sow, so we reap. Cause and effect cannot be separated because the effect exists in the cause as the fruit exists in the seed. Good and evil deeds follow us continually like our shad≠ows.

††††††††††† The Bible also says: Whosoever shedeth manís blood, by man shall his blood be shed (Genesis 9.06). It is believed that all references to Karma and reincarnation were taken out of the Bible during the second century with the noble aim of encouraging people to strive hard for perfection during this very life. Those who believe in reincarnation must avoid laziness and procrastination, stress intense spiritual discipline, and try their best to get Self-realization in this very life as if there were no reincarnation. Live as though this is your last day on this earth. One cannot achieve anything through laziness and procras≠tination.

††††††††††† One cannot take wealth, fame, and power from here to hereafter; but one can convert these into good or bad Karma and carry it to the next life. Even death cannot touch oneís Karma. Those who have acted very piously in the past life achieve fame in this life without much endeavor.


t=m=< Av= x=r[=] g=c%s=v=*B==v=en= B==rt= +

t=tp=>s==d=t=< p=r=] x==Únt=]sq==n=] p=>=psy=Ús= x==xv=t=m=< ++Íš++

tam eva %ara[a= gacchasarva bh|vena bh|rata

tatpras|d|t par|= %|nti=sth|na= pr|psyasi %|%vatam

Seek refuge in the Supreme Lord alone, with loving devotion, O Arjuna. By His grace you shall attain supreme peace and the Eternal Abode. (18.62)


wit= t=e N=n=m=< a=Ky==t=]g=uń=d< g=uńt=r] m=y== +

iv=m=&xy=Et=d< ax=ee{=e[=y=q=ec%Ús= t=q== ku:o ++Íŗ++

iti te j@|nam |khy|ta=guhy|d guhyatara= may|

vim&%yaiítad a%e^e[ayatheícchasi tath| kuru


Thus I have explained the knowledge that is more secret than the secret. After fully reflecting on this, do as you wish. (18.63)



s=v=*g=uńt=m=] B=Uy=/x=&[=u m=e p=rm=] v=c=/ +

w{!=eCÚs= m=e d&$m=< wit=t=t==e v=Zy==im= t=e iht=m=< ++ÍŚ++

sarvaguhyatama= bh~ya+%&[u me parama= vaca+

i^!oísi me d&#ham ititato vak^y|mi te hitam


Hear once again My most secret, supreme word. You are very dear to Me; therefore, I shall tell this for your benefit. (18.64)


m=nm=n== B=v= m=4kt==em=6=j=I m==] n=m=sku:o +

m==m=< Av=E{y=Ús= s=ty=] t=ep=>it=j==n=e ip=>y==eCÚs= m=e ++ÍÁ++

manman| bhava madbhaktomady|j$ m|= namaskuru

m|m evaií^yasi satya= tepratij|ne priyoísi me

Fix your mind on Me, be devoted to Me, offer service to Me, bow down to Me, and you shall certainly reach Me. I promise you because you are My very dear friend. (18.65)

s=v=*Q=m==*n=< p=irty=jy=m==m=ek:} x=r[=] v=>j= +

ah] tv== s=v=*p==p=eBy==em==eZ=iy={y==im= m== x=uc=/ ++ÍÍ++

sarvadharm|n parityajyam|m eka= %ara[a= vraja

aha= tv| sarvap|pebhyomok^ayi^y|mi m| %uca+


Setting aside (doership and attachment to) all works, just joyfully surrender to My will. I shall liberate you from all bonds of Karma or sins. Do not grieve. (See also 7.14, 7.15, 7.19, 7.29, 9.32 and 15.04) (18.66)

††††††††††† The meaning of setting aside all duties and taking refuge in the Lord is that a seeker should perform all duties without ego and attachment as an offering to the Lord and totally depend only on the Lord for help and guidance. The Lord takes full responsibility for a person who totally depends on Him. If you find a good solution and get attached to it, the solution will soon become your next problem. The scripture says: The wise should not be attached even to righteous deeds for their entire life, but should engage their mind and intellect in contemplation of the Supreme Being (MB 12.290.21). One should develop a spirit of genuine self-surrender to the Lord by offering everything to Him, including the fruits of spiritual discipline. We should connect all our work with the divine. The world is controlled by the laws or will of God. One has to learn to abide by His will. Be thankful in prosperity and resigned to His will in adversity.

††††††††††† In order to be free from pious or impious results that bind one to this material world, it is necessary to offer every action to God. When a devotee sincerely works for God, God protects that devotee from the touch of Maya, the external energy of the Lord. If one voluntarily depends on the supreme Lord under all circumstances, then the good and bad results (sins) of work automatically go to Him, and one is free from sin.

††††††††††† A true devotee perceives: O Lord, I remembered You because You remembered me first. One breaks away every yoke of bondage and becomes free in this very life as soon as one gains the knowledge and a firm conviction that everything is done by the will of God, that it is His world, His sport, and His battle, not ours, and regards ones≠elf as a mere actor in the divine play and the Lord as the great direc≠tor in the cosmic drama of the soul on the stage of creation. Surrendering of individual will to divine will is the culmination of all spiritual practices, resulting in joyful participation in the drama of joys and sorrows of life. This is called liberation, or Mah|y|na in Buddhism. One cannot see God as long as one does not completely get rid of desire, attachment, and the no≠tion of doership or ego. The miracle of grace is triggered when ego realizes: One is not the doer, andthrough no human effort alone can desire be completely erased. Lord arranges for the science of Self-realization to be revealed to such a surrendered soul and the gate of Nirvana opens up.

††††††††††† Surrendering to God does not involve leaving the world, but realizing that everything happens in accordance with His laws and by His direction and power. To fully recognize that everyth≠ing is controlled and governed by a divine plan is to surrender to Him. In surrender one lets the divine plan rule oneís life without giving up oneís best effort. Learn to accept all results as His grace or divine Will. It is the complete renunciation of individ≠ual existence or the ego. It is the feeling: O my beloved Lord, nothing is mine, everything ó including my body, mind, and ego ó is Yours. I am not God, but a servant of God; save me from the ocean of transmigration. I tried to get out of the ocean of the material world using all the methods given in the scriptures, and failed. Now I have discovered the ultimate process ó the process of seeking divine grace through prayer and surrender. God can be discovered by seeking His help in discovering Him and not by spiritual practices alone. Thus, one should start the spiritual journey as a dualist, experience monism, and again come back to dualism. A successful journey begins and ends at the same place.

††††††††††† The process of surrender may be called the fifth or the ultimate path of yoga -- the other four being the path of selfless service, metaphysical knowledge, devotion, and meditation. The Good Lord directs the mind and senses of the living entities according to their Karma-born desires. But in case of surrendered devotees, however, He controls the senses directly according to His desires and in the best interest of the devotee. Let Him be the driver of your spiritual journey and you just enjoy the ride. Muniji beautifully explains this process. He says: ďEvery pain, every ache, every discomfort becomes His gift and grace when you lay it in His lapĒ. If you learn how to put the reins of your life-chariot in His hands ó without interfering ó you will be ever happy, ever peaceful. This is a very difficult lesson of ultimate surrender.

††††††††††† It is the divine grace or power that comes in the form of self-effort. The divine grace and self-effort, as well as dualism and monism, are nothing but two sides of the same coin of Reality. The grace of God is always available ó one has to collect it. To win the grace is not easy. One has to earn it by sincere, spiritual discipline and effort. Grace is the cream of that effort ó our own good Karma. It is said that self-effort is absolutely necessary, but the last rung of the ladder to the Supreme is not self-effort, but praying for His grace in the spirit of surrender. When everything is surrendered to Him and one truly understands that He is the goal, the path, the traveler, as well as the obstacles on the path, vice and virtue become powerless and harmless as a cobra with fangs re≠moved.

