CHAPTER 8. THE ETERNAL BRAHM LESSON 5
The Supreme Lord said: The Supreme Absolute is called the imperishable Brahm. The individual self is called Jeev. The creative power that causes manifestation of human beings is called Karm. (8.03) Whatever object one remembers during death, one attains that object in the next life. Because of the constant thought of an object during life time, one remembers that object during death. Without sincere Saadhanaa (or spiritual practice) one may not remember God at the time of death. (8.06) Therefore, always remember Me and do your duty. You shall certainly attain Me when your mind and intellect are fixed on Me. (This is a very powerful teaching of Gita one can easily practice) (8.07) One who dies while meditating on God and uttering the word OM (Amen, or Allah), the sacred sound of Brahm; such a person attains the supreme goal or nirvaan. (8.13) I am easily attainable, O Arjun, by that ever steadfast yogi who always thinks of Me, and whose mind does not go elsewhere. (8.14) The creation is cyclic. A multitude of beings are dissolved during the arrival of the night of Brahmaa (the creator, or the creative cycle in the creation), and they again come into visual existence at the arrival of the day of Brahmaa. The night or day of the creator lasts for 4.32 billion years. (8.19) The path of light (or knowledge) and the path of darkness (or ignorance) are thought to be world's two eternal paths. The former leads to nirvaan and the latter leads to rebirth. (8.26) CHAPTER SUMMARY: Chapters 7 and 8 discuss Brahm or the metaphysics, and tell us how to understand God and attain nirvaan through metaphysics, Jnaan.
CHAPTER 9. SUPREME KNOWLEDGE
AND THE BIG MYSTERY
This entire universe is pervaded by the supreme Brahm. All beings depend on God as a gold chain depends on gold, but, God does not depend on anybody. (9.04) Creatures do not remain in Me. Look at the power of My divine mystery. Though the sustainer and creator of all creatures, I do not remain in them. (In reality, the chain does not remain in, or depend on gold. The chain is gold, or gold has become the chain. Similarly, Brahm has become the creation as water has become the wave) (9.05) All creatures remain in Me without any contact as the mighty wind, moving everywhere, eternally remains in space without any connection. (9.06) Persons of firm faith and will power worship Me with unwavering devotion by always singing My glories, trying to reach Me, and bowing down before Me. (9.14) To those ever steadfast devotees, who always remember or worship Me with single minded contemplation, I personally bring what they need and protect what they have. (9.22) (Jesus said: Father in the heaven knows all what you need. Give first place to His Kingdom and what He requires, and He will provide you everything. Matthew 6.32). This is a very powerful verse as well as a promise of the Lord. Whosoever offers Me anything such as a leaf, a flower, a fruit, or even water with devotion; I accept and eat the offering of devotion by the pure hearted. (9.26) (A dedicated heart full of devotion, not complicated rituals, is needed to obtain grace) O Arjun, whatever you do, whatever you eat, whatever you offer as oblation to the sacred fire, whatever charity you give, whatever austerity you perform, do everything as an offering to Me. (9.27) The Supreme spirit is present equally in all human beings. There is no one hateful or dear to Me. But those who worship Me with devotion, they are with Me and I am also with them. (The door of devotion is open to all. Those who can enter become one with the lord) (9.29) Even the most sinful person must be regarded as a saint if he or she resolves to remember Me with single minded devotion, because, he or she has made the right resolution. (9.30) (There is no unforgivable sin or sinner. The fire of sincere repentance burns all sins) Fix your mind on Me, be devoted to Me, worship Me, and bow down to Me. Thus uniting yourself with Me, and setting Me as the highest goal and the sole refuge, you shall certainly come to Me. (9.34) CHAPTER SUMMARY: Discusses the big mystery of the creator and how one can attain Nirvaan through Bhakti or the love of God. Note: The word God is a general term used for all the various aspects of the Absolute. It is generally used for the controller and supporter (Vishnu) aspect of the Supreme. Thus, there is only one Supreme, and all other names and forms are just the manifestation for our worship and prayer only. And yes, you can see God not in the Absolute form, but only through one of the various aspects, we call and worship as deities. The worship of deities is not idolatory if done with proper understanding of the spiritual principles behind it. He is in every rock. Even Joseph Campbell agrees to it.
