Just as the
soul acquires a childhood body, a youth body,
and an old-age body during this life, similarly, the soul acquires another body
after death. This should not delude the wise. (See also 15.08) (2.13)
as a person puts on new garments after discarding the old ones, similarly, the
living entity or the individual soul acquires new bodies after casting away the
old bodies. (2.22)
All beings are unmanifest (or
invisible) to our physical eyes before birth and after death. They manifest
between birth and death only. What is there to grieve about? (2.28)
All actions are performed by the forces (or Gunas) of Nature, but due to delusion of ego or ignorance,
people assume themselves to be the doer. (See also 5.09, 13.29, and 14.19)
There is nothing higher than Me, the
Supreme Being, O Arjuna. Everything in the universe is strung on Me like different jewels are strung on the thread of a
After many births, the enlightened one resorts to Me by realizing that everything is, indeed, My manifestation.
Such a great soul is very rare. (7.19)
All this is, of course, the Spirit
because everything is born from, rests in, and merges into the Spirit (ChU 3.14.01). All this is Spirit. The Spirit
is everywhere. All this universe is, indeed, Spirit (MuU 2.02.11). The Bible says: You are gods (John 10.34).
The Vedas and Upanishads declare: (1) Consciousness is Spirit (AiU 3.03 in Rigveda). (2) I am
Spirit (BrU 1.04.10 in Yajurveda).
(3) You are Spirit (ChU
6.08.07 in Samaveda). (4) The Spirit is also called Atma (or Brahman, Brahm, Brahma) (MaU
02 in Atharvaveda). That which
is One has become all these (RV 8.58.02). The entire
creation and every order of reality are nothing but another form of divinity.
male musk deer, after a vain search for the
cause of the scent of the musk, at last will have to find the musk in himself.
After God-realization, one sees that it is the Spirit of God (or Consciousness)
that has become the universe and all living beings. Everything is consciousness.
Creation is like countless waves appearing in the ocean of consciousness by
the wind of divine power (Maya). Everything, including the primordial divine
energy called Maya, is nothing but part and parcel of the Absolute.
Neither the celestial controllers nor the great sages know My origin because I am the origin of celestial controllers
and great sages also. (10.02)
One who knows Me as the unborn, the beginningless, and the Supreme Lord of the universe, is
considered wise among mortals and becomes liberated from the bondage of Karma. (10.03)
Discrimination, Self-knowledge, non-delusion, forgiveness,
truthfulness, control over the mind and senses, tranquility, pleasure, pain,
birth, death, fear, fearlessness, nonviolence, equanimity, contentment,
austerity, charity, fame, ill fame ¾
these diverse qualities in human beings arise from Me alone. (10.04-05)
The great saints, sages, and all the creatures of the world
were born from My potential energy. (10.06)
One who truly understands My
manifestations and yogic powers, is united with Me by unswerving devotion.
There is no doubt about it. (10.07)
I am the origin of all. Everything emanates from Me. The wise who understand this adore Me
with love and devotion. (10.08)
which is One has
become this all (RV 8.58.02).
My devotees remain ever content and delighted. Their minds
remain absorbed in Me and their lives surrendered unto
Me. They always enlighten each other by
talking about Me. (10.09)
THE SUPREME CAN BE DESCRIBED BY
PARABLES, AND NOT IN ANY OTHER WAY
I shall fully describe the Supreme Being ¾ the
object of knowledge. By knowing this one attains immortality. The beginningless Supreme Being is said to be neither eternal
nor temporal. (See also 9.19, 11.37, and 15.18) (13.12)
the beginning there was neither Eternal Being (Sat, Brahma) nor temporal (Asat, Divine Beings, Devas)¾ no
sky, no air, neither day nor night. There was nothing whatsoever other than the
Absolute Supreme Being (RV 10.129.01, AiU 1.01). The
Absolute is beyond both Divine Beings (celestial controllers, Devas) and the Eternal Being (Spirit) (Verse 15.18).
Therefore, He is neither temporal nor eternal. The Supreme Being or the
Absolute is also both temporal and eternal (Verse 9.19) and beyond temporal and
eternal (Verses 11.37, 15.18) because He is everywhere, in everything, and also
beyond everything. Therefore, the Absolute is all three ¾ neither temporal nor
eternal, beyond both temporal and eternal, as well as both temporal and eternal
at the same time.