††††††††††† According to Shankara, if any object other than the Supreme Being ó the Cosmic Energy Field ó appears to exist, it is unreal like a mirage or like the presence of a snake in the rope. When one firmly understands that there is nothing else except the Supreme Being and His sport, all Karma gets exhausted; one surrenders to His will, and attains salvation. Thus Self-knowledge and philanthropic work may not go together for the rest of our life. Yukteshwar said: Human life is beset with sorrow until we know how to surrender or tune in with the divine will that baffles our intellect. The Koran says: Whoever follows My guidance, no fear shall come upon them; neither shall they grieve (Surah 2.38).


wd] t=e n==t=p=sk:=y=n==B=kt==y= k:d=c=n= +

n= c==x=uXU{=v=e v==cy=]n= c= m==] y==eCBy=s=Uy=it= ++ÍŽ++

ida= te n|ítapask|yan|íbhakt|ya kad|cana

na c|í%u%r~^ave v|cya=na ca m|= yoíbhyas~yati

This knowledge should never be spoken by you to one who is devoid of austerity, who is without devotion, who does not desire to listen, or who speaks ill of Me. (18.67)

††††††††††† To speak of wisdom to a deluded person, to glorify sacrifice to a greedy person, to advise sense control to an irascible person, and to discourse on Lord Ramaís exploits to a lecher, is as useless as sow≠ing seed on barren ground (TR 5.57.01-02). It is not for any soul to believe, save by the permission of Allah. You should not compel one to believe (Surah 10.100-101). Anyone to whom God has not granted the light (of knowledge) will have no light (Surah 24.40). The study of Gita is meant only for sincere persons. According to Ramakrishna, one can understand Him as much as He makes one un≠derstand. Guru Nanak said: O Beloved; only they to whom You give the divine knowledge, obtain it.

††††††††††† According to the Bible: Do not give what is holy to dogs. Do not throw your pearls in front of pigs. They will only trample them under their feet (Matthew 7.06). No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him or her to me (John 6.44). The re≠cipient of knowledge must have spiritual inclination and sincerely seek it. Knowledge given without being asked for serves no pur≠pose and should be avoided. There is a time for everything under the heaven. We cannot change the world; we can change only the lives of a few sincere souls whose time for a change has come by His grace.



y= wm=] p=rm=] g=uń]m=4kt=e{v=< aiB=Q==sy=it= +

B=Żkt=] m=iy= p=r=] k&:tv==m==m=< Av=E{y=ty=< as=]x=y=/ ++ÍŤ++

ya ima= parama= guhya=madbhakte^v abhidh|syati

bhakti= mayi par|= k&tv|m|m evaií^yaty asa=%aya+


n= c= t=sm==n=< m=n=u{y=e{=uk:Żxc=n=< m=e ip=>y=k&:T=m=/ +

B=iv=t== n= c= m=e t=sm==d<any=/ ip=>y=t=r=e B=uiv= ++ÍÔ++

na ca tasm|n manu^ye^uka%cin me priya k&ttama+

bhavit| na ca me tasm|danya+ priyataro bhuvi

One who shall study and help propagate this supreme secret philosophy amongst My devotees, shall be performing the highest devotional service to Me and shall certainly come to Me. No other person shall do a more pleasing service to Me, and no one on the earth shall be more dear to Me. (18.68-69)

††††††††††† Ignorance is the mother of all sins. All negative qualities, such as lust, anger, and greed, are nothing but a manifestation of ignorance. The giving of the gift of knowledge is the best charity. It is equivalent to giving the whole world in charity (MB 12.209.113). The best welfare is to help others discover their real nature that is the source of everlasting happiness rather than to provide material goods and comforts for tempo≠rary happiness. The Bible says: Whoever obeys the law, and teaches others to do the same, will be great in the Kingdom of Heaven (Matthew 5.19). Happiness is not attained through wealth and sense gratification, but through fidelity to a worthy cause (Helen Keller).



aQy=e{y=t=e c= y= wm=]Q=my=*] s=]v==dm=< a=v=y==e/ +

N=n=y=Nen= t=en==hm=<w{!/ sy==m=< wit= m=e m=it=/ ++ŽÓ++

adhye^yate ca ya ima=dharmya= sa=v|dam |vayo+

j@|nayaj@ena ten|íhami^!a+ sy|m iti me mati+

Those who study our sacred dialogue shall be performing a holy act of propagation and acquisition of Self-knowledge. This is My promise. (18.70)

††††††††††† God and His words are one and the same. The study of the Gita is equivalent to worship of God. Life in modern society is all work and no spiritu≠ality. Swami Harihar says: ďDaily study of only a few verses of the Gita will recharge mental batteries and add meaning to the dull routine life of modern society.Ē For serious students, daily study of one chapter of the Gita or several verses from the forty selected verses given in the end of this book is highly recommended.

††††††††††† In verses 18.68-70 Lord Krishna declares that studying, teaching, and propagating the spiritual knowledge of the Gita in any way to be the highest form of KarmaYoga, BhaktiYoga and Jn|naYoga combined in one easy to practice process. This alone can take a seeker to enlightenment.


X3=v==n=< an=s=Uy=xc=x=&[=uy==d< aip= y==e n=r/ +

s==eCip= m=ukt=/x=uB==\]D=< D==ek:=n=<p=>=pn=uy==t=< p=u[y=k:m=*[==m=< ++Ž‚++

%raddh|v|n anas~ya% ca%&[uy|d api yo nara+

soípi mukta+ %ubh|=l lok|npr|pnuy|t pu[yakarma[|m


Whoever even hears this sacred dialogue with faith and without cavil becomes free from sin, and attains the higher worlds of those whose actions are pure and virtuous. (18.71)

††††††††††† A summary of the Glory of the Gita as elaborated in the scriptures is given below. Reading this Glory of the Gita generates faith and devotion in the heart that is essential for reaping the benefits of the study of the Gita.

††††††††††† The goal of human birth is to master the mind and senses and reach oneís destiny. A regular study of the Gita is sure to help achieve this noble goal. One who is regular in the study of the Gita becomes happy, peaceful, prosperous, and free from the bondage of Karma, though engaged in the performance of worldly duties. Sins do not taint those who regularly study the Gita, just as water does not stain a lotus leaf. The Gita is the best abode of Lord Krishna. The spiritual potency of the Lord abides in every verse of the Gita. The Bhagavad-Gita is the storehouse of spiritual knowledge. The Lord Himself spoke this supreme science of the Absolute containing the essence of all the scriptures for the benefit of humanity. All the Upanishads are the cows; Arjuna is the calf; Krishna is the milker; the nectar of the Gita is the milk; and persons of purified intellects are the drinkers. One need not study any other scripture if one seriously studies the Gita, contemplates the meaning of the verses, and practices its teachings in oneís daily life. The Gita is the ripe fruit of the tree of Vedic knowledge given to us by Lord Krishna for the welfare of humanity.

††††††††††† The affairs of the world are run by the first commandment of the Creator ó the teachings of selfless service ó so beautifully expounded in the Gita. The sacred knowledge of doing oneís duty without looking for a reward is the original teaching that alone can lead to salvation. The Gita is like a ship by which one can easily cross the ocean of transmigration and attain liberation. It is said that wherever the Gita is chanted or read with love and devotion, Lord makes Himself present there to listen and enjoy the company of His devotees. Going to a place where Gita is regularly chanted or taught is like going to a holy place of pilgrimage. One who regularly reads, recites to others, hears, and follows the sacred knowledge contained in the Gita is sure to attain liberation from the bondage of Karma and attain Nirvana.

††††††††††† Though engaged in the performance of worldly duties, one who is regular in the study of the Gita becomes happy and free from Karmic bondage. All the sacred centers of pilgrimage, gods, sages, and great souls dwell in the place where the Gita is kept and read. Help during troubles comes quickly where the Gita is recited, and the Lord dwells where it is read, heard, taught, and contemplated. By repeated reading of the Gita, one attains bliss and liberation. One who contemplates the teachings of the Gita at the time of death becomes free from sin and attains salvation. Lord Krishna personally comes to take such a person to His Supreme Abode -- the highest transcendental plane of existence.

††††††††††† The grace of the Gita cannot be described. Its teachings are simple as well as abstruse and profound. New and deeper meanings are revealed to a serious student of the Gita, and the teachings remain ever inspirational. The interest in a serious study of the Gita is not available to all but only to those with good Karma. One should be very earnest in the study of the Gita.