I am the source of all. Everything originates from Me. Understanding this, the wise ones worship Me with love and devotion. (10.08). The Vedas say: That which is one has become this all. Arjun said: O Lord of the universe, the creator of all beings, God of all gods, the Supreme person; nobody can know You. Only You know Yourself. (Only God knows God!) (10.15) The Supreme Lord Said: I am the fraud of the gambler, I am the splendor of the splendid, I am the victory of the of the victorious, I am the resolution of the resolute; I am the goodness of the good. (10.36)
CHAPTER 11. VISION OF THE COSMIC FORM Arjun Said: O Lord, You are as You have said to be, yet I wish to see Your divine cosmic form, O Supreme Being. (11.03) The Supreme Lord Said: O Arjun, you cannot see Me with your physical eye; therefore, I give you the divine vision by which you can see My majestic power and glory. (11.08) Arjun said: O Lord of the universe, with the divine vision I see You everywhere with infinite form, with many arms, stomachs, faces, and eyes. Neither do I see the beginning nor the middle nor the end of Your Universal Form, or the creation. (11.16) The Supreme Lord said: O Arjun, neither by study of the Vedas, nor by austerity, nor by charity, nor by ritual, can I be seen in this form as you have seen Me. (11.53) However, through single minded devotion I can be seen in this form, can be known in essence, and also can be reached, O Arjun. (11.54) One who does all works only for Me, and to whom I am the supreme goal; who is my devotee, free from attachment, and without enmity towards all living beings; such a person realizes Me, O Arjun. (11.55) CHAPTER SUMMARY: Chapter 10 discusses that everything has come out of Brahm and goes back into Brahm. Chapter 11 again emphasizes the importance of devotion (Bhakti) in spiritual journey.
CHAPTER 12. PATH OF DEVOTION
The Supreme Lord said: I consider them to be the best yogis who worship, with supreme faith, by fixing their mind on Me as the personal god with a form. (12.02) The God-realization is more difficult for those who worship or meditate on the formless impersonal God, because the perception of a formless God by the average human being is very difficult. The path of deity worship is considered faster and easier path for the beginners. (12.05) Focus your mind on Me and let your intellect contemplate upon Me through meditation. Thereafter you shall certainly come to Me. (12.08) One who neither rejoices nor grieves, neither likes nor dislikes, who has renounced both the good and the evil, and who is full of devotion, such a person is dear to Me. (12.17) But those devotees who sincerely practice the above mentioned immortal principles with faith and set Me as their supreme goal; they are very dear to Me. (12.20) Note: True devotion (Bhakti) is intense love for God.
CHAPTER 13. CREATION AND THE CREATOR
Brahm is the root of entire creation, O Arjun. The true understanding of both the creator and the creation is called Jnaan, or the metaphysical knowledge. (13.02) Constant reflection and the understanding of the agony and suffering inherent in birth, old age, disease, and death are being called the understanding of the Fourfold Noble Truth in Buddhism. (13.08) (The disgust for worldly pleasures is a necessary prelude for spiritual journey. This verse formed the basis of Buddhism. This proves that even a single verse of the Gita can change a person if applied in life.) God is inside as well as outside all inanimate and animate beings. The Supreme God is not formless (or void), but has a transcendental form and personality beyond comprehension of human mind, therefore, one cannot see or know Her/Him. He/She/It is very near as well as far away. (13.15) The Spirit (Atmaa) associates with matter, becomes an individual soul (Jeev) and experiences joys and sorrows. The attachment to material objects, due to ignorance caused by the illusory energy (Maayaa), is the cause of Jeev's birth in good and evil wombs. (13.21) The one who can perceive the imperishable spirit dwelling within all perishable living beings truly understands. (13.27) They who grasp the difference between matter and spirit understand that creation is non-different from the creator, and discover the process of liberation of soul (Jeev) from the bondage of body with the help of any one of the four paths---Sevaa, Knowledge, Devotion, and Meditation (Karm, Jnaan, Bhakti, and Dhyaan). (13.34) CHAPTER SUMMARY: Chapter 12 discusses devotion (Bhakti) and deity worship and gives certain good qualities or values that a devotee has, and by developing those qualities one can become a devotee. Chapter 13 gives a universal value system, talks about the creation and the creator, and the paths leading to nirvaan.