The Supreme Being has His hands,
feet, eyes, head, mouth, and ears everywhere because He is all-pervading and
He is the perceiver of all sense objects without the physical
sense organs; unattached, and yet the
sustainer of all; devoid of the three modes of material Nature, and yet the
enjoyer of the modes of material Nature by becoming the living entity. (13.14)
Self walks without legs, hears
without ears, performs many actions without hands, smells without a nose, sees
without eyes, speaks without a mouth, and enjoys all tastes without a tongue.
All His actions are so marvelous that one finds His greatness utterly beyond
description (TR 1.117.03-04). The Supreme Being may be described only by
parables and paradoxes and in no other way. (See also ShU
3.19). Self expands Himself as the living entity to enjoy three modes of
does not possess a body like an ordinary being. All His senses are
transcendental, or out of this world. His potencies are multifarious. Any one
of His senses can perform the action of any other sense. All His deeds are automatically
performed as a natural consequence.
He is inside as well as outside all beings, animate and
inanimate. He is incomprehensible because of His subtlety. And because of His
omnipresence, He is very near ¾
residing in our inner psyche ¾ as
well as far away in the Supreme Abode. (13.15)
He is undivided, yet appears to exist as if divided in living
beings. He is the object of knowledge and appears as the Creator (Brahm|), Sustainer (Vishnu), and
Destroyer (Shankara) of all beings. (See also 11.13, and 18.20) (13.16)
planet earth appears divided into so many countries; one country appears
divided into several states; one state appears divided into counties, and so
on; similarly, one Reality appears as many. These are apparent divisions
because they have the same order of reality. The term God is used for the
Generator, Operator, and Destroyer aspects of Self.
The Supreme Being is the source of all lights. He is said to be
beyond darkness of ignorance. He is Self-knowledge, the object of Self-knowledge,
and seated in the inner psyche as
consciousness (or Ishvara in verse 18.61) of all
beings, He is to be realized by Self-knowledge. (13.17)
am the light of knowledge of the world. Whoever follows me will have the light
of life and will never walk in the darkness of ignorance (John 8.12). One who
knows the Almighty as much more radiant than
the sun and beyond the darkness of material reality, transcends death. There
is no other way (YV 31.18, SV 3.08). The Supreme is beyond the reach
of senses and mind. It cannot be described or defined by words. Different means
of attaining the Supreme continue below:
Thus, I have briefly described
creation, as well as Self-knowledge and the object of Self-knowledge.
Understanding this, My devotee attains My Supreme
About God or Brahman, Part 2: Brahman and
One who says that I know Brahman does not know; one who knows the Truth says
that I do not know. Brahman is the unknown to a person of true knowledge,
it is known only to the ignorant ---Ken Upanishad 2.01-03
An attempt by: Ramananda Prasad
In Sanskrit the meaning of a
word is based on the verbal root from which the word is derived.The word “Brahman” (also spelled as
“Brahma”) is a noun derived from the verbal root “Briha” which means to become
big.Thus the noun Brahman derived from
the verbal root “Briha” means “bigness”.In English, however, the word Brahman is not translated as bigness, but
as Absolute Reality.Let us first
examine the meaning of Absolute Reality.Absolute means ultimate, independent, existing all by itself or complete
by itself, and reality means nature, quality, or substance of objects. Thus
Absolute Reality means ultimate nature of objects, called Brahman in
Sanskrit.This word also means the
substance that exists independent of all other substances and from which all
other substances are derived. That from
which the origin, sustenance, and dissolution of this universe are derived is
called the Absolute (BS 1.01.02, TaU 3.01.01).Thus the Absolute Reality, the
substance from which everything is derived, must be “Big” or limitless, because
everything else is either derived from it or is included in it.Because it is absolute, there is nothing
else other thanthe Absolute Reality,
the substratum of everything. Thus Brahman is all encompassing substance ---
the root cause of everything, known or unknown, seen or perceived, feelings or
emotions, thoughts or things.Everything is included in the “Bigness” ofBrahman. Nothing is left out --- including God.
Brahman is indestructible,
dimensionless, beginningless, and limitless. It cannot be measured, seen, or
described by a human being that is limited in everyway.Brahman is ever present and beyond time and
space. Actually time and space are included in Brahman. It is the ever present
reality of all objects and is also called “Sat” or permanent in Sanskrit. It is
also present in the form of consciousness (Chit) or awareness in all living
beings that cannot be seen or felt. Brahman in the form of awareness is not
present in non-living objects, but Sat is present in both living and non-living
objects. Brahman is also limitless (Ananta). Thus Brahman is referred as
Sat-Chit-Ananta, or Sacchidananta from point of view of all objects, living or
Everything, perceivable or non-perceivable,
in the cosmos is nothing but an apparent transformation of Brahman. It is the
cause of all causes. Thus there is Brahman and Brahman only and nothing else.