††††††††††† The Gita is the heart, the soul, the breath, and the voice of the Lord. No austerity, penance, sacrifice, charity, pilgrimage, vow, fasting, or continence equals the study of the Gita. It is difficult for any ordinary person, or even for the great sages and scholars, to understand the deep, secret meaning of the Gita. To understand the Gita completely is like a fish trying to fathom the extent of the ocean, or a bird trying to measure the sky. The Gita is the deep ocean of the knowledge of the Absolute; only the Lord has a complete understanding of it. Nobody, other than Lord Krishna, should claim authority on the Gita.

k:icc=d< At=c=< %Mut=] p==q=*tv=y=Ek:=g=>e[= c=et=s== +

k:icc=d< aN=n=s=]m==eh/p=>n={!s=< t=e Q=n=]j=y= ++Žš++

kaccid etac chruta= p|rthatvayaiík|gre[a cetas|

kaccid aj@|nasa=moha+prana^!as te dhana=jaya


O Arjuna, did you listen to this with single-minded attention? Has your delusion born of ignorance been completely destroyed? (18.72)



aj=*un= Wv==c=

n={!=e m==eh/ sm=&it=r< D=bQ==tv=tp=>s==d=n=< m=y==Ccy=ut= +

isq=t==eCism= g=t=s=]deh/k:ir{y=e v=c=n=] t=v= ++Žŗ++

arjuna uv|ca

na^!o moha+ sm&tir labdh|tvatpras|d|n may|ícyuta

sthitoísmi gatasa=deha+kari^ye vacana= tava


Arjuna said: By Your grace my delusion is destroyed; I have gained Self-knowledge; my confusion with regard to body and Spirit is dispelled and I shall obey Your command. (18.73)

††††††††††† When one realizes Him by His grace, the knots of ignorance are loosened, all doubts and confusions about our true nature as Spirit are dispelled, and all Karma is ex≠hausted (MuU 2.02.08). The true knowledge of the Supreme Being comes only by His grace.


s=]j=y= Wv==c=

wty=< ah] v==s=udev=sy=p==q=*sy= c= m=h=tm=n=/ +

s=]v==dm=< wm=m=< aX=E{=m=<a4ut=]r=em=h{=*[=m=< ++ŽŚ++

sa=jaya uv|ca

ity aha= v|sudevasyap|rthasya ca mah|tmana+

sa=v|dam imam a%rau^amadbhuta= romahar^a[am

Sanjaya said: Thus, I heard this wonderful dialogue between Lord Krishna and Arjuna, causing my hair to stand on end. (18.74)


vy==s=p=>s==d=c=< %Mut=v==n=<At=d< g=uńm=< ah] p=rm=< +

y==eg=] y==eg=exv=r=t=< k&:{[==t=<s==Z==t=< k:q=y=t=/ sv=y=m=< ++ŽÁ++

vy|sapras|d|c chrutav|netad guhyam aha= param

yoga= yoge%var|t k&^[|ts|k^|t kathayata+ svayam


By the grace of sage Vyasa, I heard this most secret and su≠preme yoga directly from Krishna, the Lord of yoga, Himself speaking to Arjuna before my very eyes of clairvoyance granted by sage Vyasa. (18.75)


r=j=n=< s=]sm=&ty= s=]sm=&ty=s=]v==dm=< wm=m=< a4ut=m=< +

ke:x=v==j=*un=y==e/ p=u[y=]Ň{y==im= c= m=uhur< m=uhu/ ++ŽÍ++

r|jan sa=sm&tya sa=sm&tya sa=v|dam imam adbhutam

ke%av|rjunayo+ pu[ya=h&^y|mi ca muhur muhu+


O King, by repeated remembrance of this marvelous and sacred dia≠logue between Lord Krishna and Arjuna, I am thrilled at every moment. (18.76)

t=c=< c= s=]sm=&ty= s=]sm=&ty=Op=m=< aty=4ut=] hre/ +

iv=sm=y==e m=e m=h=n=< r=j=n=<Ň{y==im= c= p=un=/ p=un=/ ++ŽŽ++

tac ca sa=sm&tya sa=sm&tyar~pam atyadbhuta= hare+

vismayo me mah|n r|jan h&^y|mi ca puna+ puna+

Recollecting again and again, O King, that marvelous form of Krishna, I am greatly amazed, and I rejoice over and over again. (18.77)



y=F= y==eg=exv=r/ k&:{[==ey=F= p==q==e* Q=n=uQ=*r/ +

t=F= XIr< iv=j=y==e B=Uit=r<Q=>uv== n=Iit=r< m=it=r< m=m= ++ŽŤ++

yatra yoge%vara+ k&^[o yatra p|rtho dhanurdhara+

tatra %r$r vijayo bh~tirdhruv| n$tir matir mama


Wherever there will be both Krishna, the Lord of yoga (or Dharma in the form of the scriptures), and Arjuna with the weapons of duty and protection, there will be everlasting prosperity, victory, happiness, and morality. This is my conviction. (18.78)

††††††††††† Where there is Dharma (righteous duty), there is the grace of Lord Krishna; where there is the grace of Lord Krishna, there will be peace and victory (MB 6.43.60). Everlasting peace and prosperity in the family are possible only by performing oneís duty with full metaphysical knowledge of the Absolute. Peace and prosperity of a nation depend on mastering both the knowledge of scriptures and the knowledge of the use of weapons of protection, as well as science and technology. It is said that science and technology without spirituality are blind, and spirituality without technology is lame.


Ų t=ts=idit= XIm=4g=v=1It==s=Up=in={=ts=u b=>>>…iv=6=y==] y==eg=x==sF=e

XIk&:{[==j=u*n=s=]v==de m==eZ=s=]ny==s=y==eg==e n==m= a{!=dx==eCQy==y=/ ++


hir/ Ų t=ts=t=<†† hir/ Ų t=ts=t=<†† hir/ Ų t=ts=t=<

XIk&:{[==p=*[=] ast=ux=uB=] B=Uy==t=<

Ų x==Únt=/ x==Únt=/ x==Únt=/


OM tatsaditi %r$madbhagavadg$t|s~pani^atsu brahmavidy|y|= yoga%|stre %r$k&^[|rjuna sa=v|de mok^asa=ny|sayogo

n|ma a^!|da%oídhy|ya+


hari+ aum tatsathari+ aum tatsathari+ aum tatsat

%r$k&^[|rpa[a= astu %ubha= bh~y|t

OM %|nti+ %|nti+ %|nti+


Thus ends the eighteenth chapter named ďNirvana Through

RenunciationĒ of the Upani^ad of the Bhagavadg$t|,

the scripture of yoga, deaing with the science

of the Absolute in the form of the dialogue

between ˇr$k&^[a and Arjuna.


This book is offered to Lord Shri Krishna. May

He bless us all with Goodness,

Prosperity, and Peace.



The Farewell Message of Lord Krishna

††††††††††† Lord Krishna on the eve of His departure from the arena of this world, after finishing the difficult task of establishing righteousness (Dharma), gave His last parting discourse to His cousin brother Uddhava, who was also His dearest devotee and follower. At the end of a long sermon comprising more than one thousand verses Uddhava said: O Lord, I think the pursuit of yoga as You narrated to Arjuna, and now to me, is very difficult, indeed, for most people because it entails co≠ntrol of the unruly senses. Please tell me a short, simple, and easy way to God-realization. Lord Krishna, upon Uddhavaís request, gave the es≠sentials of Self-realization (BP 11.06-29) for the modern age as follows:

††††††††††† (1) Do your duty, to the best of your abilities, for Me without any motive, and remember Me at all times ó before starting a work, at the completion of a task, and while inactive. (2) Practice to look upon all creatures as Myself in thought, word, and deed; and mentally bow down to them. (3) Awaken your dormant Kundalini power and perceive -- through the activities of mind, senses, breathing, and emotions -- that the power of God is within you at all times, and is con≠stantly doing all the work, using you as a mere instrument.

††††††††††† Yogi Mumtaz Ali says: One who fully knows oneself as a mere instrument and a playground of mother Nature, knows the Truth. Cessation of all desires by realizing the true essence of the world and the human mind is Self-realization. Hariharananda Giri says: God is in everything as well as above everything. So if you want to realize Him, you must seek and see Him in every atom, in every matter, in every bodily function, and in every human being, with an attitude of surrender.

††††††††††† Muniji says: You must be God's gardener, carefully tending the garden, but never becoming attached to what will blossom, what will flower, what will give fruit or what will wither and die. Expectation is the mother of frustration, and acceptance gives peace.