CHAPTER 14. THREE GUNAS (MODES) OF NATURE
O Arjun, The material nature is the womb wherein I place the seed of spirit from which all living beings are born. (Living beings are products of a combination of matter and spirit, or material and spiritual energies of the Lord) (14.03) Sattv or calmness and goodness, Rajas or activity and passion, and Tamas or inertia and laziness---these three Gunas (modes, or states) of mind bind the imperishable Spirit (Atmaa) to the body. (14.05) When one rises above these three Gunas (the laziness, activity, and calmness) that originate in the body; one is freed from birth, old age, disease, and death; and attains nirvaan. (14.20) The one who is indifferent to honor and disgrace; who is the same to friend and foe; who has renounced the sense of ownership and doership; they are said to have risen above the three modes (Gunas) and attain nirvaan. (14.25) (Sattv, the goodness, is the topmost rung of the ladder leading to the roof of the Truth, it is not the Truth as such. One can rise above the Gunas and reach the top of the roof with the two wings of faith and devotion.)
CHAPTER 15. THE SUPREME PERSON
Those who are free from pride, who have conquered the devil of attachment, whose mind is constantly dwelling in the Supreme Self, whose selfish desires are completely pacified, who are free from the pair of opposites such as gain and loss, pleasure and pain; such persons attain nirvaan, the goal of human birth. (15.05) The Jeev (individual Self) in the body is Lord's eternal part as the sun's ray is eternal part of the sun. Spirit (Atmaa) associates with the body and activates the six senses. (15.07) As the air takes away the aroma from the flower, similarly the Jeev takes the six senses from the body it leaves during death to another new body it acquires in reincarnation. (15.08) I (Brahm, the Supreme Personality of Godhead) am seated in the hearts of all beings. Memory, knowledge, as well as the removal of doubts and wrong notions about God by reasoning come from Me. I can be known by the study of the Vedas. I am, indeed, the author of the Vedas and all other scriptures. (15.15) I am beyond the perishable objects in the creation, and higher than even the eternal Brahm (Spirit, Brahman or Atmaa); therefore, I am known in this world and in the Vedas as the Supreme Spirit. (15.18) CHAPTER SUMMARY: Chapter 14 discusses the three inherent Gunas or states of the material nature and their role in keeping the wheel of creation in motion. Each and everyone of us is a slave of three modes (Gunas) of Nature, and therefore we should look at both the saint and the sinner with equal respect. Chapter 15 discusses the Supreme Spirit and the individual soul or the Jeev and the relationship between the two.
CHAPTER 16. DIVINE AND THE DEMONIC QUALITIES
Lust, anger, and greed are the three gates of hell leading to the Karmic bondage, and transmigration of souls (Jeev). Speaking ill of others is the most heinous sin, because, it pollutes the mind of the speaker first without any beneficial effect on the other person. Therefore, one must practice to give up these. (16.21) Let the scripture be your guide in determining what should be done and what should not be done. You should perform your duty following the scriptural injunction. (16.24). The Veda says: The world becomes sweet and beautiful to those who live their lives in accordance with the scriptural injunction (Rig Veda 1.90.06). There are only two castes of people: the good or divine, and the bad or demonic.
CHAPTER 17. THREEFOLD FAITH LESSON 8
O Arjun, the faith of each is in accordance with one's own nature. A person is known by the faith. One becomes what one constantly thinks. (17.03)
Whatever a person of purified mind desires, one obtains those objects. The doer of good acts becomes good, and the doer of evil becomes evil. One becomes virtuous by virtuous deeds and vicious by vicious acts (The Upanishads). One becomes what one constantly and intensely thinks of; irrespective of the reasons, which may be reverence, fear, jealousy, love, or even hatred (The Bhaagavat Puraan). We are the product of our own thoughts and desires, our own architect. Where there is a will there is a way. We should harbor noble thoughts, because thoughts precede deeds. Thought controls our physical, mental, financial, as well as spiritual well-being. We have such a great power at our disposal, yet the irony is that we fail to use it. If you don't have what you want, you are not committed to it one hundred percent. You are the cause of everything that happens to you. Stephen Covey says: "The best way to predict your future is to create it".