Brahman has apparently assumed different forms like water assumes different
forms such as ice, vapor, ocean, waves, ripples, etc. The entire creation is
born in time and space, and the time and space abides in Brahman. Thus Brahman
is the absolute reality of everything including me, you, the animals, plants,
minerals, our thoughts, knowledge, ignorance, happiness, suffering, etc. Thus
there is nothing other than Brahman.
Brahman is often described as
formless, because its transcendental or subtle form cannot be perceived by our
senses. It can take any form. All forms are nothing but an apparent change of
Brahman from one form to another. Thus it cannot be formless in a real sense.
Everything has a form --- visible or invisible to human eyes.The process or the forces (Shakti) that
cause this apparent change or creation is called Lord, the creator. The product
of the change is called creation that includes both living and non-living
Brahman itself is actionless
awareness, and without Maya, the power of nature, it cannot create the world of
objects, emotions and thoughts. This Maya, the efficient cause of creation is
not separate from Brahman. Similarly, both the material of creation or the
material cause of the creation is also in Brahman. Thus the Brahman is not only
the entire creation, but also both the material and efficient cause of the
creation. It is the creator as well as the creation, all in one. One who
understands Brahman in this way can say: I am the limitless Brahman, called
Atma, that dwells in the body-mind complex; and not this body-mind complex
which is limited. With the dawn of the knowledge of Brahman, one gets rid of
want, unhappiness and limitations and attains full maturity and bliss called Nirvana.
The purity of mind that comes from selfless service, KarmaYoga, is required to
gain the knowledge of Brahman or the Self-knowledge. "Truly, there is no purifier in
this world like the true knowledge of the Supreme Being. One discovers this knowledge
within, naturally, in course of time when one's mind is cleansed of selfishness
by KarmaYoga. (See also Gita 4.31, 5.06, and 18.78). (Gita 4.38)"
“The scriptures mention four kinds of Mukti. They are:
1) Saalokya Mukti:
When a devotee worships a particular god, he will ultimately
obtain a place in the heavenly abode of that particular god. This is called as
‘Saalokya Mukti’. The method of worship followed here is called as ‘Charya’. It
is a method in which the seeker considers himself a slave and the god as the
Supreme Lord. DvaitaVaadi attain this.
2) Saaroopya Mukti :
A devotee practising even more intense devotion will not only
obtain a place in the heavenly abode, but will also acquire the qualities of the
god he worships. The method of worship followed here is called as ‘Kriya’. Kriya
here means performing Pooja, Homa and other rituals.
3) Saameepya Mukti:
If the worship is even more intense, the seeker will not only
acquire the qualities of the god he worships, but will also gain a godly form
and feels he is very near God. This method is called ‘Yoga’. Here Yoga means the
eight steps of Ashtanga Yoga.
4)Saayujya or Kaivalya Mukti :
When the worshiper transcends the Saguna form and reaches the
Nirguna form, the seeker will realise that Jeevatma and Paramatma are one and
the same, "Aham Brahmaasmi". This is called Saayujya Mukti. The instrument to obtain this is
‘Jnana’. Jnana means realising the Atma Tattva that if water is in the wave, then wave is none
other than water (creation or Jeeva is Brahman like wave is water) with the help of Nitya Anitya
Vastu Viveka as given in Upanishads and Vedantic texts.
The first three are not important. Although they are referred to as Mukti, the
real meaning of Mukti is not reflected by them because those three kinds of
Mukti are not permanent. Also, in each of the three, the Jeevi will be having
some sort of form. After the merit is exhausted, he will lose the celestial body
and will again take birth as a mortal.
The fourth type of Mukti is different. In this, the Jeevi will not have a body
and will not have another birth either. Only Kaivalya Mukti should be considered as real
Mukti. Those who attain kaivalya may also take birth as saints and sages for the benefit of other
Jeevas, but they are not bothered by oldage, disease, death and even rebirth.