††††††††††† Lord Krishna also summarized the essence of God-realization (BP 2.09.32-35) as follows:

††††††††††† The Supreme Lord Krishna said: One who wants to know Me, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, should only understand that I existed before creation; I exist in the creation, as well as after complete dissolution. Any other existence is nothing but My illusory energy (Maya). I exist within the creation and at the same time outside the creation. I am the all-pervading Supreme Lord who exists everywhere, in everything, and at all times.


XI g=It== c==D=Is==


(For Daily Reading and Contemplation)


Ų XI p=rm==tm=n=e n=m=/

v=s=udev=s=ut=] dev=]k]:s=c==[=Urm=d*n=m=<+

dev=k:0p=rm==n=nd]k&:{[=] v=nde j=g=d<g=uom=<++‚++

m=Uk]: k:r=eit= v==c==D=]p=V<g=u] D=V<G=y=t=e ig=irm=<+

y=tk&:p== t=m=h] v=ndep=rm==n=ndm==Q=v=m=< ++š++


Om %r$ param|tmane nama+

vasudeva suta= deva=ka=sa c|[~ra mardanam

devak$ param|nanda=k&^[a= vande jagadgurum

m~ka= karoti v|c|D=a=pa]gu= D=a]ghayate girim

yatk&p| tamaha= vande†† param|nanda m|dhavam


Obeisance To The Supreme Lord

I offer my obeisance to Lord K&^[a, the world teacher,

who is theson of Vasudeva, theremover of all ob≠stacles,

the supreme bliss of His mother Devak$, and whose

grace makes the dumb eloquent and the

crippled cross the mountains.


Q=&t=r={!M Wv==c=

Q=m=*Z=eF=e ku:oZ=eF=es=m=v=et==y=uy=uts=v=/ +

m==m=k:=/ p==[#v==xc=Ev=ik:m=< aku:v=*t= s=]j=y= ++‚++

dh&tar|^!ra uv|ca

dharmak^etre kuruk^etre†† samavet| yuyutsava+

m|mak|+ p|[#av|% caiíva†† kim akurvata Sa=jaya


The King inquired: Sanjaya, please now tell me, in details, what did my people (the Kauravas) and the Pandavas do in the battlefield before the war started? (1.01)


s=]j=y= Wv==c=

t=] t=q== k&:p=y==iv={!m=<aXuup=U[==*ku:D=eZ=[=m=< +

iv={=Idnt=m=< wd] v==ky=m=<Wv==c= m=Q=us=Udn=/ ++‚++

sa=jaya uv|ca

ta= tath| k&pay|vi^!ama%rup~r[|kulek^a[am

vi^$dantam ida= v|kyamuv|ca madhus~dana+


Sanjaya said: Lord Krishna spoke these words to Arjuna whose eyes were tearful and downcast, and who was overwhelmed with compas≠sion and despair. (2.01)



ax==ecy==n=< anv=x==ec=s=< tv=]]p=>N=v==d=]xc= B=={=s=e +

g=t==s=Un=< ag=t==s=U]xc=n==n=ux==ec=Únt= p=Ú[#t==/ ++‚‚++

%r$ bhagav|n uv|ca

a%ocy|n anva%ocas tva=praj@|v|d|=%ca bh|^ase

gat|s~n agat|s~=%can|nu%ocanti pa[#it|+


Lord Krishna said: You grieve for those who are not worthy of grief and yet speak words of wisdom. The wise grieve neither for the living nor for the dead. (2.11)


deeihn==eCÚsm=n=< y=q== dehek:=Em==r] y==Ev=n=] j=r= +

t=q== deh=nt=rp=>=Úpt=r<Q=Irs=< t=F= n= m=uńit= ++‚ŗ++

dehinoísmin yath| dehekaum|ra= yauvana= jar|

tath| deh|ntarapr|ptirdh$ras tatra na muhyati


Just as the soul acquires a childhood body, a youth body, and an old-age body during this life, similarly, the soul acquires another body after death. This should not delude the wise. (See also 15.08) (2.13)




v==s==]Ús= j=I[==*in= y=q== iv=h=y=

n=v==in= g=&h<[==it= n=r=eCp=r=Ú[= +

t=q== x=rIr=Ú[= iv=h=y= j=I[==*ny=<

any==in= s=]y==it= n=v==in= dehI ++šš++

v|s|=si j$r[|ni yath| vih|ya

nav|ni g&h[|ti naroípar|[i

tath| %ar$r|[i vih|ya j$r[|ny

any|ni sa=y|ti nav|ni deh$


Just as a person puts on new garments after discarding the old ones, similarly, the living entity or the individual soul acquires new bodies after casting away the old bodies. (2.22)


s=uK=du/K=e s=m=e k&:tv==D==B==D==B==E j=y==j=y==E +

t=t==e y=u3=y= y=ujy=sv=n=Ev=] p==p=m=< av==psy=Ús= ++ŗŤ++

sukha du+khe same k&tv|l|bh|l|bhau jay|jayau

tato yuddh|ya yujyasvanaiva= p|pam av|psyasi


Treating pleasure and pain, gain and loss, and victory and defeat alike en≠gage yourself in your duty. By doing your duty this way, you will not incur any sin. (2.38)


k:m=*[y=ev==iQ=k:=rst=em== f:D=e{=u k:d=c=n= +

m== k:m=*f:D=het=ur< B=Ur<m== t=e s=V<g==eCstv=< ak:m=*Ú[= ++ŚŽ++

karma[y ev|dhik|rastem| phale^u kad|cana

m| karma phala hetur bh~rm| te sa]goístv akarma[i


You have control over doing your respective duty only, but no control or claim over the results. The fruits of work should not be your motive, and you should never be inactive. (2.47)



b=ui3y=ukt==e j=h=t=IhWB=e s=uk&:t=du{k&:t=e +

t=sm==d< y==eg==y= y=ujy=sv=y==eg=/ k:m=*s=u k:=Ex=D=m=< ++ÁÓ++

buddhiyukto jah|t$haubhe suk&ta du^k&te

tasm|d yog|ya yujyasvayoga+ karmasu kau%alam


A KarmaYogi or the selfless person becomes free from both vice and virtue in this life itself. Therefore, strive for selfless service. Working to the best of oneís abili≠ties without becoming attached to the fruits of work is called KarmaYoga or Seva. (2.50)


wÚn7y==[==] ih c=rt==]y=n=< m=n==eCn=uiv=Q=Iy=t=e +

t=dsy= hrit= p=>N=]v==y=ur< n==v=m=< wv==mB=Ús= ++ÍŽ++

indriy|[|= hi carat|=yan manoínuvidh$yate

tad asya harati praj@|=v|yur n|vam iv|mbhasi


The mind, when controlled by the roving senses, steals away the intellect as a storm takes away a boat on the sea from its destination -- the spiri≠tual shore of peace and happiness. (2.67)


p=>k&:t=e/ ik>:y=m==[==in=g=u[=E/ k:m==*i[= s=v=*x=/ +

ah]k:=riv=m=U$=tm==k:t==*hm=< wit= m=ny=t=e ++šŽ++

prak&te+ kriyam|[|nigu[ai+ karm|[i sarva%a+

aha=k|ra vim~#h|tm|kart|ham iti manyate


The forces (Gunas) of Nature do all work, but due to delusion of ignorance people assume themselves to be the doer. (See also 5.09, 13.29, and 14.19) (3.27)