One must speak words that are truthful, pleasant or non-offensive, and beneficial. One should not speak truth in an offensive manner, and avoid flattery that is pleasant but untrue and non-beneficial. (17.15) The charity that is given unwillingly, or in order to get something in return, or looking for some fruit has no value. (17.21) Whatever is done without faith; whether it is sacrifice, charity, austerity, or any other act has no value here or hereafter. (17.28) (The power of faith acts like a magnet that draws the cosmic power or the grace to us according to Joseph Campbell) CHAPTER SUMMARY: Chapter 16 discusses the value system or the good and the bad qualities in people and the importance of developing divine qualities as a means to spiritual progress. Chapter 17 discusses that everything including people, foods, charity, faith etc. are of three types based on the Gunas of Nature.
CHAPTER 18. LIBERATION THROUGH RENUNCIATION
The Supreme Lord said: The sages call Samnyaas as the renunciation of selfish work. The wise define Tyaag as the renunciation of attachment to the fruit of all work. (18.02) The embodied beings are unable to completely abstain from works. Therefore, one who renounces the fruit of work is considered a Tyaagi or renunciant. (18.11) The sensual pleasures appear like nectar in the beginning, but become like poison in the end. The sensual pleasures wear out the vigor of the body and mind, and results in disease and suffering in the end. Such pleasures must be avoided. (18.38) All beings originate from, and are pervaded by Brahm. Worshipping Him by performing one's duty for Him one attains nirvaan. (18.46) After renouncing the feeling of doership or egotism, violence, pride, lust, anger, and desire for possession; one becomes fit for attaining oneness with Brahm. (18.53) By devotion one can truly understand what, and who I am in essence. After knowing Me in essence, one immediately merges into Me. The Vedas say that the knower of Brahm becomes Brahm. (18.55) Mentally offer all actions to Me and be devoted to Me. Be calm and always fix your mind on Me. Everything we use or eat should be first offered to God before using or eating. (18.57) The Lord dwells in the heart of all beings, and causes everybody to work out their Karm by His power of Maayaa as if they are puppets (of Karm) mounted on a machine. (18.61) Setting aside all righteous deeds just surrender unto the divine will with loving contemplation. I shall liberate you from all sins (or the bonds of Karm). Do not grieve. (18.66) (Surrendering to God means realization that everything is controlled by the laws or the will of God, by His power and direction; and we are just a puppet of our own Karm. When one firmly understands that there is nothing else except Brahm, all responsibility or Karm ceases and one attains nirvaan) (This is the third most important verse of Gita to remember as well as the summary of the teachings of Gita). The Koran says: Whoever follows My Guidance, no fear shall come upon them neither shall they grieve. (Surah 2.38) One who shall study or propagate this supreme secret philosophy of Gita amongst My devotees, shall be performing the highest devotional service to Me and shall certainly realize Me. (18.68) No other person shall do a more pleasing service to Me, and no one on earth shall be more dear to Me. (18.69)
(Therefore, you are requested to Xerox and distribute the one page sample lesson, provided at the end of these lessons, to people who you think may be ready to study Gita)
Wherever is Krishn, the lord of yog; and wherever is Arjun, the archer; there will be everlasting prosperity, victory, happiness, and morality. This is my conviction. (18.78) This last verse of Gita again emphasizes that one should acquire this knowledge without leaving one's duty in life. The peace and prosperity come where duty or Arjun, and Knowledge or Krishn both are present. Swami Harihar says: The daily reading of Gita will recharge mental batteries and add meaning to otherwise dull routine life. Lord Krishn did not teach Arjun to escape from his family life and duty.
CHAPTER SUMMARY: This concluding chapter gives the summary of the basic philosophy of Gita. As it was mentioned earlier that all problems of the world are, primarily, due to Ajnaan, the lack of metaphysical or the Self-knowledge. This may be called the fundamental problem. Therefore, propagation of this supreme knowledge is the highest service to the humanity and the one who does this in any way or form is dearest to the Lord and obtains His grace. Nirvaan can be attained by doing one's DUTY in life without attachment, by performing certain DISCIPLINES to keep the senses under control, and by DEVOTION to God. Thus DUTY, DISCIPLINE, and DEVOTION are the three Ds of Gita to be learned, remembered, and practiced. You may form a Gita study group in your area with our help.
The essence of Gita is summarized below:
1. Why do you worry? Who are you afraid of? Whatever has happened has happened for the good. What is happening is also happening for the good. Whatever will happen, will be for good also. Do not repent over the past, or worry for the future. Do your duty selflessly---and to the best of your abilities---in the present only.