Lessons in Vedanta - 32 part VIII
Bhakti Mala, June - July, 1998
(4) About God, Part 4:
The following is contributed by:
Philippe De Coster, DD
President, Gita Society of Belgium
I do like your new article based on Ken Upanishad 2.01-03, as it clearly explains
the name Brahman, the Eternal Truth, the real Self, the highest experience and
the only Universal Reality or Omnipresent Reality which is the Truth of all life
and existence whether visible or invisible. Brahman is the Alpha and Omega as
described in the Apocalypse (Revelation) of the Bible, the beginning and the end,
the no beginning and no end, or the eternal ageless of beginning, end and beginning
again. Brahman is the One besides Whom there is nothing else existent. Like stated
in the second part of the Bible by Paul, “in Brahman we live, move and have our being”.
There is no experience or conception by which we can limit it. When Deepak Chopra
referred to “Intelligent Principle”, he really meant in technological words “Brahman”.
For the advanced Gîtâ yogi this may sound rather “cool”, devoid of any
“Divine Sentimentality”, but “Intelligent Principle” may appeal to many people
today as it did to me when I was 25, but only as a stepping on to further approach on
the Brahman’s Path. The more one reads the Gîtâ, going pair with pondering, meditation
and adjusted living in selflessness (see the Ten Commandments of Hinduism), and the
more the Timeless enters Time, the Spaceless into Space, and the Causality in the
cause and effect. As for us Gîtâ yogis, the Intelligent Principle or Collective
Consciousness Force (the psychologist Carl Gustav Jung) enter the world of living
entities through the Supreme Lord Krishna, the Divine Sentimentality among us, the
recompense for our efforts, the peace within ourselves, the light that shines within
in all its brightness, as through His Presence the “living soul” enters the deeper
reality behind things seen. (The Lord Krishna eases our way.) The Gîtâ is the right
approach for the whole wide world today. Creation is the body of Brahman, and the
Physical Body of the Spirit (Brahman, Atma). In meditation where the yogi is brought
to a higher dimension (being in the world, but not of the materialistic world),
the human body and spirit in one oneness (infused) with Brahman, become the
expression of the deeper reality. As Deepak Chopra said, “spirituality is awareness
of awareness”. And, we have to become aware of our awareness, in other words,
“Know Thyself”.Science and spirituality go pair, but from spirituality we can expect
liberation and realisation.
OM TAT SAT
Canyon Heights Drive Fremont, CA
490-5576 (Home) (408)
853-5814 (Work) email@example.com WHAT IS A
sentence that reveals the identity between jiva, the individual, and Ishvara,
the Lord, is considered a Mahavakya(s), the great saying(s).
a compound of words mahat, meaning "great", and vakya, the form of
the root vac, "to speak". Mahavakya compound means "that which
is great and which is a sentence", a major sentence that is great because
of its important subject content.
"Tat Tvam Asi", That thou are (ChU 6.08.07 in Samaveda)
Mahavakya "tat tvam asi", the immediate meaning of the word tvam is
"you", the jiva I take myself to be. The meaning of the word tat is
"that", Ishvara. That I, the jiva, am separate from Ishvara is
experientially true. As a created being, I find myself bound and limited, and
Ishvara is the creator of the whole cosmos. To say that this limited jiva is
that omniscient Ishvara leads to confusion. The immediate meaning of
Mahavakya tattvamasi "that thou art" appears to be contradictory,
implying that it is not an ordinary sentence.
understanding of the implied meaning, contradiction is negated and commonality
is proved. Creating the proper context, the rishis and gurus wield the words
with grace to reveal the common factor between tvam and tat, jiva and Ishvara,
which is Brahman. Brahman viewed as total creation is Ishvara; viewed as
individual, Brahman is jiva. In the implied meaning of tvam and tat, there is
no difference-Brahman is the truth of both. The verb of being reveals this
identity: That Ishvara thou art.
is a great equation. If one can see that all that is created-in spite of
differences-is ONE Brahman, then all the differences are resolved.
" Ayam Atma Brahma" (MaU 02 in Atharvaveda)
word refers to this "I" the Awareness. A simple word like
"speaker" means the one who speaks and also the thinker is one who
thinks. Similarly "Awarer" reveals an "I", an individual
with reference to a function. What is the function here? I am aware of
something, hence I am called an "Awarer". The awarer is aware of all
objects around him or her. If the objects are removed, the content of
"awarer" will remain. When objects come, I become an awarer. When
objects are gone, I am the content of the awarer "Awareness". In
awareness all objects and thought exist. Even when thoughts are gone, awareness
The space is
in awareness. The space is, awareness is. Space is not-as we are not aware of
space in our sleep, where there is no space-awareness is. Similarly time is,
awareness is, time is not, awareness is. Does awareness have form? The
awareness has no form. All forms are objects of awareness. Awareness itself has
no form. Awareness is formless, it is spatially limitless. Space is, awareness
is. Therefore star is, awareness is. The limitless awareness is, space is.