Av=] b=u3e/ p=r] b=ud<Qv==s=]st=By==tm==n=m=< a=tm=n== +

j=ih x=F=u] m=h=b==h=eek:=m=Op=] dur=s=dm=< ++Śŗ++



eva= buddhe+ para= buddhv|sa=stabhy|ítm|nam |tman|

jahi %atru= mah|b|hok|marupa= dur|sadam


Thus, knowing the Self to be the highest, and controlling the mind by the intellect that is purified by spiritual practices, one must kill this mighty enemy, lust, O Arjuna, with the sword of true knowledge of the Self. (3.43)


y=d= y=d= ih Q=m=*sy=gD==in=r< B=v=it= B==rt= +

aBy=utq==n=m=< aQ=m=*sy=t=d=tm==n=] s=&j==my=hm=< ++Ž++

yad| yad| hi dharmasya gl|nir bhavati bh|rata

abhyutth|nam adharmasyatad|ítm|na= s&j|my aham

p=irF==[==y= s==Q=Un==]iv=n==x==y= c= du{k&:t==m=< +

Q=m=*s=]sq==p=n==q==*y=s=]B=v==im= y=ug=e y=ug=e ++Ť++

paritr|[|ya s|dh~n|=vin|%|ya ca du^k&t|m

dharma sa=sth|pan|rth|yasa=bhav|mi yuge yuge


Whenever there is a decline of Dharma (Righteousness) and a predominance of Adharma (Unrighteousness), O Arjuna, I manifest Myself. I appear from time to time for protecting the good, for transforming the wicked, and for es≠tablishing world order (Dharma). (4.07-08)


c==t=uv=*[y=*] m=y== s=&{!]g=u[=k:m=*iv=B==g=x=/ +

t=sy= k:t==*rm=< aip= m==]iv=3Y< ak:t==*rm=< avy=y=m=< ++‚ŗ++

c|turvar[ya= may| s&^!a=gu[akarma vibh|ga%a+

tasya kart|ram api m|=viddhy akart|ram avyayam


I created the four divisions of human society based on aptitude and vocation. Though I am the author of this system of division of labor, one should know that I do nothing directly, and I am eternal. (See also 18.41) (4.13)


k:m=*[y=< ak:m=* y=/ p=xy=ed<ak:m=*i[= c= k:m=* y=/ +

s= b=ui3m==n=< m=n=u{y=e{=us= y=ukt=/ k&:tsn=k:m=*k&:t=< ++‚Ť++

karma[y akarma ya+ pa%yedakarma[i ca karma ya+

sa buddhim|n manu^ye^usa yukta+ k&tsnakarmak&t


One who sees inaction in action and action in inaction, is a wise person. Such a person is a yogi and has accomplished everything. (See also 3.05, 3.27, 5.08 and 13.29) (4.18)


b=>…=p=*[=] b=>… hiv=r<b=>…=gn==E b=>…[== hut=m=< +

b=>…Ev= t=en= g=nt=vy=]b=>…k:m=*s=m==iQ=n== ++šŚ++

brahm|írpa[a= brahma havirbrahm|gnau brahma[| hutam

brahmaiva tena gantavya=brahmakarma sam|dhin|


The divine Spirit (Brahma or Eternal Being) has become everything. Divinity (Brahma, Self or Spirit) shall be real≠ized by one who considers everything as a manifestation (or an act) of Brahma. (Also see 9.16) (4.24)


n= ih N=n=en= s=d&x=]p=iv=F=m=< wh iv=6t=e +

t=t=< sv=y=] y==eg=s=]Ús=3/k:=D=en==tm=in= iv=ndit= ++ŗŤ++

na hi j@|nena sad&%a=pavitram iha vidyate

tat svaya= yogasa=siddha+k|len|ítmani vindati


Truly, there is no purifier in this world like the true knowledge of the Supreme Being. One discovers this knowledge within, naturally, in course of time when one's mind is cleansed of selfishness by KarmaYoga. (See also 4.31, 5.06, and 18.78). (4.38)


s=]ny==s=s=< t=u m=h=b==h=edu/K=m=< a=pt=um=< ay==eg=t=/ +

y==eg=y=ukt==e m=uin=r< b=>…n=ic=re[==iQ=g=c%it= ++Í++

sa=ny|sas tu mah|b|hodu+kham |ptum ayogata+

yogayukto munir brahmanacire[|ídhigacchati


But true renunciation (the renunciation of doership and ownership), O Arjuna, is difficult to attain without KarmaYoga. A sage equipped with KarmaYoga quickly attains Nirvana. (See also 4.31, 4.38, 5.08) (5.06)


b=>…[y=< a=Q==y= k:m==*i[=s=V<g=] ty=ktv== k:r=eit= y=/ +

ÚD=py=t=e n= s= p==p=en=p=5p=F=m=< wv==mB=s== ++‚Ó++

brahma[y |dh|ya karm|[isa]ga= tyaktv| karoti ya+

lipyate na sa p|penapadma patram iv|mbhas|


One who does all work as an offering to God ó abandoning attachment to results ó remains untouched by Karmic reaction or sin, just as a lo≠tus leaf never gets wet by water. (5.10)


y==e m==] p=xy=it= s=v=*F=s=v=*] c= m=iy= p=xy=it= +

t=sy==h] n= p=>[=xy==im=s= c= m=e n= p=>[=xy=it= ++ŗÓ++

yo m|= pa%yati sarvatrasarva= ca mayi pa%yati

tsy|íha= na pra[a%y|misa ca me na pra[a%yati


Those who perceive Me in everything, and behold everything in Me, are not separated from Me, and I am not separated from them. (6.30)


c=t=uiv=*Q== B=j=nt=e m==]j=n==/ s=uk&:it=n==eCj=*un= +

a=t==e* Új=N=s=ur< aq==*q=I*N=n=I c= B=rt={=*B= ++‚Í++

caturvidh| bhajante m|=jan|+ suk&tinoírjuna

|rto jij@|sur arth|rth$j@|n$ ca bharatar^abha


Four types of virtuous ones worship or seek Me, O Arjuna. They are: the distressed, the seeker of Self-knowledge, the seeker of wealth, and the enlightened one who has experienced the Supreme Being. (7.16)



b=hUn==] j=nm=n==m=< ant=eN=n=v==n=< m==] p=>p=6t=e +

v==s=udev=/ s=v=*m=< wit=s= m=h=tm== s=uduD=*B=/ ++‚Ô++

bah~n|= janman|m antej@|nav|n m|= prapadyate

v|sudeva+ sarvam itisa mah|tm| sudurlabha+


After many births, the enlightened one resorts to Me by realiz≠ing that everything is, indeed, My manifestation. Such a great soul is very rare. (7.19)


avy=kt=] vy=Żkt=m=< a=p=nn=]m=ny=nt=e m==m=< ab=u3y=/ +

p=r] B==v=m=< aj==n=nt==em=m==vy=y=m=< an=uT=m=m=< ++šŚ++

avyakta= vyaktim |panna=manyante m|m abuddhaya+

para= bh|vam aj|nantomam|ívyayam anuttamam


The ignorant ones ó unable to understand My immutable, incomparable, incomprehensible, and transcendental form ó assume that I, the Supreme Being, am formless and take forms or incarnate. (7.24)


y=] y=] v==ip= sm=rn=< B==v=]ty=j=ty=< ant=e k:D=ev=rm=< +

t=] t=] Av=Eit= k:=Ent=ey=s=d= t=4=v=B==iv=t=/ ++Í++

ya= ya= v|ípi smaran bh|va=tyajaty ante kalevaram

ta= ta= evaiti kaunteyasad| tadbh|vabh|vita+


Whatever object one remembers as one leaves the body at the end of life, thatobject is attained. Thought of whatever object prevails during one's lifetime, one remembers only that object at the end of life and achieves it. (8.06)


t=sm==t=< s=v=e*{=uu k:=D=e{=um==m=< an=usm=r y=uQy= c= +

m=yy=< aip=*t=m=n==eb=ui3r<m==m=< Av=E{y=sy=< as=]x=y=m=< ++Ž++

tasm|t sarve^u k|le^um|m anusmara yudhya ca

mayy arpitamanobuddhirm|m evaií^yasy asa=%ayam


Therefore, always remember Me and do your duty. You shall certainly attain Me if your mind and intellect are ever focused on Me. (8.07)


an=ny=c=et==/ s=t=t=]y==e m==] sm=rit= in=ty=x=/ +

t=sy==h] s=uD=B=/ p==q=*in=ty=y=ukt=sy= y==eig=n=/ ++‚Ś++

ananyacet|+ satata=yo m|= smarati nitya%a+

tasy|íha= sulabha+ p|rthanityayuktasya yogina+


I am easily attainable, O Arjuna, by that ever steadfast devotee who al≠ways thinks of Me and whose mind does not go elsewhere. (8.14)


an=ny==x=< ic=nt=y=nt==e m==]y=e j=n==/ p=y=*up==s=t=e +

t=e{==] in=ty==iB=y=ukt==n==]y==eg=Z=em=] v=h=my=< ahm=< ++šš++

anany|% cintayanto m|=ye jan|+ paryup|sate

te^|= nity|bhiyukt|n|=yogak^ema= vah|my aham


I personally take care of both the spiritual and material wel≠fare of those ever-steadfast devotees who always remember and adore Me with single-minded contemplation. (9.22)