2. What have you lost for which you cry? You did not bring anything to this world when you were born. You are unnecessarily attached to your possessions. This attachment is the root cause of all your sufferings. Treat all your possessions as a trust property given to you by the God. Let the thoughts of 'I' and 'my' be completely wiped of your mind. Practice detached attachment. Always remember the creator, and surrender to the will of the Lord.
3. Why worry about the unavoidable death? Change is the law of nature. Atmaa (Spirit) is the abode of body, and the body is an abode for the individual soul (Jeev). This physical body was not here in the past, nor will it remain here for ever. But, the Atmaa is immortal. It neither takes birth nor dies. Atmaa only changes its bodies as you change your garments.
Lord Krishn on the eve of His departure from the arena of this world, after finishing the difficult task of establishing Dharm, gave His last parting discourse to His cousin brother, Uddhav who was also His dearest devotee and follower. At the end of a long sermon comprising of more than one thousand verses, Uddhav said: O Lord, I think the pursuit of yog as You narrated to Arjun, and now to me is very difficult, indeed, for most people, because, it requires control of the unruly mind and senses. Please tell me a short, simple, and easy way to God-Realization. Lord Krishn upon Uddhava's request gave the essentials of Self-Realization for the modern age as follows:
(1) Do your duty to the best of your abilities for the Lord without any selfish motive, and remember God at all times---before starting a work, at the completion of a task, and while inactive.
(2) Practice to look upon all creatures as Myself in thought, word, and deed, and mentally bow down to them.
(3) Perceive that the power of God is with you at all times (by the practice of yogic techniques); through the activities of mind, senses, breathing, and emotions; and is constantly doing all the work using you as a mere instrument.
Paramahams Hariharanand says: God is in everything as well as above everything. So if you want to realize Him, you must seek Him in every atom, in every matter, in every bodily function, and in every human being. This is Self-Realization.
Books highly recommended for further study:
IGS carries only publications 1 and 2 listed below: Publications # 2, 3, and many other books are also available from South Asia Books (SAB), PO Box 502, Columbia, mo 65205 (573-474-0116, fax 573 474 8124
(1) "The Bhagavad-Gita" (Pocket size) in simple English by The International Gita Society; available, free, on internet (www.gitaSociety.com) for you to read and copy. This will be given free, for the asking, however, you are requested to share with others what you have learned from this course and tell us. But, you MUST send a 9.5” x 4.2” SASE with 3 stamps. No SASE, No GITA!!
(2) The "The Bhagavad-Gita" © by The International Gita Society, Translated by Dr. Ramananda Prasad.
ISBN 0-9621099-3-2, Published by the largest Indological publisher, Motilal of New Delhi; with original Sanskrit verses, English transliteration, translation, commentary, index, and glossary of Sanskrit words; 351 pages in two colors, $18 (specify Hard cover or paperback) price/offering includes Postage and Handling. Author has donated seed money, copyrights as well as all proceeds and royalty to IGS. Send cash, postal Stamps or Check (Tax-deductable) or money order payable to the
"INTERNATIONAL GITA SOCIETY" and mail to: 511 Lowell Place, Fremont, Ca 94536
NOTE: Two reprints of this book has been SOLD OUT in India & USA within a year.
Available also at Barnes & Noble Bookstores.
IGS does not accept credit cards, but South Asia Books does
(3) Bhagavad-Gita by Swami Sivananda, Divine Life Society., Price $19+S&H, from Vedanta Society.
A word for the youth from Swami Vivekanand:
"Whatever you are doing, put your whole mind on it. If you are shooting, your mind should be only on the target. Then you will never miss. If you are learning your lessons, think only of the lesson. In India boys and girls are taught to do this".
Meditation II, and Further Study of the Gita
Meditation II and a mantra will be given to those who have practiced Meditation I regularly for couple of months, feel the progress, and tell us their experience/difficulties. The study of Gita should not end even after enlightenment. Students may now continue the self-study of the Gita and write to us if you need help in understanding certain difficult verses. We do not have finances to send you a free book at this time (May the Lord send us a donor to support this in the future!!). You may request somebody or the chaplain to buy. You must enclose a 9.5” x 4.2” SASE for any reply due to high demand and our limited resources of time and money. No SASE, no reply. Sorry.
All our services are absolutely free; no membership dues, fees, or donation is ever asked from the students in accordance with the great Vedic tradition. However, persons interested in helping to promote the ideals of the society (in their own way) please write to us.
Some Review Comments ......