Space is, the limitless awareness is. Now between limitless awareness and the
space, what is the distance? And also, between space and stars what is the
distance? There is no distance. Between space and the moon, what is the
distance? There is no distance. The moon is in awareness because I am aware of
the moon. Between awareness, you and the moon in awareness, what is the
distance? There is no distance. Between I the awareness and the moon in
awareness, if there is any distance what should it be? Space. And where is the
space? In awareness. Between awareness and space there is no distance.
Therefore, in awareness is the space, in the space is the moon, in space is the
sun, in space are the stars, in space are all the planets. The whole physical
universe is in the awareness. Therefore between awareness and any object in the
world, what is the distance? There is no distance between awareness and this
physical world. The Limitless
Brahman This physical
body is in space. In the awareness is space, in space is this body, in space
all bodies exist. All the bodies exist in space and space itself is in
awareness. And therefore, between awareness and this body or any other body
that exist, there is no distance. Therefore where am I? There is no location
for I. Awareness is not located. The body is located in space and space itself
is located in awareness. And where is awareness located? The question does not
arise. The awareness is not located any where. In awareness is located space.
With reference to space we say 'here' and 'there', and so on. And therefore in
awareness is space, in space is this body and everything else. So where is
awareness? Where the Akasha ( space) is. Where Akasha shines, there the
awareness is. Awareness is not located in space. In awareness is space.
Therefore awareness is called all pervasive. There is only
one limitless awareness. There is no second limitless awareness. Therefore
awareness is rightly called Brahman. Aham Atma Brahma. Atma, the self is
Awareness Awareness is
not subject to time, nor does it have a beginning or an end. It exists at all
time and is referred to as Sat in Vedanta; and the same awareness is also
called the Cit, consciousness.
article is based on Swami Dayananda Saraswati's ( Arsha Vidya Pitham,
Saylorsburg, PA) book "Who am I?"
The other two sentences says basically the same:
(3) Consciousness is Brahma (AiU 3.03 in Rigveda)
(4) I am Brahma (BrU 1.04.10 in Yajurveda)
After many births, the enlightened one resorts to Me by
realizing that everything is, indeed, My manifestation.
Such a great soul is very rare. (Gita7.19)
That which is One has become all these (RV 8.58.02).
The entire creation and every order of reality are
nothing but another form of divinity.
The basic teachings of the Upanishads are summed up in six great sayings (Mahavakyas).
These are :
"I am Brahman" (Aham Brahmasmi). This states the identity of the inmost consciousness of the individual with that of the supreme Divine. The ultimate truth of Vedic knowledge is not that some great savior is God or the Lord or that such and such a God or name and form of God is the supreme. It is not the worship of a person, book, image or idea. It is not even the worship of God. The Upanishads say that whatever we worship as truth apart from ourselves destroys us. They teach that our own Self is the true Divinity, that it is the presence of the absolute within our heart and all the universe.
"The Self is Brahman" (Ayam Atma Brahma). This also states the identity of the soul with the Absolute but in a more objective and less direct manner. Not only is our Self the Divine. It is the same Self in all beings that is the same Absolute truth.
"That thou art" (Tat tvam asi). Whatever we see or think about we are that. Not only is the I That, the You is also That. We are that ultimate I and Thou in all. The consciousness in the other is also the Divine.
"Intelligence is Brahman" (Prajnanam Brahma). Our discernment of truth is the truth itself. It indicates that the Divine intelligence is present within us and has the power to return us to the Divine. Our inmost intelligence is that supreme intelligence through which we can merge into the Absolute.
"The Universe is Brahman" (Sarvam Khalvidam Brahma). The entire universe is the Divine, which includes our self. The Divine is not only the consciousness principle in you and I, it is also the being principle in all things. It is the ultimate object as well as the inmost subject in all beings. It is one and all and all in one.
"He am I" (So'ham). This shows the identity of the self with the Divine Lord inherent within the natural movement of our breath. "So" is the natural sound of inhalation, "ham" of exhalation.
These are statements of the identity of the individual consciousness with the Absolute or Divine reality. They all derive from and merge into Om (AUM), the Divine Word of "I am all".