p=F=] p=u{p=] f:D=] t==ey=]y==e m=e B=kty== p=>y=c%it= +

t=d< ah] B=kty=up=Ňt=m=<axn==im= p=>y=t==tm=n=/ ++šÍ++

patra= pu^pa= phala= toya=yo me bhakty| prayacchati

tad aha= bhakty upah&tama%n|mi prayat|tmana+


Whosoever offers Me a leaf, a flower, a fruit, or water with devotion, I accept and eat the offering of devotion by the pure-hearted. (9.26)


m=nm=n== B=v= m=4kt==em=6=j=I m==] n=m=sku:o +

m==m=< Av=E{y=Ús= y=uktv=Ev=m=<a=tm==n=] m=tp=r=y=[=/ ++ŗŚ++


manman| bhava madbhaktomady|j$ m|= namaskuru

m|m evaií^yasi yuktvaiívam|tm|na= matpar|ya[a+


Always think of Me, be devoted to Me, worship Me, and bow down to Me. Thus, uniting yourself with Me by setting Me as the supreme goal and the sole refuge, you shall certainly come to Me. (9.34)


ah] s=v=*sy= p=>B=v==em=T=/ s=v=*] p=>v=t=*t=e +

wit= m=tv== B=j=nt=e m==]b=uQ== B==v=s=m=Únv=t==/ ++Ť++

aha= sarvasya prabhavomatta+ sarva= pravartate

iti matv| bhajante m|=budh| bh|vasamanvit|+


I am the origin of all. Everything emanates from Me. The wise who understand this adore Me with love and devotion. (10.08)


m=tk:m=*k&:n=< m=tp=rm==em=4kt=/ s=V<g=v=Új=*t=/ +

in=v=*Er/ s=v=*B=Ut=e{=uy=/ s= m==m=< Ait= p==[#v= ++ÁÁ++

matkarmak&n matparamomadbhakta+ sa]gavarjita+

nirvaira+ sarvabh~te^uya+ sa m|m eti p|[#ava


One who dedicates all works to Me and to whom I am the supreme goal, who is my devotee, who has no attachment or selfish desires and who is free from malice towards any creature; attains Me, O Arjuna. (See also 8.22) (11.55)


m=yy=ev= m=n= a=Q=tsv=m=iy= b=ui3] in=v=ex=y= +

in=v=Ús={y=Ús= m=yy=ev=at=~Qv=*] n= s=]x=y=/ ++Ť++

mayyeva mana |dhatsvamayi buddhi= nive%aya

nivasi^yasi mayyevaata ~rdhva= na sa=%aya+




Therefore, focus your mind on Me and let your intellect dwell upon Me alone through meditation and contemplation. Thereafter, you shall certainly attain Me. (12.08)


s=m=] s=v=*ee{=u B=Ut=e{=uit={@nt=] p=rm=exv=rm=< +

iv=n=xy=tsv=< aiv=n=xy=nt=]y=/ p=xy=it= s= p=xy=it= ++šŽ++

sama= sarve^u bh~te^uti^!hanta= parame%varam

vina%yatsv avina%yanta=ya+ pa%yati sa pa%yati


One who sees the same eternal Supreme Lord dwelling as Spirit equally within all mortal beings, truly sees. (13.27)


m==] c= y==eCvy=iB=c==re[=B=Żkt=y==eg=en= s=ev=t=e +

s= g=u[==n=< s=m=t=Ity=Et==n=<b=>…B=Uy==y= k:Dp=t=e ++šÍ++

m|= ca yoívyabhic|re[abhaktiyogena sevate

sa gu[|n samat$tyaiít|nbrahmabh~y|ya kalpate


One who serves Me with love and unswerving devotion, transcends the three modes of material Nature and becomes fit for Brahm-Nirvana. (See also 7.14 and 15.19) (14.26)


s=v=*sy= c==h] Ňid s=]in=iv={!=e

m=T=/ sm=&it=r< N=n=m=< ap==ehn=] c= +

v=edExc= s=r<v=Er< ahm=< Av= v=e6=e

v=ed=nt=k&:d< v=eeediv=d< Av= c==hm=< ++‚Á++

sarvasya c|íha= h&di sa=nivi^!o

matta+ sm&tir j@|nam apohana= ca

vedai%ca sarvair aham eva vedyo

ved|ntak&d vedavid eva c|íham


And I am seated in the inner psyche of all beings. Memory, Self-knowledge, and removal of doubts and wrong notions about God come from Me. I am, in truth, that which is to be known by the study of all the Vedas. I am, indeed, the author as well as the student of the Vedas. (See also 6.39) (15.15)


iF=iv=Q=] n=rk:sy=ed]8=r] n==x=n=m=< a=tm=n=/ +

k:=m=/ k>:=eQ=s=< t=q== D==eB=s=<t=sm==d< At=t=< F=y=] ty=j=et=< ++š‚++

trividha= narakasyeída=dv|ra= n|%anam |tmana+

k|ma+ krodhas tath| lobhastasm|d etat traya= tyajet


Lust, anger, and greed are the three gates of hell leading to the down≠fall (or bondage) of the individual. Therefore, one must learn to give up these three. (16.21)


an=u8eg=k:r] v==ky=]s=ty=] ip=>y=iht=] c= y=t=< +

sv==Qy==y==By=s=n=] c=Ev=v==V<m=y=] t=p= Wcy=t=e ++‚Á++

anudvegakara= v|kya=satya= priyahita= ca yat

sv|dhy|y|íbhyasana= caiívav|]maya= tapa ucyate


Speech that is non-offensive, truthful, pleasant, beneficial, and is used for the regular reading aloud of scriptures is called the austerity of word. (17.15)


B=kty== m==m=< aiB=j==n==it=y==v==n=< y=x=< c==Úsm= t=Tv=t=/ +

t=t==e m==m=< t=Tv=t==e N=tv==iv=x=t=e t=dn=nt=rm=< ++ÁÁ++

bhakty| m|m abhij|n|tiy|v|n ya% c|ísmi tattvata+

tato m|m tattvato j@|tv|vi%ate tadanantaram


By devotion one truly understands what and who I am in essence. Having known Me in essence, one immediately merges with Me. (See also 5.19) (18.55)


w*xv=r/ s=v=*B=Ut==n==]Ňd<deex=eCj=u*n= it={@it= +

B=>=m=y=n=< s=v=*B=Ut==in=y=nF==O$=in= m==y=y== ++Í‚++

$%vara+ sarvabh~t|n|=h&dde%eírjuna ti^!hati

bhr|mayan sarvabh~t|niyantr|r~#h|ni m|yay|

The Supreme Lord ó as the controller abiding in the inner psyche of all beings, O Arjuna ó causes them to work out their Karma by His power of Maya, like a puppet (of Karma created by the free will) mounted on a machine. (18.61)


s=v=*Q=m==*n=< p=irty=jy=m==m=ek:} x=r[=] v=>j= +

ah] tv== s=v=*p==p=eBy==em==eZ=iy={y==im= m== x=uc=/ ++ÍÍ++

sarvadharm|n parityajyam|m eka= %ara[a= vraja

aha= tv| sarvap|pebhyomok^ayi^y|mi m| %uca+


Set aside all meritorious deeds and religious rituals, and just surrender completely to My will with firm faith and loving devotion. I shall liberate you from all sins, the bonds of Karma. Do not grieve. (18.66)


y= wm=] p=rm=] g=uń]m=4kt=e{v=< aiB=Q==sy=it= +

B=Żkt=] m=iy= p=r=] k&:tv==m==m=< Av=E{y=ty=< as=]x=y=/ ++ÍŤ++

ya ima= parama= guhya=madbhakte^v abhidh|syati

bhakti= mayi par|= k&tv|m|m evaií^yaty asa=%aya+


One who shall propagate this supreme secret philosophy -- the transcendental knowledge of the Gita -- amongst My devotees, shall be performing the highest devotional service to Me and shall certainly come to Me. (18.68)


s=]j=y= Wv==c=

y=F= y==eg=exv=r/ k&:{[==ey=F= p==q==e* Q=n=uQ=*r/ +

t=F= XIr< iv=j=y==e B=Uit=r<Q=>uv== n=Iit=r< m=it=r< m=m= ++ŽŤ++

yatra yoge%vara+ k&^[o yatra p|rtho dhanurdhara+

tatra %r$r vijayo bh~tirdhruv| n$tir matir mama




Wherever there will be both Krishna, the Lord of yoga (or Dharma in the form of the scriptures), and Arjuna with the weapons of duty and protection, there will be everlasting prosperity, victory, happiness, and morality. This is my conviction. (18.78)


hir/ Ų t=ts=t=<†† hir/ Ų t=ts=t=<†† hir/ Ų t=ts=t=<†††

XIk&:{[==p=*[=] ast=ux=uB=] B=Uy==t=<

Ų x==Únt=/ x==Únt=/ x==Únt=/


Hari+ AUM tatsatHari+ AUM tatsatHari+ AUM tatsat

ˇr$ K&^[|rpa[a= astu %ubha= bh~y|t

AUM ˇ|nti+ˇ|nti+ˇ|nti+


This is offered to Lord ˇr$ K&^[a.May He bless us

all with goodness, prosperity, and peace.