On the Second Edition of the Bhagavad-Gita, published by the International Gita Society and Motilal of New Delhi.
"..... his deft renderings are elegantly simple, easy to understand, and unencumbered by commentary.... second edition has been revised and enlarged with a view to underline the unity between major teachings of the great religions of the world. An ambitious work that will be appreciated by all who study the Gita.''
---HINDUISM TODAY (International Edition)
"...I like the style and the ability to communicate the teachings of the Bhagavad-Gita to the lay reader in a clear manner. I am impressed by the explanations of the KarmYog and the theory and philosophy of service to people (Sevaa) so beautifully expounded ...."
--- Professor. S. Tilak, Department of Religion, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada.
“ .... Judicious use of Sanskrit in the translation conveys its majestic beauty to the reader. It is marked by simplicity, terseness, and clarity and is devoid of superfluity. This book is refreshingly free from any sectarian slant.....”
---Vedanta Kesari, Madras
“...Any serious reader of the Gita would find this book useful and rewarding....” --- Prabuddha Bharata, Calcutta
“....I personally find many translations tedious because of complex structure and lack of brief definitions of Sanskrit words. I found this translation is simply beautiful because it is beautifully simple..” --- Rev. Phil Buzard, New York
Answers to quiz1: (1) Nonviolence (Ahimsaa) (3) Saadhanaa (Meditation) and Sevaa that leads to Self-knowledge, that leads to Detachment (verse 6.35) (5) Likes and dislikes for material objects and sensual pleasures (verse 3.34). Meditation technique is on page 12. All answers are in these lessons, discover it and enjoy.
Dr. Prasad, a 1959 Engineering graduate of the Indian Institute of Technology at Kharagpur, India, obtained his M.S. degree from the University of Toronto, and a Ph.D. in Civil Engineering from the University of Illinois. He has worked in research, teaching, several Consulting Engineering firms, as well as State and Federal Governments in the U.S.A. Currently he is a supervisor at the U.S. Navy. He has published several papers in the Journals of the American Society of Civil Engineers.
The author is the founder and charter member of several non-profit, tax-exempt religious organizations in the San Francisco Bay Area: The Vedic Dharm Samaj, that now runs the Fremont Hindu Temple; The Ramayan Sabha, and The Universal Yoga Center. He founded the International Gita Society (IGS) whose aim is to serve the humanity through the immortal teachings of the Bhagavad-Gita and other major world scriptures, and to establish harmony between all cultures, races, religions, castes, creeds, and faiths of the world through the immortal teachings of all great masters. His dream is to put the Holy Bhagavad-Gita in Hotels, Motels, Hospitals---through the International Gita Society---all over the world as our Christian brothers have done for the Holy Bible through their American Bible Society. Please lend us your helping hands---in your own way---and be a partner in a great cause. Note: Dr. Prasad has been doing this Sevaa as his hobby since 1984, and has donated his copyrights and all proceeds from the sale of the book to the IGS.
(Also Known as American Gita Society)
The International Gita Society (IGS) is a non-profit, tax-exempt spiritual organization founded in 1984 to enlighten and serve the humanity through the medium of the Bhagavad-Gita. The Aims and Objectives of IGS include the following:
1. To publish the Bhagavad-Gita in English and other languages and distribute it at a nominal subsidized cost, and put the Gita in libraries, hospitals, hotels, motels, and other public places throughout the world, starting from India and the USA, similar to what the International Bible Society has done for the Bible all over the world.
2. To Spread the basic Non-sectarian Universal Teachings of Shrimad Bhagavad-Gita and other Vedic scriptures in an easy to understand language by establishing branches of the Society in other countries to be named as: International Gita Society (IGS).
3. To provide support, and guidance in establishing Gita Study and Discussion (Satsang) Groups, and provide free Gita correspondence course to the youth, students, busy executives and other interested persons.
4. To provide inspiration, cooperation, and support to persons and non-profit organizations engaged in the study and propagation of the Vedic knowledge; and to arrange lectures, seminars, and short courses on meditation, yoga, and metaphysical sciences.
5. To break the barriers between faiths, and establish unity of races, religions castes, and creeds through the immortal non-sectarian teachings of the Vedas, Upanishads, Gita, Ramayana, as well as other major world scriptures such as the Dhammapada, the Bible, the Koran, etc.; and to promote the Universal Brotherhood of Mankind.