Three (3) modes (Gunas)

††† of material nature, 14.03-11

†††† gates to hell, 16.21

†††† names of God, 17.23

†††† aspects of Reality, 15.18

Four (4) goals of human

†††† life, 18.34

†††† great sayings, 7.19

†††† helpers during

†††† adversity, 16.23

†††† noble truth of

†††† Buddhism, 13.08

†††† paths to God, 12.08-11

†††† pillars of sin, 17.10

†††† divisions of society, 4.13,

†††††† 18.41

†††† types of gurus, 4.34

†††† types of seekers, 7.16

†††† types of sacrifice, 4.28

armed form of God, 11.46

†††† subtle senses, 13.06

Five (5) basic elements, 13.05-06

†††† sense organs, 13.05-06

†††† principles ofIslam, 16.24

†††† causes of an action, 18.13-14

Six (6) senses, 15.07-09

enemies, 3.06

Seven (7) goddesses, 10.34

Eight (8) steps of meditation 6.10

divisions of matter, 7.04

noble path of Buddhism, 16.24

Nine (9) gates in the body, 5.13

spiritual techniques

†††††† 12.20, 18.09

Ten (10) commandments

†††††† of Hinduism, and

†††††† the Bible, 16.24

Eleven (11) organs in the

body, 13.05-06

Twenty four (24) trans-

formations of Energy,

††† 7.04, 13.05-06


Action, 3.05, 4.16-18, 4.20,

††† 18.23-25

Ahimsā (Nonviolence),

†††† 10.05, 16.02, 16.24, 17.14,

††† 17.17

Anger, 2.62-63, 3.37, 4.10, 5.23,

††† 5.26, 16.21, 18.53

Atmā, Atman (Spirit or soul),

†††† 2.16-25, 2.29, 2.30, 3.42, 3.43,

††† 10.20, 13.21, 15.07, 15.08,

†††† 15.11, 15.18, See also Purusha

Austerity or Tapas, 9.27, 10.05,

††† 17.14-19, 18.05, 18.67

Bondage, 2.39, 2.51, 3.04, 3.31,

††† 9.28, 15.02, 16.05

Brāhmana, Brāhmin (Caste)

††† 18.41, 18.42

Brahmā (The Creator),

†††† 3.10, 8.16-19, 11.37, 13.16,

††† 15.16

Brahma, Brahman, Brahm

†††† (Akshara Brahma, Atmā),

7.19, 8.03, 13.12-17, 13.31-33, 15.18, See also Self

Caste system, 18.41-44

Celibacy, 6.14, 8.11, 16.24,

†††† 17.14

Charity, 17.20-22, 18.03, 18.05,

†††† 18.43

Creation, 8.17-19, 9.07, 9.10,

†††† 13.01-06, 15.01

Death, 2.13, 2.27, 7.29-30, 8.05,

†††† 8.06, 8.10, 8.16, 9.03, 12.07,

†††† 13.08, 14.20, 15.08

Deity Worship, 7.20-24,

†††† 9.23-26, 12.02, 12.05, 13.25,

†††† 18.46

†††† four types of worshippers, 7.16

offer love and prayer,4.11-12,


Delusion (Moha), 2.63, 3.27,

†††† 7.27, 14.17, 18.07, 18.60,

†††† 18.73

Demonic Qualities, Devil,

††††††††††† 3.37, 16.04, 16.21, 17.05, 17.06

Desires, 2.41, 2.55, 2.62, 2.70,

††† 2.71, 3.10, 3.37, 3.43, 7.22,

††† 12.16, See also Kāma.

Deva (celestial controllers),

†††† 3.11-12, 7.23, 10.02, 18.40

Devotion, Devotee,

†††† 7.17, 8.22, 9.14, 9.22, 9.26,

††† 9.29-30, 10.07, 11.54, 11.55,

†††† 12.02, 12.08, 12.13-20, 14.26,

††† 18.54-58, 18.67

†††† Lord can be known by

†††† devotion, 18.55

†††† devotee gets knowledge,

†††††† 10.10-11

Dharma, 2.07, 4.07, 4.08, 7.11,

†††† 14.27, 18.32, 18.66

Divine Manifestation,

†††† 7.08-12, 9.16-19, 10.04-06,

††† 10.08, 10.19-41, 15.12-15

Divine Qualities, 2.52-59,

†††† 12.13-19, 13.07-11, 14.22-25,

††† 15.05, 16.01- 03, 17.14-16,

††† 18.51-58

Doubt, 4.40-42, 15.15

Dualities, 2.15, 2.38, 6.07-09,

†††† 12.17-19, 14.24, 14.25

Duty, 2.47-51, 3.17-19, 3.30,

†††† 3.35, 8.07, 18.41-48

Ego, 3.27, 7.04, 13.05, 18.17,

†††† 18.58-59

Enemy (evil), 3.37-40

Energy, 7.04, 7.05, 13.26, 13.34,

††† 15.13

Equanimity, 2.48, 2.55-58, 2.61,

††† 2.64, 2.68, 6.03, 6.33,

†††† 14.22-25, 18.57

Evolution and Involution,

†††† 8.17-20, 9.07-10, 14.03-04

Faith, 3.31, 4.39, 6.47, 7.21,

††† 7.22, 9.03, 9.23, 12.02, 12.20,

††† 13.25, 17.03, 17.13, 17.28

Food, types of, 15.14, 17.07-10

Forgiveness, 10.04, 10.34,

Gita, grace of the, 18.70-72

God (Ishvara, controller),

†††† 7.03, 7.26, 10.02, 10.15, 13.01,

††† 13.13, 13.17, 13.28, 13.33,

††† 13.34, 15.17, 18.61

†††† incarnation of, 4.06-09, 7.24,

†††† 9.11

†††† is unknowable, 10.15

Grace, divine, 2.32, 3.19, ††† 8.08,

††† 9.26, 9.29, 9.33, 11.44,

†††13.25, 18.56

Gunas (modes) of Nature,

†††† 2.45, 3.05, 3.27-29, 3.37, 4.18,

††† 5.14,7.12-14, 13.19, 13.21,

††† 13.29, 14.05-13, 14.19,

†††† 18.19-41

†††† is the rope that ties body

†††† with the soul, 14.05

†††† transcending of, 14.21-26

Guru, 2.07, 4.34

Happiness, 2.66, 5.22, 6.25,

††† 6.27, 6.28

Hatred, 6.09, 6.29, 10.36, 12.13,

†† 18.10

Heaven, 2.32, 2.37, 2.43, 8.25,

†† 9.20, 9.21, 14.14, 14.18, 18.71

Hell, three gates to, 16.21-22

Ishvara, See God

Japa, 10.25

Jiva, Jivātma (living††

††† entity), 2.22, 13.21-22, 13.34,

††† 14.06, 15.07-10, 16.21

Jnāna, See Self-knowledge

Kāla (death or time), 10.33-34,

††† 11.32

Kāma (Lust, sensual pleasure),

††† 2.71, 3.36-43, 5.23, 7.11,

††† 15.05, 16.21, 18.38

Kalp, 8.17, 9.07

Karma, 3.04, 3.31, 4.14, 4.17,

†††† 4.23, 4.37, 4.41, 5.07, 5.10,

†††† 6.03, 8.03, 9.21, 18.49

we become the puppet of our own Karma, 18.61

KarmaYoga, KarmaYogi,

†††† 2.38-40, 2.47-51, 3.03, 3.07,

††† 3.19, 3.20, 3.26, 3.30, 4.20,

††† 4.38, 4.41, 4.42, 5.02, 5.05-07,

†††† 5.10-12, 6.01, 6.02

we are not the doer, 3.27, 5.08

†††† we are just divine

†††† instruments, 11.33

†††† five causes of action, 18.14

action in inaction, 4.17-18

as the basis of renunciation, 5.04-06

is better than JnanaYoga, 5.02

†††† KarmaYogi remains untouched

††† by sin, 5.07, 5.10

KarmaYogi gets Jnāna, 4.38

sets example, 3.20-26

is cooperation, 3.12

is the first commandment, 3.10

KriyāYoga, 4.29, 6.13,

†††† Lord, as a caretaker, 9.22

as material and efficient cause,

††† 9.05, 9.07

as a friend, 9.18, 11.41, 11.44

activities of, 4.09, 18.66

as light, 11.12, 13.17, 15.06,

††† 15.12

all pervading, 6.30, 10.16,

††† 11.16, 11.20, 11.38, 11.40,

††† 13.13, 13.27-28, 15.17

as seed, 7.10, 9.18, 10.39,

††† 14.04

the savior, 12.07

the unknowable, 7.03, 7.26,

††† 10.02, 10.15

as a witness, 9.18, 13.22

Lust, See Kāma, Demonic

†††† Qualities, and Devil

Manifestation, See Divine

†††† Manifestation

Mantra, 9.16, 10.25, 10.35,

††† 17.13

Matter, 7.04, 9.05, 13.06,

†††† 13.26, 13.34,

††† See also Prakriti


Māyā, maya 4.06, 7.14, 7.15,

†††† 7.25, 13.34, 16.20

Meditation, 4.29, 4.30, 5.27,

††† 6.10-17, 6.20, 6.35, 6.37,

††† 8.08-13, 12.08

Mind, as a friend and

†††† an enemy, 6.05-06

†††† control of, 6.19, 6.34-36, 12.08

†††† the cosmic mind, 13.05

†††† two methods to subdue, 6.35

Muni (sage), 2.56, 5.28, 6.05,

†††† 10.26

Nature, See Prakriti

Nirvāna (Salvation) 4.32, 5.24-26, 6.15, 8.24, 8.26,

†††† 13.07,13.25, 14.19, 14.26,

††† 15.04, 16.05, 18.55, 18.66,

†††† 18.71, Also see

†††† BrahmaNirvana

Nonviolence, See Ahimsā

OM (AUM), 7.08, 8.13, 9.17,

†††† 0.25, 17.23, 17.24

ParaBrahma, See Supreme

†††† Being

Pleasures, 3.16, 5.21-22, 6.04,

††† 6.32, 9.20, 15.02, 15.09, 16.16,

†††† 18.34

†††† pleasure and bliss, 18.37-39

Prakriti (Nature or matter),

†††† 7.04-05, 8.18, 9.07-08, 9.10,

††† 13.05, 13.19-21, 13.23, 13.26,

††† 13.29, 14.03-05, 18.40

Prāna (life forces, bioimpulses),

†† 6.10, 8.12, 15.14, 18.33

Purusha (Self, Atman, Spirit,

†††† Energy), 7.05, 13.19-23,

†††† 13.26, 14.03, 14.04

†††† three Purushas, 15.16-17

†††† See also Atma

Reincarnation, 2.12, 2.13,

†††† 2.22, 4.05, 8.06, 14.15, 14.18,

††† 18.61

†††† determination of destiny,

††††††† 8.06-07,

†††† See also Transmigration

Sāmkhya Doctrine,

††† 7.04, 13.06, 18.13-14, 18.19

Sacrifice, See Yajna

Salvation, See Nirvana

Samādhi (trance),

†††† 2.53, 6.10, 6.26

Samskāra (impression),

†††† 6.44, 7.20, 17.03

Samnyāsa, Samnyāsi,

†††† (renunciation)

†††† 5.02-09, 6.01, 9.28, 18.02,

††† 18.49

Sat (Truth), defined, 2.16

†††† as Lord, 9.19, 11.37, 13.12,

††† 17.23, 17.26

Scriptures, 2.46, 3.15, 13.04,

†††† 16.23, 16.24

Self, See Atma, Purusha, Energy

Self-knowledge (Jnāna),

†††† 3.03, 3.39, 4.33-39, 5.16, 5.17,

†† 7.02, 8.26, 13.02, 14.02, 15.20

†††† burns all Karma, 4.37

†††† is revealed to a devotee, 10.10

Self-realization, and

Self-realized, 2.44, 3.34, 5.18,

†††† 6.22, 6.38, 7.03, 12.05

†††† marks of a Self-realized

††† person, 2.54-2.58

†††† two stumbling blocks on

†††† the path, 3.34

Sense control, 2.60-68, 3.41,

††† 18.37

Senses, 2.14, 2.58, 2.60, 2.61,

††† 2.67, 3.34, 4.39

Sensual Pleasures, See

†††† Kāma or lust

Shānti (Peace), 2.66, 2.70,

†††† 2.71, 4.39, 5.29, 6.15, 9.31,

††† 12.12, 18.62

Sin, 3.13, 3.36, 4.21, 4.36, 5.10,

††† 5.17, 9.30, 10.03, 10.36, 18.66

Soul, Spirit, See Atma

Subtle Body, 13.21, 15.08

Supreme Being (Absolute,

†††† ParaBrahma, Supersoul),

as the all pervading,

†† 4.24, 7.19, 11.40

as substratum, 7.06, 7.07,

†† 7.24-26, 7.30, 9.04-06

supports by a small

fragment ofHis energy, 10.42

as the basis of Brahma, 14.27

as seed or root of the cosmic tree, 7.10, 9.16, 9.18, 10.08, 10.39, 14.03-04, 15.01

Surrender, 7.14, 7.19, 9.32,

††† 10.09, 12.11, 15.19, 18.66

Teachings of:††††††

Buddha, 2.44, 3.37, 6.17,

†† 16.24††††††††††††††

†††† Chinmayananda, 3.12

Christ (Bible), 2.32, 3.21, 4.34,

†† 6.13, 7.03, 8.13, 9.30, 10.41,

†† 11.12, 16.24, 40 more verses

†††† Einstein, 2.15, 13.06, 13.34

†††† Gandhi, 10.36, 16.24

†††† Helen Keller, 18.68

†††† Harihar, 3.20, 10.25, 16.24,

††††††† 18.70

†††† Hariharananda, 6.13, 15.08,

†††††††† epilogue

†††† Joseph Campbell, 9.23

†††† Muhammad (Koran),

2.32, 9.30, 11.33, 15.12, 16.24, 18.61, 18.66, 18.67

†††† Nanak, 6.06, 16.23, 18.67

†††† Ramakrishna, 2.53, 4.08, 8.08,

†††††† 12.05, 16.03, 18.38, 18.67

†††† Ramana Maharshi, 13.06

†††† Sarada Ma, 6.14

†††† Shankara, 2.52, 13.33, 18.66

†††† Sivananda, 6.13

†††† Stephen Covey, 17.03, 17.20

†††† Vivekananda, 3.19

††† Yajnavalkya, 6.29

†††† Yogananda, 3.26, 6.20, 6.28,

††††††† 8.13, 9.29, 9.30, 15.12

Transmigration, or the

†††† third path, 8.26, 12.07, 14.18

†††† See also Reincarnation

Truthfulness, 10.04, 16.02,

†††† 17.15

Tyāga, Tyāgi, 18.02, 18.07-12

Values, positive, 6.09, 12.13-19,

††† 13.7-11, 16.01-03, 17.15

†††† negative, 16.04-21, 17.05-06

Vedas, mention of, 2.42, 2.45,

†††† 2.46, 2.53, 9.17, 9.20, 10.22,

†††† 11.48, 15.01, 15.15

Vocation, choice of, 3.35,

†††† 18.47-48